Category Archives: Bible

The Star of David Symbolism in the First Chapter of the Book of Genesis

The magi’s coming to Jerusalem in order to pay homage to the king of the Jews shows that they seek in Israel, in the messianic light of the STAR OF DAVID, the one who will be king of the nations. Their coming means that pagans can discover Jesus and worship him as Son of God and Savior of the world only by turning towards the Jews and receiving from them the messianic promise as contained in the Old Testament.

– The Catechism of the Catholic Church

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Just about every God-fearing reader of the Bible knows the basic symbolism behind the Star of David which is composed of two opposite-pointing intersecting equilateral triangles perfectly placed on top of each other to create a completely symmetrical six-pointed star. Indeed, even the very name of this geometrical form has a coherent meaning to it, as man throughout the ages has noticed the way the stars and even the sun will sometimes sparkle (or twinkle), thus appearing to have six-points to them, even though they are still obviously round, circular dots in the sky.

Heaven___Heavan

One need not be a believer in Judaism to understand how this symbol provides one of most simple, yet comprehensible, ikons used to represent such concepts as Heaven and Earth, God and Man, Soul and Body, Material and Spiritual, Mountain and Valley, etc. Throughout the Middle Ages, many a Christian Gentile, especially the more learned among them, understand this symbol as, not only representing a unity of opposites, such as the elements of Earth and Air, or Water and Fire, but also as an expression of complementary concepts, much like the ebony and ivory keys to a piano which, when played correctly and by using the correct combinations, was capable of creating something beautiful- like the Latin Mass at its finest and most profound.

Historically speaking, the Catholic Church wasn’t very prone to call the hexagram the Star of David (or Magen David in Hebrew). In fact, for several centuries before the modern term ‘Star of David’ ever became part of everyday vocabulary, and long before this symbol ever became specifically Jewish, the Church preferred to refer to the hexagram as the Star of Creation, or the Creator’s Star. Now the obvious question that might come to readers’ minds is why on earth did the Christian authorities ever refer to this symbol in such a manner. The Star of Creation? Whatever does that mean?

The six-pointed star is the Creator’s Star or Star of Creation. Its six points stand for the six days of creation.

– Christianity/symbols/6-point star, ReligionFacts.com

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The easy answer is to simply point out that God’s Creation includes both the Heavens and the Earth, Mountains and Valleys, Clouds and Seas, Volcanoes and Tornadoes, so the symbolic representation of BOTH distinctly different items placed together would of course signify the reality that Creation is filled with a diverse array of BOTH phenomenon- not to mention the fact that every snowflake is basically a Star of David, in one form or another.

All of this is true of course, but it doesn’t really truly answer the question completely. Why not call it the God’s Star, rather than the Creator’s Star? Obviously, there must be a reason behind this particular designation and the following analysis of the Creation story in the 1st Chapter of Genesis (Genesis 1:1-27) is a humble attempt to explain the reasons why-

The Star of David seems to nest itself in the beginning of the Bible…

– The Star of David, by Frank Colijn, Members.home.nl

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(1) In the beginning God created the Heavens AND the Earth.

– The Heavens= Up Triangle –> ‘God created the Heavens’
–  The Earth= Down Triangle –> ‘God created…the Earth.’                                         = God’s Creation= David –> ‘God created the Heavens AND the Earth.’

AboveBelowGen1.1

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(2) The earth was formless and void, and darkness was OVER the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving OVER the surface of the waters.

– Darkness= Up Triangle
– The Deep= Down Triangle
= Darkness OVER the Deep= Star of David –> ‘darkness was OVER the surface of the deep’

– Spirit of God= Up Triangle
–  The Waters= Down Triangle
=  Spirit of God OVER the Waters= Star of David –> ‘the Spirit of God was moving OVER the surface of the waters.’
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(4) God saw that the light was good, and God SEPARATED the light from the darkness. (5) God called the light day, and the darkness He called night.

