Monthly Archives: February, 2011

Bible – The Names, Numbers, Authors, and Titles of the New Testament


In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Understanding the Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament


The 27 Books of the New Testament

1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, 27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament

I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation

II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament

– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.

– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, 27) Revelation.

– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????

– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.

– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.

– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.

– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.

– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.

Vital Statistics of the New Testament

Total Books: 27

Total Chapters: 260

Total Verses: ~7,957

Total Words: ~180,552

Total Letters: ~838,380

Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians

Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9

Middle Verse: Acts 27:17

Smallest Book: 3 John

Largest Book: Luke

Shortest Verse: John 11:35

Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4

Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints

– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)

– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles

– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles

– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles

– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII.

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII.


A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament

45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James

50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark

50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew

60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke

60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter

60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude

65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts

65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews

70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters

90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John

90 A.D. – John writes the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John

90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII.

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII.


The Formal Titles of the 27 New Testament Books

1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Language of the Bible

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

 

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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible

Authors: over 40 individuals

Translations: over 1,200 languages

Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible

Chapters:1,189

Verses: 31,071

Words: 783,137

Letters: 3,566,480

Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)

Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)

Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)

Shortest Book: 3 John

Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)

Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’

Middle Books: Micah and Nahum

Middle Chapter: Psalm 117

Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8

The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times

The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

 

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible

 

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Facts and Figures of the Bible

~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.

~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.

~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’

~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).

~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’

~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.

~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.

~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years. Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

* The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397), Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)

~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

 

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte

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Numbers and Statistics of the Bible

~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.

~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.

~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.

~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.

~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words

~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages

~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)

~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35

~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35

~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117

~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters

~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions

~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.

~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454

~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535

~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

 

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee

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Versions and Translations of the Bible

~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.

~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.

~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.

~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.

~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.

~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages

~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.

~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).

~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

 

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible

~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.

~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies

~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.

~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.

~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.

~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.

~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.

~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.

~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).

~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

 

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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History and Language of the Bible

~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.

~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.

~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.

~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.

~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.

~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.

~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.

~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.

~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.

~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.

~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.

~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.

~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.

~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’

~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.

~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.

~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.

~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.

~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.

~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.

~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

 

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa

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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible

~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.

~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.

~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.

~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.

~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)

~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.

~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.

~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.

~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.

~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.

~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.

~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.

~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.

~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.

~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.

~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.

~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.

~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

 

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition

Apocrypha – The 10 Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch (II Enoch)

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

– The 10 Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch –

The apocryphal text commonly referred to as the 2nd Book of Enoch, or the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, contains a surprisingly traditional view of both the Judeo-Christian Kingdom of Heaven and its Angelic inhabitants. This is in spite of the fact that this particular Book has been lost for nearly 1,200 years. Apparently, this same document had been held in high esteem among at least some members of the early Christian Church. It contains numerous comments and remarks by the author Enoch of his vivid celestial journey through ten different parts of the Kingdom of Heaven, which are inhabited by a multitude of different Angels, many of them with wings. Similar to the early Church, the theological doctrine of multiple levels of Heaven can be found in at least one of St, Paul’s letters and should continue to be understood as a thoroughly Christian belief system.

So all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years. Enoch walked with God and he was not, for God took him.

– Genesis 5:23-24

In short, the following summaries of the 2nd Book of Enoch’s Ten Heavens reflect a thoroughly Judeo-Christian understanding of the Bible and its enduring legacy. How so? Nearly all of the different types of Angelic beings that the author Enoch encounter in Heaven are also clearly listed in the official Catholic hierarchy of Angels which has remained unchanged since the Church’s earliest origins in Rome and Constantinople. This seems to strongly suggest that, while appearing as fictional nonsense to outsider, the standard Judeo-Christian set of belies concerning Angels have serious precedent, not only in Scriotures but in many different books of the Apocrypha including this one. Here are ten brief summaries describing the Ten Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch:

An ancient copy of the actual Book of Enoch

10 Summaries of the 10 Heavens of II Enoch

I. The 1st Heaven – Clouds, Stars, Snow, and Morning Dew: Located atop the clouds and inhabited by winged Angels, this is where the rulers and elders of the constellations reside here with 200 angels. Nearby is the Great Sea, larger than any of earth’s oceans, while the Heavenly store-houses for both snow and morning dew are located here. (II Enoch 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1)

II. The 2nd HeavenPrison of Darkness, Death and Despair: A place of darkness where the angels of darkness who joined with Satan in his original rebellion have been imprisoned, hanging from chains and awaiting Judgment Day. (II Enoch 7:1-3)

III. The 3rd HeavenMercy of Paradise and Justice of Hell: A Paradise reserved for the good and the righteous, consisting of a fragrant orchard grove with the fiery golden Tree of Life in the center where the LORD rest when visiting. The roots to the Tree of Life extend downwards to the Garden of Eden below and there four different springs flowing with milk, honey, wine, and oil. 300 singing Angels tend the Garden. In contrast, the northern section is a terrible place of icy, frozen darkness with a river of fire flowing through it and inhabited by fierce cruel angels with weapons who torture those sinners who have been condemned here. (II Enoch 8:1-10, 9:1, 10:1-3)

IV. The 4th Heaven Twelve Gates of the Sun and the Moon: Includes the 12 great gates (and pathways) of the Moon, the 6 eastern gates and 6 western gates of the Sun along with all its different pathways. Guarded and maintained by thousands upon thousands of Angels, the sun is escorted daily by 8,000 other stars and needs 100 Angels just to light its fire Some of the inhabitants include six-winged creatures who accompany the Angels, exotic Rainbow-colored Phoenixes and Chalkydri with heads like crocodiles, as well as armed soldiers who are constantly singing and playing musical instruments. (II Enoch 11:1-6, 12:1-2, 13:1-2, 14:1-2, 15:1-3, 16:1-3, 17:1)

V. The 5th HeavenGiants of Silence, Sadness and Regret: A sad, solemn place of silence and gloom filled with a countless number of gigantic human soldiers called the Grigori who chose Satan as their prince and rejected the LORD of light. Their faces are withered, but they still remain capable of occasionally singing praises unto the LORD. (II Enoch 18:1-7)

VI. The 6th HeavenArchangels of the Arts and Sciences: Traditional home of seven different groups of Angels who both rule over the stars, keeping track of their motions, as well overseeing and managing the various governments on Earth. They also keep records of everyone’s good or bad deeds, and keep careful watch over earth’s natural systems of life and death. Other inhabitants include six Phoenixes, six Cherubim, six Seraphim who, with one voice, sing songs so other-worldly, they remain impossible to describe. (II Enoch 19:1-3)

VII. The 7th HeavenPowers and Dominions of Fire and Light: an Angelic realm of light and fire, filled with the many different eternally loyal soldiers of the LORD including Archangels, Virtues (forces), Dominions, Powers, (orders), and Principalities (governments). Also present are the other-worldly Cherubim, seraphim, thrones, and other celestial being with many eyes, along with what the text calles ‘nine regiments’ and the ‘Ioanit stations of light.’ (II Enoch 20:1-2, 21:3)

VIII.The 8th HeavenSummer and Winter of Drought and Snow: Controls and changes the different seasons of the year causing either draught or rain on Earth. Also contains the twelve constellations. (II Enoch 21:7)

IX. The 9th HeavenTwelve Secret Mansions of the Stars in the Night: Considered the celestial homes of the constellations which lie both above and behind the 12 groups of stars as seen in the circular night sky above the Earth. Called Kuchavim in Hebrew. (II Enoch 21:8)

X. The 10th Heaven – Cherubim, Seraphim, and the Throne of Thunder and Lightning: Seen as the highest of Heavens as well as the actual location of the LORD God’s mighty Throne of Judgment. Typically, this is where the LORD holds counsel with His Angels and Saints, making His decisions, handing down His judgments, and commanding His countless Angels who surround Him as they sing songs of praise and glory. (II Enoch 22:1-10)

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

 

 

Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the age.

– Matthew 28:19-20

 

 

The Tradition of Christianity –

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

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Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– President Barack Obama, a Protestant Christian for over 20 years

Barack Obama, the first African-American President in a nation that was still practicing black slavery a mere 140 years ago, is one of the most inspiring occurrences in the 21st century and may well be a sign that the third millennium will turn out to be an era of peace and prosperity for all Americans, and for all God’s children throughout the world. In many ways, his election as the most powerful leader in the world, indicates that the Christian doctrine of universal brotherhood has managed to emerge triumphant after a very scary, and completely evil, previous century that threatened the very foundations of Christianity. At the same time, a great many of Obama’s public statements have been infused with the inspirational and moral certainty that originates with his faith in Christianity. Here are just a few highlights:

My Bible tells me that if we train a child in the way he should go, when he is old he will not turn from it. I think faith and guidance can help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence all young people for the act of sexual intimacy.

– Senator Barack Obama

We believe in a country that rewards hard work and responsibility, a country where we look after one another, a country where we say, ‘I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, I’m not just thinking about myself.’

– President Barack Obama

The fact of the matter is that, regardless of Barack Obama’s politics, some of which are in opposition to traditional Christian doctrines, he is still an authentic, genuine Christian believer who has been properly baptized by an ordained Christian minister. After this he did not fall, and he did not stray. Instead, he dutifully attended Christian Sabbath on a weekly basis for over 20 years before running for President. What follows is a basic guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama. It has been organized in the following manner:

Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

Part IV. America’s Confusion and Misinformation about Obama’s Christianity

Part V. The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity

Part VI. The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans

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Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

As somebody who relies heavily on my Christian faith in my job, I understand the passions that religious faith can raise.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(The story of Jesus’ birth) that we are called to love each other as we love ourselves, that we are our brother’s keeper and our sister’s keeper, and our destinies are linked…It’s a message that guides my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(We can) see God in other people and do our best to help them find their, you know, their own grace…So that’s what I strive to do…That’s what I pray to do everyday. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

= President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I found myself drawn – not just to work with the church but to be in the church…It was through this service that I was brought to Christ.

– President Barack Obama, University of Notre Dame (May 17, 2010)

It was because of these new-found understandings – that religious commitment did not require me to suspend critical thinking…that I was finally able to walk down the aisle of Trinity United Church of Christ one day and be baptized…But kneeling beneath that cross on the South Side of Chicago, I felt God’s spirit beckoning me. I submitted myself to His will, and dedicated myself to discovering His truth.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

Secularists are wrong when they ask believers to leave their religion at the door before entering into the public square. Frederick Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, Williams Jennings Bryant, Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King – indeed, the majority of great reformers in American history – were not only motivated by faith, but repeatedly used religious language to argue for their cause. So to say that men and women should not inject their “personal morality” into public policy debates is a practical absurdity. Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– Barack Obama (June 28, 2006)

There is hope for a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again and that its tender branch will not cease…The work ahead will not be easy, and there will be setbacks. There will be challenges along the way. But thanks to you, thanks to the great people of this great city, New Orleans is blossoming again.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I am a Christian by choice…I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead…Being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper. Treating others as they would treat me. And I think also understanding that you know, that Jesus Christ dying for my sins spoke to the humility that we all have to have as human beings.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I’m a Christian by choice. My family didn’t-frankly, they weren’t folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn’t raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead-being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper, treating others as they would treat me….

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead: being my brother’s and sister’s keeper, treating others as they would treat me…I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

It’s interesting listening to the girls, what they pray for…They’ll talk about family and thanking God for blessing us, but they’ll always add a little twist: ‘I hope we have a great Thanksgiving, I can’t wait to see the cousins…They used to pray for a dog, until we got a dog.

– President Barack Obama, commenting on the Obama family prayer before dinner

It means all the world to us to know that there are prayer circles out there and people who are keeping the spirits clean around us.

– First Lady Michelle Obama

I’d just sit in the back and I’d listen to the choir and I’d listen to the sermon…There were times that I would just start tearing up listening to the choir and share that sense of release..

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

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Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Obama’s Christian Rhetoric

QUOTE- As president, Barack Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ in a number of high-profile public speeches – something his predecessor George W. Bush rarely did in such settings, even though Bush’s Christian faith was at the core of his political identity…Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House – even though Bush’s victories were powered in part by evangelical voters….Still, it is ironic that Obama, who rode a wave of young, Internet-savvy and more secular voters to the White House, would more freely invoke the name of Jesus Christ than did Bush. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

QUOTE- In openly personal terms, President Barack Obama on Tuesday honored the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, saying he draws inspiration from an eternal story of pain, suffering and redemption…Obama’s comments provided a brief, uncommon opening into how he views his Christian faith. He told the religious leaders that their examples are followed by millions of people. He welcomed them warmly as “my brothers and sisters in Christ” and honored Christ as “our risen savior.”…Obama has also held White House events honoring the Jewish and Muslim faiths. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Family Prayer

QUOTE- The first family says grace each night before dinner, President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle told ABC News in an interview that aired Friday…The Obamas have frequently spoken about prayer since arriving in the White House. Last month, Michelle Obama told a nationally syndicated radio show that the Obamas can feel prayers that are said for them…In 2009, Barack Obama said that he had stepped up his praying since becoming president ‘because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate, and I need guidance all the time.’…He told ABC News then that he starts each morning by reviewing a devotional he receives on his BlackBerry. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Little Known Christian Faith

QUOTE- A new poll from the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life indicates that the number of Americans who erroneously believe President Obama is a Muslim is growing…In March 2009, the percentage was 11 percent. Today, it’s 18 percent…The percentage of those asserting that the president is a Christian — which he is — has gone down in that time, from 48% in March 2009 to 34% today…A plurality of Americans — 43% — say they don’t know what religion the president is. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Daily Christian Readings

QUOTE- President Barack Obama is a great example of how technology and religion are symbiotic. Each morning, Obama reads a devotional on his BlackBerry….“I pray all the time now – because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate and I need guidance all the time,” he said with a laugh during an interview with ABC’s Nightline that was aired Thursday night…Obama sai receives his daily devotional from Joshua DuBois, his director of faith and neighborhood initiatives….“That’s how I start my morning. You know, he’s got a passage, scripture, in some cases quotes from other faiths to reflect on. This is something where you just hope that you are aligning your work with His purposes and that you’re attuned to the needs of the people you’re there to serve,” he said. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Tolerant Christian Understanding of Faith and Sin

QUOTE- “This is a country that is still predominantly Christian, but we have Jews, Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, Buddhists” and others, he said, adding that “their own path to grace is one that we have to revere and respect as much as our own, and that is part of what makes this country what it is.”…Humans are “sinful” and “flawed” beings that make mistakes and “achieve salvation through the grace of God,” the president continued….Obama responded that abortion should be “safe, legal and rare” in America, adding that families — not the government — “should be the ones making the decision.”…Restrictions against late-term abortion are in place now, he said, adding that “people still argue and disagree about it. That’s part of our Democratic tradition.” -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Faith Denied and Defamed

QUOTE- Americans have some extreme views of President Obama, with a new controversial survey suggesting that 40 percent of adults believe he is a socialist, and about a quarter of survey participants thinking the president is a racist, anti-American and even doing things Hitler did…When broken out by political party, results showed some stark differences. For instance, the majority of Republicans believed the president is a Muslim and a socialist, while around 40 percent believe he is a racist, someone who resents American heritage and “wants terrorists to win.”…Forty percent of Republicans, compared with just 15 percent of Democrats, think Wall Street pulls his strings. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Non-Muslim Past and Christian Present

QUOTE- Obama, however, claimed that his father, who he only knew as an infant, was an atheist. He assured that his time as President has only served to deepen his commitment to Christianity….Obama has repeatedly said that he is a Christian and prays regularly, but more Americans than ever have raised doubts over his beliefs. -UNQUOTE

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Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

– President Obama publically affirmed his Christian faith to a predominantly Muslim audience in Cairo, Egypt. He went to mention the famous Islamic legend of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed came together as one and prayed to God.