= 24-Hour Cycle= Star of David –> ‘God SEPARATED the light from the darkness’
–  The Light, Day= Up (or Down) Triangle –> God called the light day, and the darkness He called night.
–  The Darkness, Night= Down (or Up) Triangle –> ‘and the darkness He called night.’
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Genesis1.7

(7) God made the expanse, and SEPARATED the waters which were BELOW the expanse from the waters which were ABOVE the expanse, and it was so.

= The Waters= Star of David –> ‘separated the waters’
–  The Waters BELOW= Down Triangle –> ‘the waters which were BELOW the expanse from’
–  The Waters ABOVE= Up Triangle –> ‘the waters which were ABOVE the expanse’

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(9) Then God said, ‘Let the waters BELOW the Heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear’, and it was so. (10) God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering of the waters He called Seas, and God saw that it was good.

– The Seas= Down Triangle –> ‘Let the waters BELOW the Heavens be gathered into one place’
– The Earth= Up Triangle –> ‘and let the dry land appear’
Planet Earth= Star of David –> ‘and God saw that it was good.’
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(16) God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night.

= ‘Two great lights’= Star of David
–  Sun, the Greater Light= Up Triangle
–  Moon, the Lesser Light= Down Triangle
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(20) Then God said, ‘Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly ABOVE the earth in the open expanse of the Heavens.’

– The Fish= Down Triangle – ‘the waters bring forth’
– The Birds= Up Triangle – ‘fly ABOVE the earth’
=  Wildlife= Star of David
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(26) Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule OVER the fish of the sea and OVER the birds of the sky and OVER the cattle and over all the earth, and OVER every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’

– God= Up Triangle –> ‘Let Us make man’
–  Man= Down Triangle –> ‘Our image’
=  God’s rule OVER Man= Star of David

– Man= Up Triangle ‘rule OVER the fish’ and ‘OVER the birds’ and ‘OVER the cattle’
– Animals= Down Triangle
=  Man’s rule OVER Animals= Star of David
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(27) God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him, male and female He created them.

– God= Up Triangle
–  Image of God= Down Triangle
=  Creation of Man= Star of David –> ‘He created him’

– Male= Up (or Down) Triangle
–  Female= Down (or Up) Triangle
= Creation of Mankind= Star of David –> ‘He created them’
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This simple, basic analysis provides one of best ways in explaining the ultimate reason why the Catholic Church, while acknowledging the hexagram as a legitimate family seal for the House of David (including Jesus Chris), has still tended, for literally hundreds of years, to refer to the Star of David as the Star of Creation. Considering the inherent common sense seen in the above interpretation of the Creation story in Genesis 1, it should be fairly easy to understand why.

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Relevant Quotes and References

The Star of David seems to nest itself in the beginning of the bible…Therefore it’s the question if Moses was aware of the fact that when he wrote down the bible text, he also wrote down the mathematical laws of the hexagram…for with the creation of Heaven and Earth appear also the Laws of Nature and of course the mathematical Laws too.

– The Star of David., by Frank Colijn, Members.home.nl

The star of David is an ancient Jewish symbol filled with significance. The two triangles that make up the star of David depict the two…forces in this world…Heaven and Earth, body and soul, and more.

– Star of David, baltinesterjewelry.com

The thought of Heaven and Earth sharing one dimension brought a scripture to mind. Jesus taught them to pray “in earth as it is in heaven”. I was instantly impressed with the knowledge that somewhere on the earth there must be an exact duplicate of this pattern. This pattern is not new, some of the names for this fusion [are]…’Seal of Solomon’ and the Star of David’. No matter what the symbol is called, or whether it stands for the union of…God and man, it is the power of a balanced collective consciousness.

– STAR OF DAVID, ON EARTH AS IT IS IN HEAVEN, LighthouseLibrary.com

STAR OF DAVID: The Star of David or the Creator’s Star. The six points represent six aspects of God: love, mercy, wisdom, majesty, power, and justice. In this form, the two triangles represent the Trinity.

– Star of David, Christian Symbols, Ezartsncrafts.com

THE STAR OF CREATION (Star of David) – The six-pointed star is several symbols in one. The star is made up of two triangles, each representing the Trinity. The six-sided star they form is a symbol of creation. Thus the symbol means that the Godhead, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, were all a part of the creation of the world.

– The Star of Creation, ChristianSymbols.net

Six-pointed Star: Route six corners correspond to the six days of creation. These are also the six attributes of God: love, power, wisdom, mercy, justice and majesty. It is also known as Star of David in Judaism. Six-pointed star – a Christian symbol

– Christianity, Religious Symbols and their Meanings, Relijournal.com

Six pointed stars symbolize Israel and is called the Star of David. It represents the six attributes of God – power, wisdom, majesty, love, mercy and justice.

– Stars as Christian Symbols, Catholic-Saints.info

Six Pointed Star: Star of Creation, Star of David. Although ancient and symbolizing the six days of creation, best known in modern times as a symbol of Judaism.

– Christian Symbols, Symbols, Gocek.org

Six-Pointed Star: Stars with six points have a deep ancient history that has been connected to many other religions with a range of meanings. In regards to Christianity, the star with six points is known as the Creator’s Star (or the Star of Creation). Each of the points represents the six days of creation, and is also representative of six attributes associated with God;- love, mercy, power, wisdom, majesty, and justice. The six-pointed star is also a symbol of Judaism in modern-day Israel, which is called the Star of David.

– Symbolism of Stars in Christianity, by Yona Williams, Unexplainable.net

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The Seven Old Testament Cornerstones in Brief

The Seven Old Testament Cornerstones: Job 38:6, Psalms 118:22, Psalms 144:12, Isaiah 19:13, Isaiah 28:16, Jeremiah 51:26, Zechariah 10:4

Image1) JOB: On what were its footings set, or who laid its Cornerstone? (Job 38:6)
2) PSALMS: The stone the builders rejected has become the Cornerstone. (Psalms 118:22)
3) PSALMS: May our daughters be as Cornerstones, polished like that of a palace. (Psalms 144:12)
4) ISAIAH: Those who are the Cornerstone of her tribes have led Egypt astray. (Isaiah 19:13)
5) ISAIAH: Behold, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious Cornerstone. (Isaiah 28:16)
6) JEREMIAH: No rock will be taken from you for a Cornerstone, nor any stone for a foundation. (Jeremiah 51:26)
7) ZECHARIAH: From Judah will come the Cornerstone, from him the tent peg, from him the battle bow. (Zechariah 10:4)

The Big, Big Bible called the Jewish Torah

The Big, Big Bible called the Jewish Torah

I don’t think they make them this ‘Big’ anymore except maybe for a Hollywood Movie ‘stage-prop’, but that’s about it. They just don’t write them like they used to…

God bless and Shalom.

Presidential Judeo/Christian Quotables

Hold fast to the Bible as the sheet anchor of your liberties. Write its precepts in your hearts, and practice them in your lives. To the influence of this book are we indebted for all the progress made in true civilization, and to this we must look as our guide in the future.

– Ulysses S. Grant, Former U.S. President (1869-1877)

The Seven Hells of Judaism

>***<The Seven Hells of Judaism>***<

Hell has Seven divisions, one beneath the other. They are called Sheol, Abaddon, Beer Shahat, Tit ha-Yawen, Sha’are Mawet, Sha’are Zalmawet, and Gehenna.

– The Legends of the Jews, Louis Ginzberg

The Seven Hells of Judaism
1) Sheol
2) Abaddon
3) Beer Shahat
4) Tit ha-Yawen
5) Sha’are Mawet
6) Sha’are Zalmawet
7) Gehenna
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Joshua b. Levi stated: ‘Gehenna has Seven names and they are: Nether-world, Destruction, Pit, Tumultuous Pit, Miry Clay, Shadow of Death, and the Underworld.’