– Speaking to students at the University of Notre Dame, Barack Obama repeatedly described about his religious conversion to Christianity which occurred in Chicago working with the inner-city poor as a community activist.

– While discussing his economic policies in a speech at Georgetown Univeristy, President Obama deliberately invoked the Christian Gospel parable of building a house upon a foundation of either sand or solid rock to illustrate his political strategy.

– Even though he remains virulently opposed to nearly all of Obama liberal politics, Mr. Tony Perkins, who is president of the Family Research Council, a conservative Christian interest group, is on record praising the President’s openly Christian faith. Commenting on Barack Obama’s religious faith, He stated: ‘I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort.’

– Obama also managed to schedule an Easter prayer breakfast at the White House specifically for Christian pastors. During his opening remarks, he openly and specifically employed devout Christian rhetoric, even welcoming all the assembled guests as ‘my brothers and sisters in Christ.’

– A growing number of different news organizations have been reluctantly forced to make note of President Obama’s astonishing, and frequent, use of the term Jesus Christ, as well as other blatantly Christian terminology. One particular article even admitted the following: ‘Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House’.

ObamaChristianityObamaChristianityObamaChristianityObamaChristianityObama

America’s Misinformed Confusion about Obama’s Christianity

Did you know that…

1) Since becoming President, Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ by name in public far more often than George W. Bush ever did during his tenure?

2) The Obama family, including his wife Michelle and their two daughters, recite Christian grace and prayers every night before eating dinner?

3) Barack Obama begins each morning by reading and reflecting upon Christian Scriptures and Prayers with one of his Christian staff members?

4) The historical evidence shows that Obama was never really a Muslim believer, while his sincere and authentic conversion to Christianity later in life has been clearly documented and verified?

5) President Obama has read and studied Roman Catholic Saint Augustine, the Christian intellectual Graham Greene, and the famous Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr?

President Obama prays at the Western Wall in Jerusalem

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+ The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity +

Obama’s Public Christian Witness

Opposition To: I don’t need to hear politicians tell me how religious they are…Obama in a very overt way does what Bush tended to do in a more covert way. (Rev. Barry Lynn, United for Separation of Church and State)

Acceptance Of: I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort. (Tony Perkins, President of Family Research Council)

Obama’s Actual Christian Faith

Opposition To: Obama can call himself anything he likes, but there is a clear requirement for one to qualify as a Christian and Obama doesn’t meet that requirement…Such people do have a label applied to them in Scripture. They are called ‘false prophets’. (Cal Thomas)

Acceptance Of: Obama has accepted Jesus Christ. That’s what he says he has done. So I just have to believe that the president is what he has said. (Reverend Franklin Graham, Son of Billy Graham)

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

Opposition To: The fact Senator Obama denies Jesus is the only way to be saved…calls into question whether he believes…It is time for Senator Obama to be held accountable for what he says he believes to examine if he really is a Christian. (Bill Keller)

Acceptance Of: The president says he’s a Christian. I take him at his word…I think the faith that most Americans are questioning is the President’s faith in the government to generate jobs. (Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell)

Obama’s Christian Theology

Opposition To: I think he’s deliberately distorting the traditional understanding of the Bible to fit his own worldview, his own confused theology…He is dragging biblical understanding through the gutter. (James Dobson, Focus on the Family)

Acceptance Of: He presents his Christianity as an important aspect of his identity but one he doesn’t want to foist upon anyone else, and he would rather risk downplaying it than offending somebody…This notion that we are our brothers’ keepers…is kind of a mantra for him.(Jeffrey Siker, Loyola Marymount University)

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– The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans –

Some Astonishing Facts about the Misinformed Beliefs of American Voters

+ Bill Keller, a Internet Televangelist, accused President Barack Obama on-air of being an ‘Enemy of God’

+ 14 percent of Americans (24 percent of Republicans and 6 percent of Democrats) believe President Barack Obama may be the Antichrist.

+ A Pew Research poll in August (2010) revealed ‘that one in five Americans falsely believe the president is a Muslim, more than thought so last year’.

+ In a poll by Newsweek, 12 percent of voters incorrectly believe he’s Muslim; more than a quarter believe he was raised in a Muslim home.

+ A Time Magazine poll found that 24 percent of Americans believe Obama is a Muslim, rather than a Christian.

A typical poster filled with lies and disinformation originally created by an Obama Hater

A List of Specific Beliefs of Certain Americans

38% – Believe Obama wants to abolish the right to bear arms

32% – Believe Obama is actually a Muslim in disguise

29% – Believe Obama intends to end U.S. independence and establish a single world government.

29% – Believe Obama has secretly violated the U.S. Constitution

27% – Believe Obama resent’s America’s heritage

27% – Believe Obama is the puppet of Wall Street bankers

25% – Believe Obama was not actually born on United States soil

25% – Believe Obama is the enemy of the U.S. Constitution

23% – Believe Obama is a racist

23% – Believe Obama is anti-American

23% – Believe Obama plans on staging a economic collapse of terrorist incident to seize control and declare Martial Law

20% – Believe Obama is doing the same thing Hitler did

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My the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles.

A Last Important Quote-

And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

Bible – Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible

Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible




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Some Strange and Astonishing Numbers of the Bible
– The King of Bashan was apparently so huge he had a bed measuring 13 and 1/2  feet long long and 6 feet wide. (Deutronomy 3:11)
– Absalom once had 6.5 pounds of actual hair removed during his annual haircut. (2 Samuel 14: 26)
– King Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines, and 12,000 horses. (1 Kings 11:1-3)
– An Army of 185,000 wound up being destroyed in a single night (Isaiah 37:36)
– Rehoboam was a father of 88 children. (2 Chronicles 11:21)
– King Zimri is said to have reigned for only 7 days. (I Kings 16:15)
– Methuselah, a son of Adam, lived to be 969 years old. (Genesis 5:27)
– Noah was 600 years old when he built the ark, and 950 years old when he died. (Genesis 7:6 and Genesis 9:29)
– Adam was 930 years old when he died. (Genesis 5:5)
– One man supposedly had 12 fingers and 12 toes. (2 Samuel 21:20)
– A Biblical army once consisted of 700 left-handed men. (Judges 20:16)



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Strange and Impossible Occurrences in the Bible
– A large group of men actually drank water like dogs. (Judges 7:5)
– A soaking wet sacrifice was then burnt through a supernatural occurrence. (1 Kings 18:17-40)
– A man named Balaam was once directly spoken to by a donkey. (Numbers 22:28-30)
– Women shaved their heads completely before getting married. (Deuteronomy 21:11-13)
– The once sun stood still for an entire day. (Joshua 10:13)
– One man increased his overall lifettime by 15 years simply with prayer. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– The sun is purported to have gone backward, from west to east. (Isaiah 38:8)
– A prostitute named Rachab truly was an actual ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:5)
– The Prophet Elijah once outran a chariot. (1 Kings 18:41-46)
– An axe head made of iron ended up floating on top of the water. (I Kings 6:1-6)
– A desperate woman eventually boiled and ate her son  (2 Kings 6:29)
– The wicked Jezebel eventually had her body eaten by dogs. (2 Kings 9:30-36)
– Jacob once used a stone for a pillow. (Genesis 28:1)
– A baby named Zarah once had scarlet thread tied around her hand before birth. (Genesis 38:28-30)
– The Prophet Isaiah allegedly walked around naked for three years. (Isaiah 20:2-3)
– The Bible is described as being cut with a pen knife. (Jeremiah 36:20-2)
– John the Baptist supposedly ate only locusts and honey for food. (Mathew 3:4)
– A woman personally killed a man by driving a nail through his head. (Judges 4:17-21)
– Moses once caused a victory on the battlefield simply because he stretched out his hand (Exodus 17:11)



– The life of Hezekaih was increased by 15 years because he prayed. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– Seven women once wanted and sought after the same man.  (Isaiah 4:1)
– Obviously dead, dry bones were then miraculously brought to life. (Ezekiel 37)
– God is described as having had a wash pot (Psalms 60:6-8)
– An ancient bottle of milk is also described. (Judges 4:19)
– Someone is reputed to have been the first left-handed man in history. (Judges 3:15)
– There are 2 men in the Bible who never died but were instead caught up into Heaven are Enoch, from Genesis, and Elisjah: 1) Enoch, who walked with God and was no more (Genesis 5:22-24), and 2) Elijah, who was caught up by a whirlwind into heaven (II Kings 2:11).
– In ancient Israel, men closed a deal by exchanging sandals. (Ruth 4:7)
– Once when Ezekiel was just sitting in his house alone, a gigantic hand suddenly picked him up by the hair of his head and took him somewhere between heaven and earth. (Ezekiel 8:3)



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The Biblical Roots of Odd and Original Phrases

A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)



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– The Biblical Origins of 10 Specific Phrases –

1) Spare the rod, spoil the child –

He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.

– Proverbs 13:24

2) By the sweat of your brow-

To Adam he said, Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. … By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

– Genesis 3:17,19

3) It is better to give than to receive-

In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’

– Acts. 20:35

4) A leopard cannot change its spots-

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil

– Jeremiah 13:23



5) Money is the root of all evil-

For the love of money is a root of all sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.

– Timothy 6:10

6) Nothing new under the sun-

That which has been is that which will be, And that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun.

– Ecclesiastes 1:9

7) Let him who is without sin cast the first stone-

But when they persisted in asking Him, Jesus straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.’

– John 8:7

8) A Fly in the ointment-

Dead flies make a perfumer’s oil stink, so a little foolishness is weightier than wisdom and honor.

– Ecclesiastes 10:1



9) The Salt of the earth-

You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

– Matthew 5:13

10) Being Used as a Scapegoat-

The goat on which the lot for the scapegoat fell shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat.

– Leviticus 16:10



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Elijah.


Bible – The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

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God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim



A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b



– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’



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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism

– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah):
This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:



Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)

1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)

6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)

14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles



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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

Facts about the Bible of Christianity

– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi



– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity


 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1


– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

 

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

Facts about the Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Canons
– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon
= 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament



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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah
was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras
was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –



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– The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1
st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi



The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi



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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.



The Four Circles of Judeo-Christian WItchkraft = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire



The Four Corners
of Judeo-Christian Magick = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible



In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and
the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible



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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible
Authors: over 40 individuals
Translations: over 1,200 languages
Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible
Chapters:1,189
Verses: 31,071
Words: 783,137
Letters: 3,566,480
Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)
Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)
Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)
Shortest Book: 3 John
Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)
Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’
Middle Books: Micah and Nahum
Middle Chapter: Psalm 117
Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8
The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times
The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible



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Facts and Figures of the Bible
~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.
~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.
~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’
~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).
~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’
~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.
~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.
~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years.  Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

+ The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397),  Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)
~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte



Numbers and Statistics of the Bible
~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.
~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.
~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.
~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.
~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages
~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)
~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35
~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35
~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters
~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions
~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.
~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454
~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535
~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee



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Versions and Translations of the Bible

~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.
~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.
~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.
~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.
~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).
~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible
~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.
~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies
~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.
~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.
~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).
~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur



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History and Language of the Bible
~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.
~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.
~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.
~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.
~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.
~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.
~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.
~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of  procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.
~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.
~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.
~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.
~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.
~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’
~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.
~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.
~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.
~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.
~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa



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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible
~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.
~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.
~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.
~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.
~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)
~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.
~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.
~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.
~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.
~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.
~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.
~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.
~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.
~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.
~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.
~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.
~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.
~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition

Bible – Books, Chapters, Verses, Words, and Names of the Bible

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

Books, Chapters, Verses, Words and Names of the Bible


 

– The Books of the Bible –

Facts about the Books of the Bible
– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.
– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.
– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).
– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.
– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.
The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 ohn instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets
– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.
– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses
– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.
– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.
– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

– The Chapters of the Bible –

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible
– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.
– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.
– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.
– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses
– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.
– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.
– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.
– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.
– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.
– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!
– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.
– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.
– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

– The Verses of the Bible –

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

Facts about the Verses of the Bible
– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.
– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.
– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.
– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.
– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.
– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.
– Joshua 7:24, 1Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.
– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.
– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.
– According to populr opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \
– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.
– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.
– The middle verse of the Old Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.
– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words.

– The Words of the Bible –

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible
– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains pproximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.
– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible
– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)
– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’
– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible
Bath = about 9 gallons
Bekah = ¼ of an ounce
Cab = 2 quarts
Cubit = about 18 inches
Day’s journey = 20-25 miles
Ephah = about 1 bushel
Farthing = ¼ cent
Fathom = 6 feet
Finger = ¾ of an inc
Firkin = 9 gallons
Furlong = fraction of a mile
Gerah  = .4 ounces
Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches
Hin = 6 quarts
Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry
Log = 1 pint
Mite = of a cent
Omer = 7 pints
Pound = about $16 in money
Reed = about 11 feet
Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile
Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver
Span = about 9 inches
Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

Word Repetition in the Bible
– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times
– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times
– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.
– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.
– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.
– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times
– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.
– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible
– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).
– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.
– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.
– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)
– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)
– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)
– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.
– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

– The Names of the Bible –

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible
– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.
– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spellingand pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.
– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

Male Name Repetition in the Bible
– David: mentioned 1118 times
– Moses: mentioned 740 times
– Aaron: mentioned 339 times
– Saul: mentioned 338 times
– Abraham: mentioned 306 times
– Solomon: mentioned 295 times
– Jacob: mentioned 270 times
– Joseph: mentioned 208 times
– Joshua: mentioned 197 times
– Paul: mentioned 185 times
– Peter: mentioned 166 times
– Joab: mentioned 137 times
– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times
– Samuel: mentioned 135 times
– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

Female Name Repetition in the Bible
– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times
– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times
– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times
– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times
– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times
– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times
– Abigail: 15 times
– Miriam: 15 times
– Mary Magdalene: 14 times
– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times
– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters
– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)
– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)
– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)
– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)
– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)
– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)
– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)
– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)
– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)
– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)
– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)
– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)
– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)
– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)
– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)
– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)
– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)
– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)
– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)
– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)
– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his owndaughter (Judges 11:30)
– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)
1. Hosea
2. Joel
3. Amos
4. Obadiah
5. Jonah
6. Micah
7. Nahum
8. Habakkuk
9. Zephaniah
10. Haggai
11. Zecariah
12. Malachi

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colosians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Christianity – The Romanovs, a Family of Saints

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Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the age.

– Matthew 28:19-20

– The Tradition of Christianity –

In Praise and Memory of the the Romanovs, a Family of New Saints

This post is in honor and memory of the Romanov family who were murdered by the Bolsheviks on July 17, 1918. They have recently been canonized as Saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and as Passion-bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church. This new family of Saints includes St. Nicholas II, his wife St. Alexandra, along with their four daughters St. Olga, St. Tatiana, St. Maria, St. Anastasia, and their only son St. Alexei. Their new feast day is on July 17.

There is no justice among men.