– Babylonian Talmud, ‘Erubin 19a

The Seven Hells in Judaism according to the Talmud
!) Nether-world
2) Destruction
3) Pit
4) Tumultuous Pit
5) Miry Clay
6) Shadow of Death
7) Underworld

– Babylonian Talmud, ‘Erubin 19a
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>***<The Seven Hells of Judaism>***<

The Judeo/Christian Tradition’s Parrots of Paganism

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The Archangels of the Four Corners
1) Michael in the South
2) Raphael in the East
3) Gabriel in the West
4) Uriel in the North

Roman, Greek, British, and Egyptian Paganism
1) Helios, Apollo, Gwydion, Anubis
2) Jupiter, Zeus, Lugh, Osiris
3) Diana, Artemis, Arianrhod, Isis
4) Hecate, Persephone, Rhiannon, Nephtys

Understanding the Differences between the Star of David and the Seal of Solomon

In Medieval Jewish, Islamic and Christian legends, the Seal of Solomon was a magical signet ring said to have…the symbol now called the Star of David (hexagram), often within a circle, usually with the two triangles interlaced (hence chiral) rather than intersecting.

– Seal of Solomon, Opentopia, Encycl.opentopia.com

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When one looks closely enough at the picture above, the differences between the Star of David (on the Left) and the Seal of Solomon (on the Right) should become readily apparent. By tradition, the Star of David has only 2-Dimensional OVERLAPPING (or intersecting) triangles, while the Seal of Solomon always has 3-Dimensional INTERWOVEN (or interlaced) triangles. Because of this, the Seal of Solomon may also sometimes be called the Star of David, although this remains technically incorrect. On the other hand, the Seal of Solomon, by definition, MUST appear to have interwoven triangles, otherwise it is, by definition, just another Star of David.According to legend, King Solomon supposedly took the rather simple, two-dimensional Star of David he inherited from his Royal father and managed to improve upon it by having the two opposite triangles appear as if they were interwoven with one another. Thus, the Star of David then became the Seal of Solomon and the rest, as they say, is history. A rather interesting take on the very real differences between the Star of David and the Seal of Solomon reads as follows:
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Uniting the Water Triangle [facing downwards] with the Fire Triangle [facing upwards], the Hexagram is formed. It forms a six pointed star also known as the Seal of Solomon. This symbol is a [different type of] Star of David, the national symbol of Israel (God’s chosen nation). The difference between the Star of David and the seal [of Solomon] is the triangles which make up the seal [Solomon] interlock and the two triangles of the Star of David lie flat against each other.

– Hexagram, TheForbiddenKnowledge.com
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The traditional understanding that the Star of David and the Seal of Solomon have fundamental differences in both their origins and visual appearances, seems to have been nearly lost in modern times. What’s most frustrating is that more a few modern dictionaries have gotten the essential differences between these two distinct types of hexagrams completely wrong, thus misleading everybody. The biggest visual clue is the way that the Seal of Solomon’s triangular lines look like they are either above or beneath one another without ever truly intersecting. Apparently, this was never the case with the Star of David. To be specific, King David used the symbol as a short form of his written signature and as a battle insignia painted on the shields of his fellow Israelite soldiers. In both cases, the iconographic complexity seen in the Seal of Solomon was never really needed and therefore never developed. In contrast, the Seal of Solomon was thought to have been an actual Royal Seal used throughout King Solomon’s reign, a hand-held device which stamped an image upon either a puddle of wax, or clay, or even a form of paper made with animal skins. These Seals were usually custom-made by professional artists and were thus far more complex in appearance than any written signature or hand-drawn war emblem. In truth, one could say that both symbols were simply different versions of the Star of David. However, the Seal of Solomon has always been depicted with three-dimensional, interwoven (or interlaced) triangles. It is most unfortunate that literally no one these days really knows, or even cares, about what a Seal of Solomon actually is anyway. However, for the sake of precision, one should define the Star of David as being comprised of OVERLAPPING triangles, just as the Seal of Solomon (Solomon’s Seal)should always have the appearance of INTERLACED (or INTERWOVEN) triangles instead. The actual, and factually correct, dictionary definitions of these two emblems are listed below:
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(Star of David) n. – A symbol consisting of two OVERLAPPED equilateral triangles forming a star with six points, used as a symbol of Judaism. It is also called Magen David, Mogen David, and Shield of David, and is shaped identically to the hexagram and Solomon’s seal. It is used on the flag of the modern state of Israel.