– Saint Nicholas II

The Legendary Russian Princess Anastasia

Sometimes common sense gets lost in the various attempts by professional, accomplished historians to write and publish the premier text on certain key 20th century events, such as the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Indeed, even Karl Marx himself, who was baptized and raised a Protestant Lutheran, predicted that a Communist Revolution in the Russian Empire would never be successful and that the most likely candidate for a ‘Worker’s Paradise’ was, in fact, Germany, his own native country. Regardless of the numerous, carefully detailed explanations offered by the academics, the ingredients of this real-life story still read like a fictional tragedy straight out of Kafka or Tolstoy. Consider the cast of characters:

MARX: a failed, bitter, angry Communist intellectual and journalist originating from a recently converted dynastic family of Rabbis, who courted and married a beautiful, blonde German girl of noble blood, but then managed to publish almost nothing, except a small book called ‘The Communist Manifesto’ written mostly by his friend and life-time ‘Piggy bank’ Frederick Engels.
RASPUTIN: a dirty, lecherous Russian peasant with strange, occult powers that appeared to miraculously heal the Czarevich Alexei of his terminal illness, historically known as the Mad Monk.
LENIN: a stern, politically fanatical, Russian intellectual from a upper-class background with a completely shaven head and a well-trimmed goatee who was sent back to Russia from a defeated Germany on a mysterious black train fully prepared to instigate a Revolution against the Czar.
TROTSKY: a naive, ambitious, internationalist, anti-religious son of a hard-working Jewish farmer from the Ukrainian Shetl, originally named Lev Bronstein.
STALIN: a Georgian Socialist Revolutionary expelled from Orthodox Seminary for spreading Marxism, historically known as Uncle Joe, or even the ‘Gorgeous Georgian’.

Czar Nicholas II, with his wife, Alexandra, on the Left and his only Son, the Czarevich Alexei, on the Right

These days the general understanding of the Romanovs, especially that of Nicholas II, is that he was both a brutal Jew-hating dictator and an inept ruler who was destined to lose control of the Russian Empire. In reality, he was deeply Christian man far more concerned with his wife, his chidren and his religious faith, than with the diabolical schemes of Protestant German intellectuals. All things considered, the Romanovs were just as much the pawns of history as any other common family. Needless to say, the greatest tragedy about the Bolshevik Revolution that seems to get lost in the historical milieu is the fate of the Russian people, who went from being ruled by a classical autocracy to a fanatical, anti-Christian (and anti-Jewish) dictatorship who violently persecuted and oppressed their own people most of all. The now indisputable historical facts speak for themselves:

The Saint Romanov Family- Nicholas II, Alexandra, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei

Soviet Persecution and Imprisonment Facts
– In 1917, there were only 28,600 total prisoners within the Russian Empire, which was the largest prison population ever known in the history of Orthodox Christian, Imperial Russia.
– After the Communists murdered the Romanovs and took over the government, the prison population slowly exploded into the hundreds of thousands. By 1927, a mere 10 years after the Bolshevik Revolution, there were over 300,000 Soviet prisoners, tens times more than Czarist Russia ever had.
– Then, between the years 1929 and 1934, the prisoner population increased by twenty-three times, placing the total prison population in the millions.
– In comparison to Czarist Russia, 14 million Soviet prisoners passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, while an additional 6 to 7 million were forcibly exiled to remote regions of the USSR.
– A 1993 study reveals that a total of 1,053,829 prisoners died in the Gulag between 1934 to 1953.
– In reality, Czarist Russia imprisoned very few of their imperial subjects, while the Communists arrested, convicted, and sentenced millions of innocent people to a life of brutal enslavement and inevitable death.

 

Soviet Anti-Jewish Facts
– In the summer of 1919, nearly all Jewish properties, including synagogues, were seized by the Soviet authorities. Numerous Rabbis and other religious leaders were threatened with violent persecution.
– In the mid-1930s, Stalin had any remaining Jewish leaders arrested and executed, while nearly all the Yiddish religious schools were forcibly shut down.
– By the late 1940s, the Communist party had abolished any and all Jewish religious organizations, leaving only a few, token synagogues still open and kept under strict surveillance by the KGB.

Soviet Anti-Christian Facts
– Within five years after Lenin and the Bolsheviks had seized power, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and 1,200 priests had been executed by the Soviet authorities.
– Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the vast majority of the Russian Orthodox Clergy, along with many of its most devout believers had been shot dead or sent to the Gulag.
– Between the years 1927 and 1949, the number of Russian Orthodox Churches dropped from 29,584 to less than 500.
– From 1917 to 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. 95,000 of these priests were eventually put to death by the Soviet authorities.

Czar Nicholas II with his four young daughters and only son

By tradition, individual believers who have been officially canonized by the Church are considered by the living Christian authorities to be in the Kingdom of Heaven. Those observers that continue to believe the Romanovs were arrogant, elitist tyrants, who looked down upon the Russian people, do not know their history and should take the time to look up the many historically accurate summaries of the Romanovs who happen to be some of the newest Orthodox Christian Saints in Heaven.

I have a secret conviction that I am destined for a terrible trial, that I shall not receive my reward on this earth.

– Saint Nicholas II



Saint Nicholas II, a Saint of Orthodox Christianity

As numerous documented eyewitnesses have stated, Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra did anything but spoil their children and were adamant that all of them become as well-educated and intelligent as possible. Except for the expensive outfits worn only on public occasions, they had very few personal possessions that they could call their own. Priceless gifts and diplomatic offerings were taken away and kept as additions to the Imperial collection, which was originally meant as an everlasting heritage for all of Russia. From the beginning, Nicholas II and his wife insisted their children see themselves as having been born with special burdens which included numerous God-given responsibilities and duties they had to live up to and not as superior individuals born to rule over the unruly masses. The loving relationships the children formed with the common peasants, who made up an integral part of the Imperial staff, proves this to be the case.

The Romanov Children: Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei

Perhaps an atoning sacrifice is necessary for the salvation of Russia. I shall be that sacrifice. May the will of God be done!

– Saint Nicholas II

Czar Nicholas’s Signature

For many reasons, the canonization of the Romanovs means that, even if the Russian Orthodox Church doesn’t canonize every victim of Soviet persecution, those who aren’t so well-known will still have an entire family of Heavenly advocates that already know first-hand what it was like to be murdered by a tyrannical regime founded upon principles violently hostile to the Judeo-Christian tradition. Likewise, if the Romanov children are anything like they were before their execution, they would probably tell you that their personal Sainthood matters far less than the well-being of every single nameless, faceless victim of the International Communist Empire who never cared for anyone at all.

A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is (just) a statistic.

– Stalin

A lie told often enough becomes the truth.

– Lenin

Orthodox Christian Saint  Nicholas II, his wife Saint Alexandra, their four daughters Saint Olga, Saint Tatiana, Saint Maria, Saint Anastasia, and their only Saint Alexei

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus. God Save the Queen!

Christianity – Names, Numbers, Authors and Ikons of the New Testament

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.


Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark),

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Christianity – The Good News about Barack Obama, an American Christian President

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

The Good News about Barack Obama, an American Christian President
The following quotes from Christian President Barack Obama were taken during an interview conducted by Cathleen Falsani, a Chicago Sun-Times reporter, in 2004 when the possibility of him being elected President four years later would have been unthinkable. In the interview, Barack Obama’s public honesty towards his Christian faith was far more pronounced than today in the year 2011. This is mainly because the Republican opposition’s mockery and ridicule of his authentic and learned form of Christian faith has paid off with the American voters, many of whom are so delusional that they ignorantly believe him to be the anti-Christ and/or a secret Muslim lying about his Christian faith.

This interview goes far in proving that President Obama’s adherence to Christianity is very informed and directly based upon the teachings of Rabbi joshua (Jesus) as recorded in the Gospels. Here is a direct comparison of Barack Obama’s actual remarks and the relevant New Testament passage which clearly shows his authentic Christian faith to be just as rooted in Scriptures as any Republican believer, including ex-President George W. Bush. These comparisons also suggest that the ugly, vile attacks and brutal questioning of his religious beliefs since he became President has very little to do with the Bible and is most likely a subtle form of white racism in disguise.

THE OBAMA: (In Chicago’s) South Side working class and lower income communities…it was in those places where I think what had been more of an intellectual view of religion deepened…I became much more familiar with the ongoing tradition of the historic black church and it’s importance in the community. And the power of that culture to give people strength in very difficult circumstances, and the power of that church to give people courage against great odds. And it moved me deeply.
THE GOSPELS: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven….Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied…Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great. (Matthew 5:4-12)

THE OBAMA: But my mother was deeply spiritual person…her view always was that underlying these religions were a common set of beliefs about how you treat other people and how you aspire to act, not just for yourself but also for the greater good.
THE GOSPELS: In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.(Matthew 7:12)

THE OBAMA: I probably didn’t get started getting active in church activities until I moved to Chicago…one of the churches that I became involved in was Trinity United Church of Christ. And the pastor there, Jeremiah Wright, became a good friend. So I joined that church and committed myself to Christ in that church. It was a daytime service, during a daytime service. And it was a powerful moment. Because, it was powerful for me because it not only confirmed my faith, it not only gave shape to my faith, but I think, also, allowed me to connect the work I had been pursuing with my faith.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John…Jesus replied, ‘Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.’ Then John consented. As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, ‘This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.’ (Matthew 3:13-17)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith. So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition.
THE GOSPELS: “Have faith in God,” Jesus answered. “Truly I tell you, if anyone says to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself into the sea,’ and does not doubt in their heart but believes that what they say will happen, it will be done for them.” (Mark 11:22-23)

THE OBAMA: There are values that transcend race or culture, that move us forward, and there’s an obligation for all of us individually as well as collectively to take responsibility to make those values lived.
THE GOSPELS: Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and teach them to obey everything I have commanded. And I will be with you always, to the end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20)

THE OBAMA: I retain from my childhood and my experiences growing up a suspicion of dogma. And I’m not somebody who is always comfortable with language that implies I’ve got a monopoly on the truth, or that my faith is automatically transferable to others.
THE GOSPELS: Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, ‘You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant.’ (Mark 10:42-43)

THE OBAMA: I’m a big believer in tolerance. I think that religion at it’s best comes with a big dose of doubt. I’m suspicious of too much certainty in the pursuit of understanding just because I think people are limited in their understanding.
THE GOSPELS: (Jesus) said, “Woe to you lawyers as well! For you weigh men down with burdens hard to bear, while you yourselves will not even touch the burdens with one of your fingers.’ (Luke 11:46)

THE OBAMA: I think that, particularly as somebody who’s now in the public realm and is a student of what brings people together and what drives them apart, there’s an enormous amount of damage done around the world in the name of religion and certainty.
THE GOSPEL: Again I say to you, that if two of you agree on earth about anything that they may ask, it shall be done for them by My Father who is in Heaven. For where two or three have gathered together in My name, I am there in their midst. (Matthew 18:19-20)

THE OBAMA: Jesus is an historical figure for me, and he’s also a bridge between God and man, in the Christian faith, and one that I think is powerful precisely because he serves as that means of us reaching something higher.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus answered, ‘I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.’ (John 14:6)

THE OBAMA: And he’s also a wonderful teacher. I think it’s important for all of us, of whatever faith, to have teachers in the flesh and also teachers in history.
THE GOSPELS: The student is not above the teacher, nor a servant above his master. It is enough for students to be like their teachers, and servants like their masters. (Matthew 10:23-25)

THE OBAMA: Some of the things I talked about…are channeled through my Christian faith and a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.
THE GOSPELS: He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me. He who sees Me sees the One who sent Me. I have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. (John 12:44-46)

THE OBAMA: Alongside my own deep personal faith, I am a follower, as well, of our civic religion. I am a big believer in the separation of church and state…I am a great admirer of our founding charter, and its resolve to prevent theocracies from forming, and its resolve to prevent disruptive strains of fundamentalism from taking root ion this country. As I said before, in my own public policy, I’m very suspicious of religious certainty expressing itself in politics.
THE GOSPELS: Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. (Matthew 22:21)

THE OBAMA: I can give religious expression to that. I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, we are all children of God. Or I can express it in secular terms. But the basic premise remains the same. I think sometimes Democrats have made the mistake of shying away from a conversation about values for fear that they sacrifice the important value of tolerance. And I don’t think those two things are mutually exclusive.
THE GOSPELS: So Jesus was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, ‘If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.’ (John 8:31-32)

THE OBAMA: I think that I am disturbed by, let me put it this way: I think there is an enormous danger on the part of public figures to rationalize or justify their actions by claiming God’s mandate.
THE GOSPELS: Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows’ houses, and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive greater condemnation. (Matthew 23:14)

THE OBAMA: This is something that I’m sure I’d have serious debates with my fellow Christians about. I think that the difficult thing about any religion, including Christianity, is that at some level there is a call to evangelize and proselytize. There’s the belief, certainly in some quarters, that people haven’t embraced Jesus Christ as their personal savior that they’re going to Hell.
THE GOSPELS: Go throughout the whole world and preach the gospel to all people. (Mark 16:15)

THE OBAMA: I find it hard to believe that my God would consign four-fifths of the world to hell…I can’t imagine that my God would allow some little Hindu kid in India who never interacts with the Christian faith to somehow burn for all eternity…That’s just not part of my religious makeup.
THE GOSPELS: See that you do not despise one of these little ones. For I tell you that their angels in Heaven always see the face of my Father in Heaven. (Matthew 18:14)

THE OBAMA: When I tuck my daughters in at night and I feel like I’ve been a good father to them, and I see in them that I am transferring values that I got from my mother and that they’re kind people and that they’re honest people and that they’re curious people, that’s a little piece of Heaven.
THE GOSPELS: If anyone causes one of these little ones-those who believe in me-to stumble, it would be better for them to have a large millstone hung around their neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea. (Matthew 18:6)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith…So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition. I believe that there are many paths to the same place.
THE GOSPELS: John said unto him, ‘Teacher, we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followed not us.’ But Jesus said, ‘Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. For he that is not against us is for us.’ (Mark 9:38-40)

THE OBAMA: And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.
THE GOSPELS: Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:17-20)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition.

The New Testament – A Comprehensive Summary

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 

– John 1:1

Understanding the Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.

Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. –

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament

45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

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The Formal Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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– The New Testament in Brief –

A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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This shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, says the LORD. I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

– Jeremiah 31:33

– A Summary of the Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament –

For the most part, the 27 different Books of the Christian New Testament have remained exactly the same since the earliest centuries of Christianity. However, because of the lack of proper Church documentation during these times, most Biblical scholars and historians have tended to rely upon the written proclamations o the later Church Councils, most especially the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. which was convened by the order of Emperor Constantine I, who later became the first Roman Emperor to ever convert to Christianity.

For many scholars and historians, surviving documents dating from the 4th century Christian Councils of Nicea (325 A.D.) and Carthage (397 A.D.) represent the first actual official statements concerning the Biblical Canon of the Christian faith, including the exact contents of both the Old and New Testament. In reality, the New Testament Canon of 27 different books had already been fully established within the early Church, and among most believers,  long before it ever became ‘official’ under the reign of Constantine, who assisted in the first official State recognition of Christianity and the Church. Before then, the Christian faith had undergone a series of persecutions which then slowly transformed into acceptance and eventual recognition

In terms of history, the reign of Emperor Constantine I represented a clear and decisive victory for the religion of Christianity. After centuries of state-sponsored oppression and animosity, the Christian Church finally achieved official recognition and legal status according to the Imperial laws of Rome. Most of this was due to Constantine I and his benevolent influence. In time, this inevitably led to a declaration calling for a general meeting of all the Christian bishops found throughout the Roman Empire. that was clearly intended to be ‘the first ecumenical conference of the early Christian Church.’ This initial push to better organize the Christian religion throughout the Empire culminated in the year 325 A.D. with what is now called the First Council of Nicea. One of the Council”s main achievements, which had historical ramifications for centuries to come, involved the creation of ‘the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed.’

A Summary of the Council of Nicea (325 AD)  and the Synod of Carthage (397 AD)
Historically speaking, this same Council at Nicea also decided upon the final version of the Holy Bible including the total number of Books which were to be accepted as Scripture. In reality, the Church had already made their up their minds about the precise content of the Christian Bible. The Council of Nicea simply made things official. Even so, another general conference of Church leaders took place in 397 A.D. called the Synod of Carthage. One of their official Church decrees was deliberately intended as ‘an effort to protect the scriptures from various heresies and offshoot religious movements’. Thus, in order to prevent Scriptures from any future danger, the Council of Carthage held a special meeting on the 28th of August (397) where “the current 27 books of the New Testament were formally and finally confirmed and ‘canonized'” The Council of Carthage’s official list of accepted Biblical books, comprised of both the the Old and New Testament, reads as follows:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Josue, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kingdoms, 2 books of Paralipomenon, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaias, Jeremias, Daniel, Ezechiel, Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Machabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John.

– The Council of Carthage (397 A.D.)

Thus, it can be stated with all authority that the 27 different New Testament books, as they are still being used today, has been the only officially recognized text of Christianity for over 1,600 years. In other words, the every single Christian denomination since that time has remained in fundamental agreement over Scriptures, regardless of the any traditional Protestant/Catholic/Orthodox animosity. Put bluntly the New Testament, considered the fundamental sacred text of the religion of Christianity, has remained the same since the very beginning of the Church. Likewise, the Eastern Orthodox Church officially accepted the same 27 New Testament books in the year 367 A.D. and listed them in ‘the 39th Paschal Letter of Athanasius’.

Thus, the official names and  actual sequence of the 27 different books of the New Testament has been a key aspect of official Christian doctrine since the very beginning. Even so, the precise dates and actual authors of the various texts continue to remain a controversial issue even today, nearly 2,000 years later, and have yet to be settled to any great extent among a number of relevant scholars and experts in the field. Because of the strong, on-going differences in opinion about who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament and when they were actually written, the following list of authors and dates should not be seen as any final statement or ultimate conclusion. Even so, the general Church consensus has, for several centuries now, tended to believe that the entire 27 books of the Christianity’s New Testament were written by eight specific men. They include:

The 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) St. Matthew
2) St. Mark
3) St. Luke
4) St. John
5) St. Paul
6) St. Peter
7) St. Jude
8) St. James

There is compelling evidence that this ‘8 men’ theory is, in fact, true. Nevertheless, certain compelling questions remain about  even though the simplicity of such a claim has caused numerous Biblical scholars to reject it as too simplistic of an explanation. To be fair to the skeptics and naysayers, there still remain serious discrepancies in some of the basic orthodox assumption about who really wrote at least some of the 27 official New Testament books of Christianity. Thus, the following list should be seen as a summary of what most Biblical scholars have concluded over the many centuries since the Councils of Nicea and Carthage finalized the New Testament Canon of the early Christian Church. So, even though debate still rages on about the precise dates and actual authors, the list below can still help to establish a general picture of who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament along with the dates when they were written. As history has shown, the fierce debate about these particular issues have always been a crucial part of the Judeo-Christian tradition and will continue to be as time goes by.

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A List of the Authors and Dates of the New Testament

1. The Gospel of Matthew: by St. Matthew (55-90 A.D.)
2. The Gospel of Mark: by St. Mark, also known as John Mark (50-90 A.D.)
3. The Gospel of Luke: by St. Luke (60-90 A.D.)
4. The Gospel of John: by St. John, John the Elder (70-90 A.D.)
5. The Book of Acts: by St. Luke (65-90 A.D.)
6. The Letter to the Romans: by St. Paul (58 A.D.)
7. 1st Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
8. 2nd Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (55 A.D.)
9. Letter to the Galatians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
10. Letter to the Ephesians: by St. Paul (50-92 A.D.)
11. Letter to the Philippians: by St. Paul (50-65 A.D.)
12. Letter to the Colossians: by St. Paul (50-63 A.D.)
13. 1st Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
14. 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
15. 1st Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
16. 2nd Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
17. Letter to Titus: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
18. Letter to Philemon: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
19. Letter to the Hebrews: unknown, possibly by St. Paul, or Luke, Barnabas, or Apollo (60-90 A.D.)
20. Letter of James: by St. James (45-132 A.D.)
21. 1st Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-96 A,D,)
22. 2nd Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-150 A.D.)
23. 1st Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
24. 2nd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
25. 3rd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
26. Letter of Jude: by St. Jude (60-100 A.D.)
27. Book of Revelation: by St. John, John Mark, John the Elder (81-96 A.D.)

As stated previously, this list was never intended to be seen as the absolute authority on the subject of New Testament authors and dates. Instead, it was meant to provide a basic frame of reference for those who are relatively new to the subject. One should remember that the precise identity of any Biblical author has never been deemed that important to the overall understanding of Scriptures. This is why the continued mystery about who actually wrote the New Testament Letter to the Hebrews does not detract from the God-fearing words which have been left behind. More than one Old Testament book has also been written by yet another nameless, faceless source who is destined to remain anonymous, perhaps forever. Listed below are some of the more important aspects concerning the 27 books of the New Testament. They include the following:

Eight Key Aspects of the Judeo-Christian New Testament
I- In the 21st century, the New Testament is still considered to have exactly 27 Books. This has been the clear consensus among every known sect of Christianity since the earliest days of the Church.
II- In terms of exact numbers, the New Testament is a set of 27 separate books composed of around 7,959 verses made up of approximately 181,253 different words.
III- The oldest book of the New Testament is probably the book of James, written as early as 45 A.D. On the other hand, the Book of Revelation represents the youngest book of the New Testament, written about 95 A.D.
IV- Nearly the entire New Testament (90% or more) was written in Greek, although some scholars claim that at least ‘some may have been first written in Aramaic.’
V- The specific 27 books still found in today’s New Testament were officially canonized sometime around the year 375 A.D. After that, these same writings were then deemed by the leaders of the Church to be a distinctive part of what has been called the Word of God.
VI- From 367 A.D. onward, the Church’s final list of books for the New Testament clearly included the same 27 books that can be seen and studied using today’s Scriptures and are accepted by both modern Protestants and Catholic forms of Christianity. Even so, the highly apocalyptic Book of Revelation continued to be debated and disputed within the early Church hierarchy until almost 600 CE.
VII- Interestingly enough, the New Testament Canon decided to retain only four Gospels, out of some fifty other Gospels which were available throughout the first few centuries of Christianity.
VIII- Due to the inherent nature of Christianity, the Bible has inevitably become some of ‘the most disseminated books in the world,’ at least according to the New American Bible (Research Group). Some of the major factors underlying this global occurrence include: ‘St. Paul’s extensive evangelization to the Gentiles, the legalization of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire in 313, and the Bible’s first printing with movable type in 1455.’ Now, mainly due to the computer revolution which has occurred in the last decade or so, the continued promotion and inevitable ‘dissemination’ of the Bible appears to be the most likely outcome for the many decades which lie ahead.

In conclusion it must be stated that the Judeo-Christian Bible has proven itself to be a powerful source of inspiration which can affect others in a vast number of ways. This includes the more intelligent types of inspiration such as scholastic endeavor. academic excellence, and intellectual perfection. Thus, it should not come as much of a surprise to the many secular intellectuals of today to find highly intelligent men and women who still get very excited about the endless intellectual possibilities they have discovered through their continued study and renewed interest in Judeo-Christian Scriptures. One fairly enthusiastic source boldly claims that ‘the Holy Bible is the most influential and most popular book in history, it is first of all a religious book but also it is a work of literature, it is a work of history, it contains religious and secular laws, advice, poetry…It has been studied for thousands of years and yet much still remains to be known.’

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Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, 5th century Bible scholar

The Official Statistics of the New Testament
Number of books: 27
Chapters: 260
Verses: 7,957
Words: 180,552
Letters: 838,380
Middle book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle chapters: Romans 8, 9
Middle verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest book: 3 John
Shortest verse: John 11:35
Longest verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest chapter: Luke 1
Largest book: Luke

A Few Assorted New Testament Facts
– The New Testament has 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Epistles
– The 4 Gospels are: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
– The 2 Books are: Acts and Revelation
– The 21 Epistles are: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude. III. The Book of Revelation
– In chronological order, the Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The Peshitta edition of the New Testament excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official list followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church…presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta.
– The 3rd Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.
– The New Testament has different orders in the Slavonic, Ethiopian, Syriac and Armenian traditions. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia also imitate the local Orthodox order for the New Testament.
– Four New Testament works were questioned or ‘spoken against’ by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran authorities done so since that time. Traditional German ‘Luther Bibles’ are still printed with the New Testament in this changed ‘Luther Bible’ order.
– Many Evangelical Christian groups do not accept the theory that the Christian Bible was not known until various local and Ecumenical Councils, which they deem to be ‘Roman-dominated’, made their official declarations.
– The Evangelical Christians of today tend to believe that the New Testament supports that Paul (2 Timothy 4:11-13), Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16), and ultimately John (Revelation 22:18-19) finalized the canon of the New Testament.
– Some Christian researchers have taken careful note that Peter, John, and Paul wrote 20 (or 21) of the 27-books of the New Testament and personally knew all the other New Testament writers. The Books not attributed to these three men include: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, James, and Jude. The authorship of Hebrews has long been disputed.)
– The New Testament includes the following statistics: Middle Book = 2 Thessalonians, Middle Chapter = Romans 8,9, Middle Verse = Acts 27:17, Largest Book = Luke, Smallest Book = 3 John, Longest Chapter = Luke 1, Shortest Verse = John 11:35
– The Book of Hebrews is the only anonymous letter in the New Testament, which is why it was placed at the end of Paul’s letters by the collectors of the Canon. The King James Version attributes this letter to Paul, but later versions don’t, as Paul doesn’t identify himself and there are other differences to his writings elsewhere.
– The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, with only 294 words in 14 verses. 2 John has 1 less verse but still has 4 more words.
– The four Gospels, according to tradition, were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and john (the four evangelists); the Acts of the Apostles was probably written by the evangelist Luke, while most of the Letters or Epistles were written by Paul.
– There is one book of prophecy and it is Revelation, written by the apostle John
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is quite dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek still in existence today. Of these copies, nearly 800 of them were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years.
– Interestingly enough, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day. Here is a comparison chart:

CHRISTIANITY
The New Testament: 5,300 manuscripts remain, 800 of them dating from before 1,000 A.D.

PAGANISM
The Gallic Wars, by Julius Caesar: 10 manuscripts remain, with the earliest one dating to 1,000 years after the original autograph
History, by Pliny the Younger: 7 manuscripts written 750 years after the original
History, by Thucydides: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
History, by Herodotus: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
Sophocles: 193 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original
Euripides: 9 manuscripts written 1,500 years after the original
Aristotle: 49 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original

– In sum, there are still 5,300 Christian manuscripts Vs. 284 total Pagan manuscripts existing today. Yet still, the doubts and the skepticism is completely focused on the New Testament, rather than the Pagan alternative references to history and historical truth.
NewTestament-NewTestament-NewTestament-NewTestament-NewTestament-
XXVII. A Simple List of the 27 Titles, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament

+ The 27 Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament +

1) The Gospel of Matthew was written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D.
2) The Gospel of Mark was written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D.
3) The Gospel of Luke was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D.
4) The Gospel of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
5) The Book of Acts was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D.
6) The Letter to the Romans was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
9) The Letter to the Galatians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
10) The Letter to the Ephesians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
11) The Letter to the Philippians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
12) The Letter to the Colossians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
17) The Letter to Titus was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
18) The Letter to Philemon was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
19) The Letter to the Hebrews was written by an unknown author in the year 65 A.D.
20) The Letter of James was written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D.
21) The 1st Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
23) The 1st Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
25) The 3rd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
26) The Letter of Jude was written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D.
27) The Book of Revelation was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

 

 

Defining the word ‘Judeo-Christian’
Before any serious discussion or analysis of the Judeo-Christian tradition can actually take place, one must first define the terms being utilized. The specific English word, ‘Judeo-Christian’ has only been in use since around the year 1899. Here are just a few definitions as can be found on-line today: 

 

 

 

The Judeo-Christian Tradition – Defining the word ‘Judeo-Christian’

Defining the word ‘Judeo-Christian’
Before any serious discussion or analysis of the Judeo-Christian tradition can actually take place, one must first define the terms being utilized. The specific English word, ‘Judeo-Christian’ has only been in use since around the year 1899. Here are just a few definitions as can be found on-line today:

Judeo-Christian
(adj) \jü-dā-ō-kris-chən
Definition of JUDEO-CHRISTIAN: having historical roots in both Judaism and Christianity
Origin of JUDEO-CHRISTIAN (Latin- Judaeus Jew)
First Known Use: 1899

– Mirriam-Webster Dictionary

Judeo-Christian
(adj.) 1. having origins in both Judaism and Christianity, of or pertaining to Christianity, as in, the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913

Judeo-Christian
(Adjective) 1. Being historically related to both Judaism and Christianity. As in “the Judeo-Christian tradition”

– WordWeb Online

Judeo-Christian (-adjective)
Definition: of or pertaining to the religious writings, beliefs, values, or traditions held in common by Judaism and Christianity.
Also, Judaeo-Christian.
Origin: 1895-1900

– Dictionary.com, Random House Dictionary

Judeo-Christian
1. (adjective) being historically related to both Judaism and Christianity; “the Judeo-Christian tradition”

– WordNet 3.0, by Princeton University

JUDEO-CHRISTIAN (adjective)
The adjective JUDEO-CHRISTIAN has 1 sense:
Meaning: being historically related to both Judaism and Christianity
Familiarity information: JUDEO-CHRISTIAN used as an adjective is very rare.
Classified under: Relational adjectives (pertainyms)
Context example: the Judeo-Christian tradition

– Audio-English.net Dictionary

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Judaism – A Small Collection of Profound Jewish Sayings

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

– Zechariah 10:3-4

A Small Collection of Profound Jiewish Sayings

Nearly every one of the sayings listed below come directly from a book freely available on-line at the Sacred-texts.com website. This valuable source of Jewish wisdom is entitled ‘Tales and Maxims from the Midrash’ and was originally written by Rabbi Samuel Rapaport in 1907. Nearly all of them are citations taken from authentic Jewish Biblical commentaries commonly known as Midrash. Quite a few of them are several centuries old and may well have been derived from other, even older, sources. Similar to some of the best sayings found throughout both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmud, these particular examples of ancient Jewish wisdom can be seen as follows:

By saying that the Torah is not in heaven, Moses meant to convey that there is no other Torah to come thence to supersede this Torah, and there is no other man to come and bring another Torah from heaven. (Deuteronomy Rabba 8)

Just as the dove is saved only by her wings, so Israel is saved only by the precepts. (Berakoth 53b)

‘O, you Jews’, she exclaimed, ‘You seem to live in the inner chambers of one’s heart.’(Niddah 20b)

There is no redemption without faith. (Tanchuma Beshallach)