– Collaborative International Dictionary of English, Dictionary.net

(Solomon’s Seal) n. – A mystic symbol consisting of two INTERLACED triangles forming a star with six points, often with one triangle dark and one light, symbolic of the union of soul and body. It is shaped identically to the hexagram and Star of David, distinguished only in its usage.

– Collaborative International Dictionary of English, Dictionary.net
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A Jewish Seal of Solomon with interwoven triangles carved upon a building stone recovered from a Jewish Synagogue which dates anywhere from 200 to 400 A.D.

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Among the various myths and legends concerning this age-old Biblical symbol, two of them stand out in particular. The first one concerns the reasons behind why the hexagram was ever called a star (or shield), while the second story explains the intricate three-dimensional pattern seen on the Seal of Solomon, but usually never with the Star of David. Now as to why the hexagram was ever called a Star, the main reason should be quite obvious to most observers. As nearly everybody would agree, the six-pointed shape itself bear a striking visual resemblance to the twinkling effect one experiences when looking directly at either a star, or the sun, through a somewhat hazy atmosphere.

Twinkle (Upward Triangle), Twinkle (Downward Triangle) little star, how I wonder what you are (Star of David). Up above the world so high (Upward Triangle), like a diamond in the sky (Downward Triangle)…

– An interpretation of the song ‘Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star’

There is also a Biblical reason why the hexagram has been called a star and it concerns a certain, obscure prophecy found in the Book of Numbers. Keeping in mind that this was written long before King David was ever born, the relevant verse talks about an unknown future leader of Israel who will rise to power and go on to defeat the traditional enemies of the Israelites- the Moabites for example. This future hero is metaphorically described as ‘a Star’ which ‘shall come forth from Jacob’, obviously meaning a yet-to-born descendant from the one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Because of the importance of the Davidic Kingdom, quite a few scholars claim this passage from Numbers should be seen as a direct reference to the later military success and subsequent rule of King David. Indeed, David official founding of the Kingdom of Israel in Jerusalem was the first event of extreme significance which had occurred in Israel since the time period recorded in the Book of Numbers. Yet the question remains as to why the hexagram, rather than David himself, is the ‘Star’ mentioned in Scriptures. The best, and probably only correct answer to this is that the original Star of David served as his personalized signature- comprised of two triangular Hebrew letters written on top of each other with one of them turned upside down. In short, the hexagram was simply a uniquely clever way David wrote the first and last initials to his own name. Therefore, the claim that the six-pointed hexagram used for David’s name was also a perfect symbolic representation of the Biblically prophesied ‘Star’ of ‘Jacob’ happens to be fairly logical, at least in a metaphorical sense. Also, because the Bible just so happens to be filled to the brim with metaphors, this legendary explanation may indeed be the real truth behind the origins of the six-pointed Star.
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STAR OF DAVID: I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near. A STAR shall come forth from Jacob. A scepter shall rise from Israel and shall crush the corners of Moab, and destroy all the sons of Sheth.

– Numbers 24:17

SEAL OF SOLOMON: Place me like a SEAL upon your heart, like a SEAL on your arm. For love is as strong as death, its jealousy unyielding as the grave. It burns like blazing fire, like a mighty flame.

– Song of Solomon 8:6

A Christian Seal of Solomon with interwoven triangles etched in marble from a Byzantine Christian Church (400-630 A.D.) uncovered at Khirbet Sufa, located in the northern Negev Desert of modern Israel.