R. Joseph said, ‘Cast a malediction on the dog’s tail and it will do its work’. For there was a dog that used to eat the Rabbis’ shoes and they did not know who it was that did it, so they pronounced a malediction on the culprit, and the dog’s tail caught fire and got burnt. (Moed Katan 17a)

Heresy may be many things but it’s not boring   (Avodah Zarah 17a)

The verse, ‘Yea, for thy sake we are killed all the day long’ can be applied to circumcision, which has been appointed for the eighth day. (Gittin 57b)

God will wipe away tears from off all faces. This means from the faces of non-Jews as well as Jews.  (Genesis Rabba 26)

The world was like a wilderness before the Exodus and the giving of God’s behests on Sinai. (Numbers Rabba 2)

The Israelites were the first to introduce national flags. (Numbers Rabba 2)

He who causes his fellow-man to sin is worse than he who seeks a man’s life. .(Numbers Rabba 21)

God says to Israel, ‘You are called my children, but you must take my law as your guide of life.’ It is as though a prince should ask his father to make it known throughout his kingdom that he is the king’s son. The father tells him: ‘Clothe yourself in purple and put on your coronet; then all will know that you are my son. (Deuteronomy Rabba 7)

In vain have you acquired knowledge if you do not impart knowledge to others. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)

To do justice and righteousness is more acceptable to God than sacrifices (Proverbs 21:3). Sacrifices were in vogue only whilst the Temple was in existence, but justice and righteousness must exist with and without the Temple. Sacrifices atoned only for sins committed in error, not for presumptuous sin: justice and righteousness atone for all sins. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)

All men alike, both those who know the living God and those who know Him not, lose their lives, one may say, when they sleep, but God in his goodness restores their lives to all alike. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)

Remember that whatever evil it may be possible to avert or delay, there is no such possibility with death. Death is no respecter of persons, against it there is no appeal, and after it there is no remedy, nor can you suggest a substitute such as your slave, nor can you plead for delay, saying that you are not quite ready to meet it, nor can you create anything to protect you from it. (Deuteronomy Rabba 9)

It is a great and good thing for a man to have the blessings of a good man. (Midrash Ruth 6)

One of the characteristics of the righteous is that their yes is yes, and their no is no. (Midrash Ruth 7)

Do not sit down in the presence of one who is greater than you unless he invites you to do so. (Midrash Ruth 7)

What wisdom considers to be her very crown, meekness looks upon as her mere sandal. (Midrash Songs 1)

Do not look upon a parable or simile lightly, for some difficult passages of Scripture may be explained through them; just as one may find anything lost in a dark place by the aid of a candle. (Midrash Songs 1)

All the peace and happiness here are mere vanity as compared with the abiding peace in the world to come. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 2)

Scrupulousness causes cleanliness, which again leads to purity, and purity brings holiness, holiness meekness, and this prompts a fear of sin, a fear of sin begets saintliness, and saintliness brings the Holy Spirit. (Midrash Songs 1)

All souls go upwards; but for those of the righteous there is a resting-place, whilst those of the wicked are fugitive. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

The recital of (prayer) is better than a thousand burnt offerings. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 4)

An ignorant man who puts forth pretentions to knowledge is best styled a flatterer of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

There is stir and noise when man is born, and the same when he dies; he comes to this world weeping, and there is weeping for him when he goes hence. He arrives without knowledge, and departs without knowledge. When born his fists are closed, as if to say, ‘I have everything,’ and when he dies his hands are open, showing that he has nothing. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

There is no death brought about without sin, and no pain without iniquity. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

The soul is not attracted by any earthly goods that may be offered to her. She is like a king’s daughter, who finds no value in things which to others may seem precious. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 6)

The admonition of a good and sincere preacher is preferable to the expounding of Holy Writ by a quack; however great his enthusiasm, he can only be called a firebrand. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 7)

He who rebels against the king has it in him to rebel against God. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 9)

Fools, as a rule, look upon all mankind as fools. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 10)

He who trains a bad pupil must expect discredit. (Midrash Lamentations, Pesichta)

There was harmony between God and his people when He redeemed them from Egypt. They have sinned and broken that harmony, and become separated from their God. (Midrash Lamentations, Pesichta)

A woman’s pleasure consists in a fine house and fine clothes rather than in the best of food. (Midrash Esther 3)

The Hebrew language for speech, Latin for war, and the Persian language for lamentations. (Midrash Esther 4)

As the sea throws up its refuse on its shores, so have the wicked their filthiness upon their mouths. (Midrash Psalms 2)

A man is bound to pay the same respect to his wife’s father as he would to his own father. (Midrash Psalms 7)

If one tells you definitely when the Messiah will come, believe him not. (Midrash Psalms 9)

David’s words clearly show that righteous non-Jews will inherit future bliss. He says: ‘The wicked shall go to ‘Sheol’ and all the nations that forget God’ (Psalms 9:18), i.e. those of the nations that forget God, but not those who worship God. (Midrash Psalms 9)

He who hears himself abused (or cursed) and does not retaliate may be called a saintly man. (Midrash Psalms 16)

It is much more difficult to cope with a Jewish enemy than with a non-Jewish enemy. (Midrash Psalms 18)

Of all the good men who are designed to see God, those that were upright in their lives here stand in the first rank. (Midrash Psalms 11)

Trust in God delivers us from impending peril. (Midrash Psalms 22)

Woe to any man when death approaches him, to the strong man when he becomes weak, or to him who loses his sight; but woe to the whole generation which is ruled by a woman. (Midrash Psalms 22)

If all your life is given up to the pursuit of earthly things, it is quite consistent for you to look downwards; but if you pursue the higher life, look upwards. (Midrash Psalms 32)

The wicked are, as a rule, brought to judgment when all fear of judgment has left them. (Midrash Psalms 36)

Jerusalem is destined to become the Metropolis of the world. (Midrash Psalms 36)

To Israel’s question ‘O Lord, when wilt Thou redeem us?’ God’s answer is, ‘When you have fallen to your lowest depth.’ (Midrash Psalms 4)

He that is deeply sensible of his sin, is in terror of it, confesses it, and is in communion with God concerning this burden of uncleanliness, may hope for forgiveness. (Midrash Psalms 51)

If you intend to put man to rights, put yourself to rights first. (Midrash Psalms 53)

As there is no limit to the evils of a bad wife, so there is no limit to the good that is caused by a good wife. (Midrash Psalms 53)

‘I am that I am,’ said God to Moses, by which He intimated that He created the world in mercy, and will always rule the world in mercy. (Midrash Psalms 72)

One is not to think lightly of a parable or a simile: indeed one is to look upon them in the same sense as psalms, hymns, or prophecy.

Hath not the Lord sent his prophet Ezekiel to put forth a riddle and speak a parable unto the house of Israel (Ezkl. 17.)? and hath not the Psalmist said, ‘I will open my mouth in a parable’ (Psalms 78)? (Midrash Psalms 79)

The coats, or covers, with which God clothed Adam and Eve after their fall were made of the serpent’s skin. (Midrash Psalms 92)

Moses and Isaiah alone of all the prophets knew what they were prophesying; all the other prophets, including Elijah and Samuel, uttered their prophecies mechanically. (Midrash Psalms 90)

If you bear in mind that your prayers are directed to the God above, then they will be a blending of joy and awe. (Midrash Psalms 100)

Sing praises unto the Eternal whether you worship Him as a God of judgment or as a God of mercy. (Midrash Psalms 101)

God asks neither for burnt offerings nor for other sacrifices. He asks for earnest prayer. (Midrash Psalms 102)

Prayer is not to be offered in the midst of frivolity or laughter, but with humility and bowed head. (Midrash Psalms 108)

At the redemption of Israel, the nations amongst which they have been scattered, and out of which they will be redeemed, will sing praises to God. (Midrash Psalms 117)

The wicked walk in darkness, but those who have the light of God, the Torah, as their guide are restricted from committing sin even when they have a passing desire to do so. (Midrash Psalms 119)

Every man gets the wife he deserves (Midrash Psalms 125)

Repentance is of no avail in a matter of wronging your fellow-man, without first rectifying the wrong done.(Midrash Psalms 125)

No one has a right to expect success in his mundane affairs unless he works for it. Moses blessed the works of the hands and all of man’s doings. (Midrash Psalms 136)

Let no man say ‘My father was a righteous man; I shall be all right for his sake,’ or ‘My brother was a righteous man, and I shall reap the benefit of his merits.’ Abraham could not save Ishmael, and Jacob could not save Esau. Each man must work out his own salvation. (Midrash Psalms 146)

Man should attain sound sense and a feeling of responsibility at the age of twenty. (Midrash Proverbs 1)

Man must be attentive to his wife, to his studies, and to his occupation. (Midrash Proverbs 5)

Happy indeed is the teacher who has a disciple that can intercede with Heaven, by his prayer, on behalf of the teacher. (Midrash Proverbs 7)

Do not despise an ignorant man who strives to gain knowledge, or a man of ill repute who strives to redeem his past. (Midrash Proverbs 7)

The Day of Atonement will never be abolished. (Midrash Proverbs 9)

Have a good word for your fellow-man, and the ministering angels will plead for you before the throne of mercy. (Midrash Proverbs 11)

Man may have two hands; but he is not to rob with the one and give alms with the other. (Midrash Proverbs 11)

He who, being on friendly terms with another, eats and drinks with him and does not refrain from speaking against him, is designated by God Himself an evil one. (Midrash Proverbs 12)

A man proud of his knowledge is a propagator of folly. (Midrash Proverbs 13)

Here man is able to comprehend things and test them by his senses, such as the sense of sight or the sense of hearing; but he cannot imagine what future bliss means, since it is an abstract idea and cannot be tested either by the sense of sight or by the sense of hearing. (Midrash Proverbs 13)

God lends eloquence to the righteous. (Midrash Proverbs 15)

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

A man of a kindly and charitable disposition is generally blessed with old age, which sits on him like a crown. (Midrash Proverbs 16)

A learned man who has a learned son and a learned grandson may reasonably hope that learning will be the characteristic of his family for generations to come. (Midrash Proverbs 18)

If you want to incur contempt, be extravagant in self-praise. (Midrash Proverbs 27)

A judge, like a king, should not depend on anybody’s gifts, nor should he, like a priest, live on the people’s charity. (Midrash Proverbs 30)

Alexander the Great of Macedonia overran the whole world like a swarm of locusts. (Midrash Proverbs 30)

The virtues of Noah’s wife outweighed those of Noah. (Midrash Proverbs 31)

Prayer is, or should be, the service of the heart. (Midrash Samuel 2)

No wizard or astrologer can produce a human soul. (Midrash Samuel 5)

A religious teacher who in his old age is found not to be what he had always led men to believe that he was, pious and pure, is not to be held up to public derision, but should be made to retire from his duties in a manner which will not detract from his dignity.(Midrash Samuel 7)

The following are dignified with the name ‘Precious’: Torah, prophecy, understanding, knowledge, simplicity, the righteous, the death of the righteous, kindness, riches, and Israel. (Midrash Samuel 8)

Immediately a man is born he proceeds into death, when he dies he proceeds into life. (Midrash Samuel 23)

The Torah is full of holy fire; it was written with a black fire upon a white fire. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The Torah has meekness as its shoes, and the fear of God as its crown. Hence Moses was the proper person through whose hands it should be delivered; he was meek, and with the fear of the Lord he was crowned. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

You cannot expect to occupy yourself with the study of the Torah in the future world and receive the reward for so doing in this world. you are meant to make the Torah your own in this life and to look for reward in the life to come. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

As one who finishes the building of his house proclaims that day a holiday, and consecrates the building, so God, having finished creation in the six days, proclaimed the seventh day a holy day and sanctified it. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

If the fraudulent man and the usurer offer to make restitution, it is not permitted to accept it from them. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

Whatever hardships may be imposed upon Jews by the powers that be, they must not rebel against the authorities who impose them, but are to render compliance, except when ordered to disregard the Torah and its injunctions; for that would be tantamount to giving up their God. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

There is no evil that has no remedy, and the remedy for sin is repentance. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

Whatever hardships may be imposed upon Jews by the powers that be, they must not rebel against the authorities who impose them, but are to render compliance, except when ordered to disregard the Torah and its injunctions for that would be tantamount to giving up their God. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

There is a wall of separation erected between the Shechinah and the following three classes, a wall that can never be razed: The cheater, the robber, and the idol worshipper. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The meaning of the phrase ‘God made man in his own image’ is that, like his Maker, man is to be righteous and upright. Do not claim that the evil inclination is innate in you; such an argument is fallacious. When you are a child you commit no sin. It is when you grow out of infancy that your evil inclination becomes developed. You have the power of resisting the evil inclination if you feel so inclined, even as you are able to convert the bitter elements of certain foods into very tasty morsels. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The slanderer seems to deny the existence of God. As King David has it, ‘They say, our lips are with us, who is LORD over us?’ Tanchum, Bereshith)

Let us not lose sight of the lesson that it is meant to convey to us by the expression, ‘And the Lord came down to see’ (Genesis 11), namely that we are not to judge merely by ‘hearsay’ and to assert anything as having taken place unless we saw it. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

Elijah quickened the dead, caused rain to descend, prevented rain from coming down, and brought fire down from heaven; but he did not say ‘I am God.’ (Tanchum, Bereshith)

When Noah set out to plant the vine, Satan encountered him and asked upon what errand he was bent. ‘I am going to plant the vine,’ said Noah. ‘I will gladly assist you in this good work,’ said Satan. When the offer of help was accepted Satan brought a sheep and slaughtered it on the plant, then a lion, then a pig, and finally a monkey. He thus explained these symbols to Noah. When a man tastes the first few drops of wine he will be as harmless as a sheep; when he tastes a little more he will become possessed of the courage of a lion and think himself as strong; should he further indulge in the liquid produced by your plant he will become as objectionable as a pig; and by yet further indulgence in it he will become like a monkey. (Tanchum, Noah)

The promise to Abraham that he should become a great nation was fulfilled when the Israelites became the recipients of God’s laws. Moses, on account of their being the possessors of the Torah, styles them ‘a great nation’. (Tanchum. Lech Lecho)

The comparison in beauty of any woman to Sarah is like comparing monkeys with men. (Tanchum, Lech Lecho)

You cannot be too careful about prayer, and you should never omit to pray. Prayer eclipses all other services, and towers above sacrifices; and the sinful man may receive God’s grace through prayer. (Tanchum, Vaayro)

Just as one is prohibited from reciting any portion of the Torah by heart, but must read it out of the written scroll, so is he who expounds on any passage portion not allowed to read his opinions from anything written, but must deliver it by word of mouth.. (Tanchum, Vaayro)

When God’s creatures incur punishment, the Merciful One looks for one to plead for the guilty people, to open a way, as it were, as was the case in the time of Jeremiah. (Tanchum, Vaayro)

The proverb says, ‘If you rub shoulders with the anointed you will become anointed.’ Lot, being associated with Abraham, became hospitable; while his character does not indicate inclination to hospitality on his own part. (Tanchum, Vaayro)

You must not in any way mislead your fellow-man, not even to the extent of asking the price of anything he may have for sale, so as to make him believe that you are a likely purchaser, while you have no intention of ever purchasing the item. (Tanchum. Vaayro)

The righteous are put to more and severer trials than the unrighteous. So the owner of flax will beat out the good flax often and severely, so as to increase its purity, but does not treat the inferior flax in the same way, because it would simply fall away into small pieces. (Tanchum. Vaayro)

The following tend to make a man prematurely old: Fear, war, trouble from his children, or a shrew of a wife. (Tanchum, Chaya Sarah)

As there is a regularity in the position of the sun daily three times: in the morning he is in the east, at noon between east and west, and in the evening in the west, so must there be an inflexible regularity with every Jew in reciting his prayers three times daily, morning, afternoon, and evening. (Tanchum, Chaya Sarah)

A widower with unmarried sons is advised to see his sons married before he marries again. (Tanchum, Chaya Sarah)

Adrianus (Hadrian), discussing with Rabbi Joshua the innumerable adversaries that the Israelites had to encounter, said ‘Great is the sheep that can withstand seventy wolves.’ Rabbi Joshua replied, ‘Greatest is the shepherd who enables the sheep to outlive the constant attacks of the wolves.’ (Tanchum, Toldous)

There is merit and even dignity in handicraft. (Tanchum, Vayaitza)

Do not say, I need not work for my living, but cast my hope on God who supports all living creatures. You must work for a livelihood and look up to God to bless the work of your hands. Jacob, in alluding to the delivery from Laban’s house, says, ‘God hath seen the labour of my hands’. (Tanchum, Vayaitza)

A homely domesticated wife is like the altar in the Temple; and she is even an atonement as the altar was. (Tanchum, Vayishlach)

Isaiah committed sin by saying, ‘In the midst of a people of unclean lips do I dwell’ (Isaiah 6). For this, the slander which is compared to fire, he was punished with fire, with the live coal taken from the altar (Isaiah 6). (Tanchum. Vayishlach)

However adverse one’s opinion may be of any one placed in a high position, he is bound to pay him the respect due to his position. Rabbi Judah Hannasi, when writing to Antoninus, invariably used the phrase, ‘Judah, thy servant, sends greeting.’ (Tanchum. Vayishlach)

A modest woman is worthy of being the wife of a high priest, for she is like an altar in her home. (Tanchum, Vayishlach)

God wishes man to ask forgiveness, and not to see him in his guilt. (Tanchum. Vayishlach)

Give me the criticism of the old in preference to the flattery of the young. (Tanchum, Vayaishev)

Good men lift up their eyes and look one straight in the face; bad, wicked men drop their eyes. (Tanchum, Vayaishev)

There is a tendency with every man to become humble when near his death. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

It matters not where the body is buried, the spirit goes wherever it is destined. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

Jacob’s objection to being buried in Egypt was due to the fact that the Egyptians practised witchcraft by means of dead bodies, and he would not have his body utilized for such abominable practices. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

There is no death to the righteous.(Talmud, Tanchum. Vaychee.)

Slight no man. Every man was created in God’s image. (Tanchum, Jethro)

If you have acquired knowledge, do not simultaneously acquire a haughty spirit on account of your knowledge; and if you intend to expound God’s word, recite to yourself twice or thrice what you intend saying. Even so great a man as Rabbi Akiba, when once called upon in the assembly to get up and preach, declined to do so, on the ground that he never preached unless he rehearsed his intended speech twice or thrice to himself. (Tanchum, Jethro)

The righteous bless their offspring before they depart to the next world.(Tanchum, Vaychee)

David was descended from Judah. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

Slight no man. Every man was created in God’s image. (Tanchum, Jethro)

Poor ignorant man, you want to find out God’s ways explain first the phenomenon of your own eye; it consists of white and black, and according to all reason the white should supply light, but in reality the little spot in the centre of your eye is the lens to give you sight. (Tanchum, Tezaveh)

A man never so learned should not preach if his preaching is not agreeable to his audience. (Tanchum, Kee Sisso)

A public teacher (preacher) must not only be thoroughly conversant with the twenty-four books of the Bible, but must be known to his flock as modest and distinguished for his virtues. (Tanchum, Kee Sisso)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

It is but right and proper that one should be right in the sight of God, but it is also desirable so to act as to be just and right in the eyes of man. (Tanchum, Pekudai)

Slander no one, whether it is your brother or not your brother, whether a Jew or not a Jew. (Tanchum, Pekudai)

Out of certain classes of things God has chosen one. Of days, the seventh was chosen and sanctified. Of years too the seventh was chosen as the Sabbatical year; and out of seven Sabbatical years one was selected as the jubilee. Of countries, God made choice of Palestine. Of the heavens, the Aroboth was chosen for God’s throne. Of nations, Israel was the choice, and of the tribes of Israel, that of Levi. (Tanchum, Bamidbar)

No one can imagine the reward of him who accepts all his sorrows and reverses with religious resignation.(Tanchum. Kee Saizai)

The righteous stand on a higher level than angels. (Tanchum, Vayikra)

Those who aim at greatness do not always get it. Moses fled from it, but it was forced upon him. (Tanchum, Vayikra)

Swear not at all, not even to the truth. (Tanchum, Vayikra)

If you see cruelty and injustice perpetrated by Romulus in Rome, be not dismayed; remember there is One above the dukes and princes of Rome who executes judgment even by the mere word ‘Behold.’ (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses.

SOURCE: Tales and Maxims from the Midrash, by Rabbi Samuel Rapaport 1907 (http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/tmm/tmm10.htm)

Judaism – A Sampling of Proverbs, Parables, Sayings and Observations from the Jewish Midrash

 

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

 

– Zechariah 10:3-4

 

 

A Sampling of Proverbs, Parables, Sayings and Observations from the Jewish Midrash

 

Like the many of the astute observation and comments found in the Talmud, the diverse collection of traditional Jewish Biblical commentaries, also known as the Midrash, also contains a treasure-house of some of the best Judeo-Christian wisdom ever known. Taken from the online text of a book entitled: ‘Tales and Maxims from the Midrash’, by Rabbi Samuel Rapaport 1907, the following quotations represent just a small sampling of incredibly original and profound Jewish wisdom and knowledge that cannot typically be found in the Bible, but remains just as relevant and useful to the practice and study of the Judeo-Christian tradition. Here are the the actual passages from various Jewish Midrash:

 

You cannot be too careful about prayer, and you should never refuse to pray. Prayer eclipses all other services, and towers above sacrifices, and the sinful man may receive God’s grace through prayer. (Tanchum, Vaayro)

 

The comparison in beauty of any woman to Sarah is like comparing monkeys with men. (Tanchum. Lech Lecho)

 

There is no evil that has no remedy, and the remedy for sin is repentance. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

 

Immediately after a man is born he proceeds into death, when he dies he proceeds into life. (Midrash Samuel 23)

 

The Torah is full of holy fire. It was written with a black fire upon a white fire. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

 

 

The Torah has meekness as its sandals, and the fear of God as its crown. Hence Moses was the proper person through whose hands it should be delivered; he was meek, and with the fear of the Lord he was crowned. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

 

You cannot expect to occupy yourself with the study of the Torah in the future world and receive the reward for so doing in this world. You are meant to make the Torah your own in this life, and to look for reward in the life to come. (Tanchum, Bereshith0

 

The following tend to make a man prematurely old: Fear, war, trouble from his children, or a shrew of a wife. (Tanchum, Chaya Sarah)

 

There is merit and even dignity in handicraft. (Tanchum, Vayaitza)

 

God wishes man to ask forgiveness, and not to see him in his guilt. (Tanchum, Vayishlach)

 

Give me the admonishments of the old in preference to the flattery of the young. (Tanchum, Vayaishev)

 

If the fraudulent man and the usurer offer to make restitution, it is not permitted to accept it from them. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

 

 

Wisdom is granted by God to him who already possesses knowledge. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

 

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all who are curious without formalities or introductions. All that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

 

But through the prophet God sends us a message, ‘As I live, saith the Lord, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked.’ (Ezekiel 31). The answer is that there are sinners and sinners, those who do and those who do not repent. (Tanchum, Tsav)

 

God lends eloquence to the pious. (Midrash Proverbs 150

 

A man of a kindly and charitable disposition is generally blessed with old age, which sits on him like a crown. (Midrash Proverbs 16)

 

A learned man who has a learned son and a learned grandson may reasonably hope that learning will be the characteristic of his family for generations to come. (Midrash Proverbs 18)

 

If you want to incur contempt, be extravagant in self-praise. (Midrash Proverbs 27)

 

A judge, like a king, should not depend on anybody’s gifts. Nor should he, like a priest, live on the people’s bounty. (Midrash Proverbs 30)

 

Alexander the Great of Macedonia overran the whole world like a swarm of locusts. (Midrash Proverbs 30)

 

 

What blessings cannot earnest prayer bring down for us from heaven! It was in answer to Hannah’s earnest prayer that she was blessed with a son whose name was associated with those of Moses and Aaron (Psalms 99) as the lights of Israel. (Midrash Proverbs 30)

 

The virtues of Noah’s wife outweighed those of Noah. (Midrash Proverbs 31)

 

Prayer is, or should be, the service of the heart. (Midrash Samuel 2)

 

No wizard or astrologer can produce a human soul. (Midrash Samuel 5)

 

A religious teacher who in his old age is found not to be what he had always led men to believe that he was, pious and pure, is not to be held up to public derision, but should be made to retire from his duties in a manner which will not detract from his dignity.(Midrash Samuel 7)

 

The following are dignified with the name ‘Precious’: Torah, prophecy, understanding, knowledge, simplicity, the righteous, the death of the righteous, kindness, riches, and Israel. (Midrash Samuel 80)

 

He that slights his parents may be compared to a knife which one acquires for the purpose of cutting food, but which fails to do this and  instead cuts the owner’s hand, or to a light which one carries in order to help him in the darkness, instead of which it burns his clothes.(Midrash Samuel 7)

 

Man must be attentive to his wife, to his studies, and to his occupation. (Midrash Proverbs 5)

 

 

Happy indeed is the teacher who has a disciple that can intercede with Heaven, by his prayer, on behalf of the teacher. (Midrash  Proverbs 70

 

Do not despise an ignorant man who strives to gain knowledge, or a man of ill repute who strives to redeem his past. (Midrash Proverbs 7)

 

The Day of Atonement will never be abolished. (Midrash Proverbs 9)

 

Have a good word for your fellow-man, and the ministering angels will plead for you before the throne of mercy. (Midrash Proverbs 11)

 

Man has two hands, but he is not to rob with the one and give alms with the other. (Midrash Proverbs 11)

 

When a man, is on friendly terms with another, eats and drinks with him, but does not refrain from speaking against him, is designated by God Himself an evil one. (Midrash Proverbs 12)

 

A man proud of his knowledge is a propagator of folly. (Midrash Proverbs 13)

 

Here man is able to comprehend things and test them by his senses, such as the sense of sight or the sense of hearing; but he cannot imagine what future bliss means, since it is an abstract idea and cannot be tested either by the sense of sight or by the sense of hearing. (Midrash Proverbs 13)

 

One is not to think lightly of a parable or a simile. Indeed one is to look upon them in the same sense as psalms, hymns, or prophecy.

 

Has not the Lord sent his prophet Ezekiel to put forth a riddle and speak a parable unto the house of Israel (Ezekiel 17)? and has not the Psalmist said, ‘I will open my mouth in a parable’ (Psalms 78)? (Midrash Psalms 79)

 

 

If you bear in mind that your prayers are directed to the God above, then there will be a blending of joy and awe. (Midrash Psalms 100)

 

Sing praises unto the Eternal whether you worship Him as a God of judgment or as a God of mercy. (Midrash Psalms 101)

 

God asks neither for burnt offerings nor for other sacrifices. He asks for earnest prayer. (Midrash Psalms 102)

 

Prayer is not to be offered in the midst of frivolity or laughter, but with humility and bowed head. (Midrash Psalms 108)

 

At the redemption of Israel, the nations among which they have been scattered, and out of which they will be redeemed, will sing praises to God. (Midrash Psalms 117)

 

The wicked walk in darkness, but those who have the light of God, the Torah, as their guide are restricted from committing sin even when they have a passing desire to do so. (Midrash Psalms 119)

 

The fact that special mention is made of the affair of Zimri (Numbers 24:14) tends to show that the Israelites, in those days, were very chaste, as such conduct seems to have come as a surprise to the whole camp.(Midrash Psalms 122)

 

Every man gets the wife he deserves. (Midrash Psalms 125)

 

Repentance is of no avail in a matter of wronging your fellow-man, without first rectifying the wrong done. (Midrash Psalms 125)

 

No one has a right to expect success in his mundane affairs unless he works for it. Moses blessed the works of the hands and all of man’s doings (Deuteronomy 14:29). (Midrash Psalms 136)

 

 

Let no man say ‘My father was a righteous man; I shall be all right for his sake,’ or ‘My brother was a righteous man, and I shall reap the benefit of his merits.’ Abraham could not save Ishmael, and Jacob could not save Esau. Each man must work out his own salvation. (Midrash Psalms 146)

 

View David’s career, and you will see both the necessity and the efficacy of repentance. (Midrash Psalms 40)

 

He that is satiated with tears cannot be expected to have appetite for food. (Midrash Psalms 42)

 

In the future the righteous will feast on the splendour of the Shechinah. (Midrash Psalms 45)

 

To Israel’s question ‘O Lord, when will You redeem us?’ God’s answer is, ‘When you have fallen to your lowest depth.’ (Midrash Psalms 45)

 

There were two obscure prophets whose prophecy was not made known, mainly because only prophecy which was of any utility at the time or in the immediate future was ever published or recorded. However, the prophecy of the prophets mentioned will be made known at a future time.(Midrash Ruth 2)

 

Moses, who always stood in the breach, has been compared to a shepherd who, when bringing home his flock for the night, finds the fence around their resting-place fallen in and has only time to put it up again on three sides, leaving on one side easy access to the wolf. This good shepherd placed himself on the open side, for the protection of his flock from the wolf and the lion. (Midrash Ruth 2)

 

Death is every one’s portion, but it is not given to every man to leave a good reputation behind him. No one feels the death of a man like his wife, or of a woman like her husband. (Midrash Ruth 2)

 

A great and good man sheds lustre upon the place in which he happens to live. (Midrash Ruth 2)

 

A would-be convert to Judaism should not at once be admitted into the fold, but should be mildly cautioned against the step he intends upon taking. If he persists, and is steadfast in his desire, he is to be admitted. (Midrash Ruth 2)

 

 

The earth has wings (Isaiah 24), the sun has wings (Malachi 3), the cherubim have wings (1 Kings 8), and the seraphim have wings (Isaiah 6), but the righteous and those who are compassionate and merciful are sheltered under none of these wings, but under the wings of the Most High God. (Midrash Ruth 5)

 

It is a great and good thing for a man to have the blessings of a good man. (Midrash Ruth 6)

 

One of the characteristics of the righteous is that their yes is yes, and their no is no. (Midrash Ruth 7)

 

Do not sit down in the presence of one who is greater than you unless he invites you to do so. (Midrash Ruth 7)

 

If a man does good acts at the close of his life, it shows he is anxious to add these to the many he has done in the course of his life; and vice versâ. If at the end of his career a man does a reprehensible act, it tends to show that he is full of such misdeeds, and only required this additional one to complete the sinister list. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

 

Adam was destined to be the father of the twelve tribes of Israel; but, seeing that of the two sons one of them had one killed the other, the privilege was withdrawn. The Torah also would have been given through Adam, had he not proved himself unable to observe even one of God’s behests. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

 

God says to Israel, ‘You are called my children, but you must take my law as your guide of life.’ It is as though a prince should ask his father to make it known throughout his kingdom that he is the king’s son. The father tells him: ‘Clothe yourself in purple and put on your coronet; then all will know that you are my son.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 7)

 

Joseph’s bones, which were brought up from Egypt, were buried by the children of Israel in Shechem (Joshua 24:32) because they sold him in Shechem (Genesis 27). When thieves have stolen a cask of wine, the owner might well say to them: You have stolen the wine, the least you can do is to take back the empty cask to the place whence you took it. (Deuteronomy Rabba 8)

 

Rabbi Samuel was a great astronomer, but devoted only his spare moments to the study of astronomy. (Deuteronomy Rabba 8)

 

By saying that the Torah is not in Heaven, Moses meant to convey that there is no other Torah to come in the future to supersede this Torah, and there will be no other man to come and bring another Torah from Heaven. (Deuteronomy Rabba 8)

 

 

If you are anxious not to forget the subject you study, then it is necessary to pass what you read through your lips, not merely to read the subject up. If you do not utter the words you read you will forget them. (Deuteronomy Rabba 8)

 

Remember that whatever evil it may be possible to avert or delay, there is no such possibility with death. Death is no respecter of persons, against it there is no appeal, and after it there is no remedy, nor can you suggest a substitute such as your slave, nor can you plead for delay, or say that you are not quite ready to meet it, nor can you create anything to protect you from it. (Deuteronomy Rabba 9)

 

Moses, probably on account of his anxiety that after his death the Israelites might go astray (Deuteronomy 31:29), prayed for everlasting life on earth. God said He could not gratify his wish, since in order to inherit the bliss of the future life he must give up earthly life. (Deuteronomy Rabba 11)

 

In no instance is it permitted to hear the evidence of a witness in the absence of the litigants. (Midrash Ruth 1)

 

‘The words of God were scarce,’ etc. (1 Samuel 2). That generation was known as a generation of hypocrites. They pretended to adhere to the religion of their fathers, but worshipped idols in secret, and the Holy Spirit did not rest upon them. (Ruth Rabba)

 

All the peace and happiness here on earth are mere vanity as compared with the abiding peace in the world to come. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 2)

 

‘There seems to be more than one Creator,’ said a sceptic to Rabbi Samuel. ‘Is it not written “In the beginning Elohim (the plural) created heaven and earth”? Further, “Let us make man in our likeness.”‘ ‘Do you find it said,’ returned the sage, ‘they created, or are we told they saw or they said, or that man was formed in their image? In each instance you find the singular, and the ‘Elohim’ is applied to Him in whom is combined all power and all might.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)

 

In vain have you acquired knowledge if you do not impart knowledge to others. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)

 

To do justice and righteousness is more acceptable to God than sacrifices (Proverbs 21:3). Sacrifices were in vogue only while the Temple was in existence, but justice and righteousness must exist with and without the Temple. Sacrifices atoned only for sins committed in error, not for presumptuous sin. Justice and righteousness atone for all sins. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)

 

All men alike, both those who know the living God and those who know Him not, lose their lives, one may say, when they sleep; but God in his goodness restores their lives to all alike. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)

 

He who causes his fellow-man to sin is worse than he who seeks a man’s life. (Numbers Rabba 21)

 

There is a tendency with every man to become humble when near his death. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

 

It matters not where the body is buried, the spirit goes wherever it is destined. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

 

The altar of God was to prolong man’s life, and iron is a metal which can destroy man’s life; therefore it was forbidden to use iron in the erection of the altar. (Tanchum, Jethro)

 

Slight no man. Every man was created in God’s image. (Tanchum, Jethro)

 

The righteous bless their offspring before they depart hence. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

 

 

David was descended from Judah. (Tanchum, Vaychee)

 

Poverty outweighs all other sorrows. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

A man never so learned should not preach if his preaching is not agreeable to his audience. (Tanchum, Kee Sisso)

 

A public teacher (preacher) must not only be thoroughly conversant with the twenty-four books of the Bible, but must be known to his flock as modest and distinguished for his virtues. (Tanchum, Kee Sisso)

 

He who rebukes his fellow-man with a sincere desire to make him better comes within the inner walls of the heavenly pavilion.(Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

Jacob’s objection to being buried in Egypt was due to the fact that the Egyptians practised witchcraft by means of dead bodies, and he would not have his body utilized for such abominable practices. (Tanchum. Vaychee)

 

The righteous stand on a higher level than angels. (Tanchum. Vayikra)

 

Those who aim at greatness do not always get it. Moses fled from it, but it was forced upon him. (Tanchum. Vayikra)

 

It is but right and proper that one should be right in the sight of God, but it is also desirable so to act as to be just and right in the eyes of man. (Tanchum. Pekudai)

 

Slander no one, whether your brother or not your brother, whether a Jew or not a Jew. (Tanchum. Pekudai)

 

Good men lift up their eyes and look one straight in the face. Bad, wicked men drop their eyes. (Tanchum, Vayaishev)

 

‘Swear not at all, not even to the truth.’ (Tanchum. Vayikra)

 

 

No one can imagine the reward of him who accepts all his sorrows and reverses with religious resignation. (Tanchum. Kee Saizai)

 

Isaiah committed sin by saying, ‘In the midst of a people of unclean lips do I dwell’ (Isaiah 6). For this, a slander which may be compared to fire, he was punished with fire, with the live coal taken from the altar (Isaiah 6). (Tanchum. Vayishlach)

 

However adverse one’s opinion may be of any one placed in a high position, he is bound to pay him the respect due to his position. Rabbi Judah Hannasi, when writing to Antoninus, invariably used the phrase, ‘Judah, thy servant, sends greeting.’ (Tanchum, Vayishlach)

 

Regarding the giving of alms, judgment and discretion should be exercised. Obviously, poor relatives have a prior claim to any other, and the poor of your town claim priority over those of another town. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

Poor ignorant man, if you want to find out God’s ways explain first the phenomenon of your own eye. It consists of white and black, and according to all reason the white should supply light, but in reality the little spot in the centre of your eye is the lens to give you sight. (Tanchum, Tezaveh)

 

The rich should ever bear in mind that his wealth may merely have been deposited with him to be a steward over it, or to test what use he will make of his possessions. Not less should the poor remember that their own trials may have been sent as a test of their fortitude. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

‘If you have taken a pledge from the poor,’ says God to the rich, ‘do not say he is your debtor and you are therefore justified in retaining his garment. Remember you are my debtor, your life is in my hand. Keep in mind that I return to you all your senses and all your faculties after your sleep every day.’ (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

 

Do not say, I need not work for my living, but cast my hope on God who supports all living creatures. You must work for a livelihood and look up to God to bless the work of your hands. Jacob, in alluding to the delivery from Laban’s house, says, ‘God has seen the labour of my hands’ (Genesis 31). (Tanchum,Vayaitza)

 

Of all the good men who are designed to see God, those that were upright in their lives here stand in the first rank. (Midrash Psalms 110)

 

 

He who hears himself abused (or cursed) and does not retaliate may be called a saintly man. (Midrash Psalms 16)

 

The six hundred and thirteen commandments which were handed over to the Israelites were reduced by King David to eleven (Psalms 15). Isaiah further reduced all the commandments to six (Isaiah 33:15, 16). Micah made a further reduction of them to three (Micah 6:8). Habakkuk reduced the whole to one, that of faith (Habakkuk 2-4). (Midrash Psalms 17)

 

Trust in God delivers us from impending peril. (Midrash Psalms 22)

 

Woe to any man when death approaches him, to the strong man when he becomes weak, or to him who loses his sight. Woe to the whole generation which is ruled by a woman. (Midrash Psalms 22)

 

If all your life is given up to the pursuit of earthly things, it is quite consistent for you to look downwards, but if you pursue the higher life, look upwards. (Midrash Psalms 32)

 

He that feels as though his heart is torn within him on account of his sin may well hope for God’s forgiveness. Yet while continually thinking of his grievous sin, man must not make a habit of sinning and rely on his sorrow and confession for the expiation of his sin. Midrash Psalms 32)

 

The wicked are, as a rule, brought to judgment when all fear of judgment has left them. (Midrash Psalms 36)

 

Jerusalem is destined to become the Metropolis of the world. (Midrash Psalms 36)

 

He that is deeply sensible of his sin, is in terror of it, confesses it, and is in communion with God concerning this burden of uncleanliness, may hope for forgiveness. (Midrash Psalms 51)

 

If you intend to put man to rights, put yourself to rights first. (Midrash Psalms 53)

 

As there is no limit to the evils of a bad wife, so there is no limit to the good that is caused by a good wife. (Midrash Psalms 53)

 

‘I am that I am,’ said God to Moses, by which He implied that He created the world in mercy, and will always rule the world in mercy. (Midrash Psalms 72)

 

The Hebrew language for speech, Latin for war, and the Persian language for lamentations. (Midrash Esther 4)

 

The misdeeds of faithless servants sometimes bring about the reward of deserving men, as was the case with Joseph and with Mordecai. (Midrash Esther 6)

 

The book of memorial of Ahasuerus should remind us of the Book of Memorial of the Most High. (Malachi 3)(Midrash Esther 6)

 

David’s blessing, ‘Blessed are they that keep judgment and he that does righteousness all the time’ (Ps. 106. 3) is applied to him who adopts an orphan. (Midrash Esther 6)

 

As the sea throws up its refuse on its shores, so do the wicked have their filthiness upon their mouths. (Midrash Psalms 2)

 

As the billows of the sea, when rushing towards the shores in their violence and fury, threaten to swamp the whole shore, yet when they near the shore their fury and violence are lessened, and at last they meekly spend themselves. So it is with those who persecute Israel (likened to the sand on the shore of the sea) and threaten to overwhelm them. They are eventually constrained to lessen their violence and fury. (Midrash Psalms 20

 

All the prophets started with admonitions and ended with words of comfort. Jeremiah alone had no words of comfort to offer.(Midrash Psalms 4)

 

A man is bound to pay the same respect to his wife’s father as he would to his own father. (Midrash Psalms 7)

 

If one tells you definitely when the Messiah will come, believe him not. (Midrash Psalms 9)

 

The following Rabbis were martyrs: Rabbi Simeon b. Gamaliel, Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha, Jeshbab the scribe, Chuzpas the translator, José Judah b. Baba, Judah Nachtom, Simon b. Azai, Chanina b. Tradyon, and Rabbi Akiba. (Midrash Psalms 9)

 

David’s words clearly show that righteous non-Jews will inherit future bliss. He says: ‘The wicked shall go to ‘Sheol’ and all the nations that forget God’ (Psalms 9:18), in other words, those of the nations that forget God, but not those who worship God. (Midrash Psalms 9)

 

It is much more difficult to cope with a Jewish enemy than with a non-Jewish enemy. (Midrash Psalms 18)

 

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 30

 

All souls go upwards, but for those of the righteous there is a resting-place, while those of the wicked are fugitive. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

 

The recital of a prayer is better than a thousand burnt offerings. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 4)

 

An ignorant man who puts forth pretentions to knowledge is best styled a flatterer of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

There is stir and noise when a man is born, and the same when he dies. He comes to this world weeping, and there is weeping for him when he goes hence. He arrives without knowledge, and departs without knowledge. When born his fists are closed, as if to say, ‘I have everything,’ and when he dies his hands are open, showing that he has nothing. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

There is no death brought about without sin, and no pain without iniquity. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

 

Are you troubled by evil forebodings, visions, or dreams? Have recourse to prayer, repentance, and charity, for if there is in reality any evil decree against you, the exercise of these great virtues will avert it. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

God says to the prophets, ‘Think not that if you do not carry my messages, my will cannot be made known in the world. I have many messengers- even such as a scorpion, a snake, a frog, or an insect.’ (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

The Israelites were bent on sacrificing, they sacrificed on the high places in the wilderness, hence the Mishkan was erected as soon as was practicable, so that they should bring their sacrifices in that sanctuary. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 50)

 

If you see cruelty and injustice perpetrated by Romulus in Rome, be not dismayed. Remember there is One above the dukes and princes of Rome who executes judgement even by the mere word ‘Behold.’ (Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

The well of Miriam can be seen from the top of the mountain Jeshimon (Numbers 21:20), and its waters have healing properties.(Midrash Ecclesiastes 5)

 

The soul is not attracted by any earthly goods that may be offered to her. She is like a king’s daughter, who finds no value in things which to others may seem precious. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 6)

 

He who rebels against the king has it in him to rebel against God. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 9)

 

Some of the Rabbis, whilst very assiduous in study and prayer, would not neglect their daily chores, but had set apart a third of the day for the pursuit of labour, and they were, on that account, known as ‘the holy body.’ (Midrash Ecclesiastes 9)

 

Fools, as a rule, look upon all mankind as fools. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 10)

 

He who trains a bad pupil must expect discredit. (Midrash Lamentations, Pesichta)

 

There was harmony between God and his people when He redeemed them from Egypt. They have sinned and broken that harmony, and become separated from their God. (Midrash Lamentations, Pesichta).

 

ELISHA B. ABUYA used to make it his duty to call at infant schools and endeavour by his idle talk to divert the children’s attention from religious instruction and direct them to frivolous matters. (Midrash Song of Songs 1)

 

Scrupulousness causes cleanliness, which again leads to purity, and purity brings holiness, holiness meekness, and this prompts a fear of sin, a fear of sin begets saintliness, and saintliness brings the Holy Ghost. (Midrash Songs 1)

 

Moses, Aaron and Miriam died by having their souls drawn out by God’s kiss. (Midrash Songs 1)

 

The nations of the world are not justified in thinking that, because Israel is rebellious, God will exchange them for another nation. It is as though a black maid should expect her master to divorce his wife and marry her, because her mistress’s hand had turned black.(Midrash Songs 1)

 

King Solomon was like the clever statesman adopted in the king’s house, who when asked by his august master what token of his favour he wished, asked for the king’s daughter. Solomon, when asked by the King of Kings for his wish, asked for wisdom. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

 

At the resurrection men will be revived and will have the same infirmities and defects that they may have had during their former life; so that there may be no mistake as to whether those that are resuscitated are the same as those who were known to be dead. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

If those who are in authority at present should be inferior men to those who were in authority before them, one is not permitted to slight them on that account, but is bound to pay them the tribute of respect due to their position. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

There is no hard and fast rule as to any part with which books in Holy Writ should open. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

Man as a rule does not allude to his low estate, except when he comes out of it and gets into an improved position. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

The Sanhedrin sat at a table in the form of a half moon, or horseshoe, so that they were be able to see each other. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

No man dies possessing half of what he wishes to possess. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

In one sense there is an advantage in failing memory; if man’s memory did not fail, there would be no study of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

If the wind had unbridled sway, no human being could stand against it, but God limits its power so that it may not become injurious to mankind. The wind that destroyed Job’s property and that which caused shipwreck to Jonah were specially sent and confined to the places where they had to do their work of destruction. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

Just all the waters run into the sea and the sea is not filled, so a man may be possessed of much knowledge and learning and not be overcharged. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

 

Rabbi Janai and Rabbi Ishmael both agree that there is no such thing as Hell, but that the Lord will employ the sun to bestow punishment on the unrighteous and reward on the righteous. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

The sun rises and the sun goeth down. Thus, before Sarah died there arose the sun of Rebecca. The sun of Athniel shone before that of Joshua set. So on the day when Rabbi Akiba died Rabbi Judah Hanasi was born, on the death of Rab Adda Rab Hamomonah saw the light) at Hamomonah’s death Rabbi Abbin came into the world; and on the day of R. Abbin’s death Abbé Hoshiah the man of Taria was born. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

When Solomon says ‘the wise man’s eyes are in his head,’ he does not imply that the fool’s eyes are in his feet, but that the wise man can, at the start, foresee the consequence of every one of his actions. Rabbi Meier was in the habit of calling the finishing of a thing its beginning. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

 

What wisdom considers to be her very crown, meekness looks upon as her mere sandal.(Midrash Songs 1)

 

Do not look upon a parable or simile lightly, for some difficult passages of Scripture may be explained through them, just as one may find anything lost in a dark place by the aid of a candle. (Midrash Songs 1)

 

 

From the point of view of religious observance one may say that poverty becomes the Jew. In poverty he is an observant Jew. Rabbi Akiba used to say, ‘Poverty becomes a Jew as a red bridle becomes a white horse.’ (Midrash Songs 1)

 

King Solomon’s mind may well be compared to a hidden treasure, of the existence of which no one was aware until an expert pointed out the spot and its contents. His was a most brilliant mind, lying dormant till it was inspired from above, and then he became a veritable light to the Torah in his exposition, by prose, poetry, and simile, of many of its obscure passages.(Midrash Songs I)

 

Formerly learning was a thing sought after, but now we are become spiritually sick, we grow dainty and choose only light reading or what we consider comforting and promising words. So a man when in robust health does not pick and choose his food, but when less robust he must have light morsels such as will tempt his appetite. (Midrash Songs 2)

 

Do not, like a simpleton, be deterred from study by thinking ‘How can I meet the formidable task of acquiring all that is to be known?’ Rather argue like a wise man, ‘Others have done it, so it can be done.’ Try a little by day and a little by night, and in the course of time your task will be accomplished. (Midrash Songs 5)

 

The Torah or knowledge increases, and the intellect becomes keener by proper study, and any difficult matter submitted to scholars will find solution, just as a structure will be satisfactorily erected by skilful workmen each contributing his own skill. (Midrash Songs 5)

 

 

 

The second Temple was deprived of the following five blessings which the first Temple had enjoyed: (1) The fire that came down from heaven for the altar. (2) The anointing oil. (3) The ark. (4) The Holy Spirit. (5) The Urim and Thummim. (Midrash Songs 8)

 

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

 

 

SOURCE: Tales and Maxims from the Midrash, by Rabbi Samuel Rapaport 1907 (http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/tmm/tmm10.htm)

Bible – The Books, the Chapters, the Verses, the Words and the Names of Judeo-Christian Scriptures

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

 

– John 1:1

 

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Books of the Bible

 

Brief Facts about the Books of the Bible

– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.

– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.

– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).

– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.

– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.

The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 John instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

 

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets

– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.

– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.

– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.

– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.

– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.

– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.

– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.

– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.

– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.

– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

 

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses

– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.

– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.

– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

 

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Chapters of the Bible

 

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

 

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible

– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.

– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.

– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.

– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses

– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.

– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.

– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.

– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.

– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.

– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!

– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.

– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.

– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

 

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Verses of the Bible

 

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

 

Brief Facts about the Verses of the Bible

– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.

– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.

– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.

– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.

– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.

– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.

– Joshua 7:24, 1 Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.

– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.

– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.

– According to popular opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \

– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.

– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.

– The middle verse of the Old Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.

– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words

 

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Words of the Bible

 

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible

– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains approximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.

– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible

– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)

– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’

– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

 

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible

Bath = about 9 gallons

Bekah = ¼ of an ounce

Cab = 2 quarts

Cubit = about 18 inches

Day’s journey = 20-25 miles

Ephah = about 1 bushel

Farthing = ¼ cent

Fathom = 6 feet

Finger = ¾ of an inch

Firkin = 9 gallons

Furlong = fraction of a mile

Gerah  = .4 ounces

Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches

Hin = 6 quarts

Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry

Log = 1 pint

Mite = of a cent

Omer = 7 pints

Pound = about $16 in money

Reed = about 11 feet

Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile

Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver

Span = about 9 inches

Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

 

Word Repetition in the Bible

– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times

– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times

– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.

– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.

– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.

– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times

– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.

– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible

– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).

– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.

– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.

– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)

– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)

– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)

– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.

– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

 

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins

A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)

The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)

The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)

Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)

Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)

A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)

Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)

Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)

Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)

Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)

The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)

Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)

Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)

The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)

A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)

Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)

Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)

Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)

By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)

It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)

A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)

The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)

Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)

Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)

Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)

Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

 

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Names of the Bible

 

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible

– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.

– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spelling and pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.

– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

 

Male Name Repetition in the Bible

– David: mentioned 1118 times

– Moses: mentioned 740 times

– Aaron: mentioned 339 times

– Saul: mentioned 338 times

– Abraham: mentioned 306 times

– Solomon: mentioned 295 times

– Jacob: mentioned 270 times

– Joseph: mentioned 208 times

– Joshua: mentioned 197 times

– Paul: mentioned 185 times

– Peter: mentioned 166 times

– Joab: mentioned 137 times

– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times

– Samuel: mentioned 135 times

– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

 

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

 

Female Name Repetition in the Bible

– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times

– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times

– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times

– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times

– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times

– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times

– Abigail: 15 times

– Miriam: 15 times

– Mary Magdalene: 14 times

– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times

– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

 

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters

– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)

– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)

– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)

– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)

– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)

– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)

– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)

– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)

– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)

– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)

– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)

– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)

– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)

– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)

– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)

– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)

– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)

– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)

– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)

– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)

– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his own daughter (Judges 11:30)

– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

 

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

 

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)

1. Hosea

2. Joel

3. Amos

4. Obadiah

5. Jonah

6. Micah

7. Nahum

8. Habakkuk

9. Zephaniah

10. Haggai

11. Zecariah

12. Malachi

 

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors

~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.

~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.

~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.

~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90

~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.

~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.

~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.

~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.

~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.

~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.

~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.

~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

 

 

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

New Testament – The Books, the Authors, and the Dates

Bible – The New Testament in Brief

by The Judeo-Christian Tradition on Wednesday, 16 February 2011 at 17:58

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

 

– John 1:1

 

 

The New Testament in Brief

 

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A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament

1) The Gospel According to Matthew

2) The Gospel According to Mark

3) The Gospel According to Luke

4) The Gospel According to John

5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles

6) The Letter to the Romans

7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians

8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians

9) The Letter to the Galatians

10) The Letter to the Ephesians

11) The Letter to the Philippians

12) The Letter to the Colossians

13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians

14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians

15) The 1st Letter to Timothy

16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy

17) The Letter to Titus

18) The Letter to Philemon

19) The Letter to the Hebrews

20) The Letter of James

21) The 1st Letter of Peter

22) The 2nd Letter of Peter

23) The 1st Letter of John

24) The 2nd Letter of John

25) The 3rd Letter of John

26) The Letter of Jude

27) The Book of Revelation

 

 

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament

1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew

2) Mark: Gospel of Mark

3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation

5) James: Letter of James

6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter

7) Jude: Letter of Jude

8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

 

Rabbi Joshua with a Flock of Sheep exemplifying the Tradition of Christianity

 

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament

– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.

– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.

– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.

– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.

– The 4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.

– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.

– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.

– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.

– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.

– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).

– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

 

The Seal of St. Peter, a New Testament Author

 

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament

1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

 

 

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament

45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)

50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)

50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)

55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)

60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)

60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)

60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)

65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)

65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)

70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)

90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)

90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)

90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

 

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

 

 

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter.

– A Reference Guide to the Books, the Authors, and the Dates of the Old Testament

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

A Reference Guide to the Books, the Authors, and the Dates of the Old Testament

The Protestant Old Testament (39 Books)

1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Esther, 18) Job, 19) Psalms, 20) Proverbs, 21) Ecclesiastes, 22) Song of Songs, 23) Isaiah, 24) Jeremiah, 25) Lamentations, 26) Ezekiel, 27) Daniel, 28) Hosea, 29) Joel, 30) Amos, 31) Obadiah, 32) Jonah, 33) Micah, 34) Nahum, 35) Habakkuk, 36) Zephaniah, 37) Haggai, 38) Zechariah, 39) Malachi

The Catholic Old Testament (46 Books)

1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Tobit, 18) Judith, 19) Esther, 20) 1 Maccabees, 21) 2 Maccabees, 22) Job, 23) Psalms, 24) Proverbs, 25) Ecclesiastes, 26) Song of Songs, 27) Wisdom, 28) Sirach, 29) Isaiah, 30) Jeremiah, 31) Lamentations, 32) Baruch, 33) Ezekiel, 34) Daniel, 35) Hosea, 36) Joel, 37) Amos, 38) Obadiah, 39) Jonah, 40) Micah, 41) Nahum, 42) Habakkuk, 43) Zephaniah, 44) Haggai, 45) Zechariah, 46) Malachi

Basic Statistics of the Old Testament

The Number of Protestant Books = 39

The Number of Catholic Books = 46

The Number of Eastern Orthodox Books = 51

The Middle book = Book of Proverbs

The Largest Book = Book of Psalms

The Smallest Book = Book of Obadiah

The Oldest Book = Book of Job (~1,000 B.C.)

The Newest Book = Book of Malachi (400 BC)

The Chapters = 929

The Middle chapter = Job 20

The Longest chapter = Psalms 119

The Verses = 23,114

The Middle verses = 2 Chronicles 20:17,18

The Shortest verse = 1 Chronicles 1:25

The Longest verse = Esther 8:9

The Words = 602,585

The Letters = 2,278,100

The Books, Authors, and Dates of the Old Testament

1. The Book of Genesis was written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.

2. The Book of Exodus was written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.

3. The Book of Leviticus was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.

4. The Book of Numbers was written by the Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was written by Moses in 1,400 B.C.

6. The Book of Joshua was written by Joshua in the year 1,350 B.C.

7. The Book of Judges was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.

8. The Book of Ruth was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.

12. The 2nd Book of Kingswas written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.

15. The Book of Ezra was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author in the year 400 B.C.

18. The Book of Job was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.

19. The Book of Psalms was written by King David in the year 1,000 B.C.

20. The Book of Proverbs was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.

22. The Song of Solomon was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C,

23. The Book of Isaiah was written by the Prophet Isaiah in the year 700 B.C.

24. The Book of Jeremiah was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.

25. The Book of Lamentations was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was written by the Prophet Ezekiel in the year 550 B.C.

27. The Book of Daniel was written by the Prophet Daniel  in the year 550 B.C.

28. The Book of Hosea, was written by the Prophet Hosea in the year 750 B.C.

29. The Book of Joel, by was written by the Prophet Joel in the year 850 B.C.

30. The Book of Amos was written by the Prophet Amos in the year 750 B.C.

31. The Book of Obadiah was written by the Prophet Obadiah in the year 600 B.C.,

32. The Book of Jonah was written by the Prophet Jonah in the year 700 B.C.

33. The Book of Micah was written by the Prophet  Micah in the year 700 B.C.

34. The Book of Nahum was written by the Prophet Nahum in the year 700 B.C.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was written by the Prophet  Habakkuk in the year 600 B.C.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was written by the Prophet  Zephaniah in the year 650 B.C.

37. The Book of Haggai was written by the Prophet Haggai in the year 520 B.C.

38. The Book of Zechariah was written by the Prophet Zechariah in the year 500 B.C.

39. The Book of Malachi was written by the Prophet Malachi in the year 430 B.C.

40. The Book of Tobit was written by Tobit in the year 200 B.C.

41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author in the year 150 B.C.

42. The Book of Wisdom was written by Solomon in the year 100 B.C.

43. The Book of Sirach was written by Jesus ben Sirach in the year 200 B.C.

44. The Book of Baruch was written by Baruch in the year 150 B.C.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.

The Ten Commandments of Judaism and Christianity

Official Church Lists of The Old Testament Books

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach], twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

– Council of Carthage III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

The whole canon of the Scriptures, however, in which we say that consideration is to be applied, is contained in these books: the five of Moses…and one book of Joshua (Son of) Nave, one of Judges; one little book which is called Ruth…then the four of Kingdoms, and the two of Paralipomenon…(T)here are also others too, of a different order…such as Job and Tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of Maccabees, and the two of Esdras…Then there are the Prophets, in which there is one book of the Psalms of David, and three of Solomon…But as to those two books, one of which is entitled Wisdom and the other of which is entitled Ecclesiasticus and which are called of Solomon’ because of a certain similarity to his books, it is held most certainly that they were written by Jesus Sirach. They must, however, be accounted among the prophetic books, because of the authority which is deservedly accredited to them.

– Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397)

A brief addition shows what books really are received in the canon. These are the things of which you desired to be informed verbally: of Moses, five books, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, of Deuteronomy, and Joshua, of Judges, one book, of Kings, four books, and also Ruth, of the Prophets, sixteen books, of Solomon, five books, the Psalms. Likewise of the histories, Job, one book, of Tobit, one book, Esther, one, Judith, one, of the Maccabees, two, of Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books.

– Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408)

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books . . . Let this be sent to our brother and fellow bishop, [Pope] Boniface, and to the other bishops of those parts, that they may confirm this canon, of these are the things which we have received from our fathers to be read in church.

– The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419)

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The Traditional Names of the Books of the Old Testament

The 39 Traditional Names of the Protestant Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Traditional Names of the Catholic Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

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Ikons of the Judeo-Christian Bible

Ikons of Judaism and the Judeo-Christian tradition

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Canons of the Old Testament

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity

I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books

II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books

III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages

The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.

The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament

40) The Book of Tobit

41) The Book of Judith

42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees

43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees

44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon

45) The Book of Sirach

46) The Book of Baruch

Vatican City, the Rock of St. Peter

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

47) The 1st Book of Esdras

48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees

49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees

50) The Book of Odes

51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament

II. Roman Catholic Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament

III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament

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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament

– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.

– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.

– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.

– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.

– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.

– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39

Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46

Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.

– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later.

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

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The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The Protestant Nations

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

The Catholic Nations

The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi

The Lamb Of God

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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament

– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.

– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed

– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.

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The Basic Facts about the Bible

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible

by The Judeo-Christian Tradition on Wednesday, 16 February 2011 at 20:48
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In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible

Authors: over 40 individuals

Translations: over 1,200 languages

Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible

Chapters:1,189

Verses: 31,071

Words: 783,137

Letters: 3,566,480

Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)

Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)

Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)

Shortest Book: 3 John

Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)

Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’

Middle Books: Micah and Nahum

Middle Chapter: Psalm 117

Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8

The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times

The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible

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Facts and Figures of the Bible

~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.

~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.

~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’

~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).

~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’

~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.

~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.

~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years.  Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

* The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397),  Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)

~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte

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Numbers and Statistics of the Bible

~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.

~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.

~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.

~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.

~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words

~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages

~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)

~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35

~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35

~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117

~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters

~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions

~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.

~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454

~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535

~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee

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Versions and Translations of the Bible

~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.

~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.

~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.

~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.

~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.

~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages

~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.

~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).

~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible

~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.

~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies

~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.

~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.

~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.

~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.

~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.

~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.

~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).

~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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History and Language of the Bible

~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.

~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.

~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.

~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.

~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.

~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.

~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.

~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.

~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of  procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.

~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.

~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.

~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.

~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.

~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’

~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.

~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.

~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.

~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.

~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.

~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.

~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa

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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible

~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.

~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.

~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.

~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.

~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)

~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.

~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.

~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.

~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.

~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.

~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.

~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.

~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.

~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.

~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.

~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.

~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.

~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna

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