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Turning to the Judeo/Christian legends surrounding the Seal of Solomon and the reason behind the change in name from Father (Star of David) to Son (Seal of Solomon), one finds the same basic underlying storyline, regardless of whether or not the specific Star of David folklore comes from Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. First, as previously mentioned, the more complex looking six-pointed star with interwoven triangles simply Solomon’s way of improving upon his father David’s original design for their family coat-of-arms. This three-dimensional hexagram was also a far more appropriate insignia for a King of Israel and his Royal family to have as their personal seal. Even so, there was also a deeper, more profound reason behind the interwoven appearance of the Seal of Solomon’s two interlaced triangles. Apparently, this specific design served as a visual talisman providing spiritual protection and control against the forces of evil. Not only was the Seal thought to ward against, or scare off, demons and other evil spirits, it also helped to trap, contain, and control them- thus rendering them harmless to mere mortals. To truly understand how and why this worked, notice how the Seal’s interlaced lines have an eerie, maze-like appearance to them, going back and forth, above and behind each other, in a ceaseless, never-ending pattern. This infinite sense of complexity was said to cause disorientation and utter confusion in any demon who dared to look directly at the symbol. More than two thousand years later, the Medieval Christians (as well as Jews) also put their trust in the Seal of Solomon, believing it provided ample protection from the forces of darkness. Three different online sources confirm the ‘magical’ history of this symbol:
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The hexagram, as the Seal of Solomon, is generally…believed to have protective powers and magical properties…[It] has a long history of providing protection from demons and evil spirits. In some magical practices, it is associated with exorcisms.

– Who Knew Two Triangles Could Do So Much?: The Hexagram, by Rebecca, themagicalbuffet.com

The Seal of Solomon dates back to the Bronze Ages and is a powerful symbol with many mystical and magickal qualities…the Seal of Solomon is believed to offer protection against both enemies and the evil eye, control spirits, and bring good luck in all aspects of life.

– Seal of Solomon, Amulet Power, Angelfire.com

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Turning to the Judeo/Christian legends surrounding the Seal of Solomon and the reason behind the change in name from Father (Star of David) to Son (Seal of Solomon), one finds the same basic underlying storyline, regardless of whether or not the specific Star of David folklore comes from Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. First, as previously mentioned, the more complex looking six-pointed star with interwoven triangles simply Solomon’s way of improving upon his father David’s original design for their family coat-of-arms. This three-dimensional hexagram was also a far more appropriate insignia for a King of Israel and his Royal family to have as their personal seal. Even so, there was also a deeper, more profound reason behind the interwoven appearance of the Seal of Solomon’s two interlaced triangles. Apparently, this specific design served as a visual talisman providing spiritual protection and control against the forces of evil. Not only was the Seal thought to ward against, or scare off, demons and other evil spirits, it also helped to trap, contain, and control them- thus rendering them harmless to mere mortals. To truly understand how and why this worked, notice how the Seal’s interlaced lines have an eerie, maze-like appearance to them, going back and forth, above and behind each other, in a ceaseless, never-ending pattern. This infinite sense of complexity was said to cause disorientation and utter confusion in any demon who dared to look directly at the symbol. More than two thousand years later, the Medieval Christians (as well as Jews) also put their trust in the Seal of Solomon, believing it provided ample protection from the forces of darkness. Three different online sources confirm the ‘magical’ history of this symbol:
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The hexagram, as the Seal of Solomon, is generally…believed to have protective powers and magical properties…[It] has a long history of providing protection from demons and evil spirits. In some magical practices, it is associated with exorcisms.

– Who Knew Two Triangles Could Do So Much?: The Hexagram, by Rebecca, themagicalbuffet.com

The Seal of Solomon dates back to the Bronze Ages and is a powerful symbol with many mystical and magickal qualities…the Seal of Solomon is believed to offer protection against both enemies and the evil eye, control spirits, and bring good luck in all aspects of life.

– Seal of Solomon, Amulet Power, Angelfire.com

In the middle Ages it was common to find amulets and talismans which reproduced the Seal of Solomon…It was believed that these magic drawings protected the wearer from the influence of demons and evil spirits, or just bad luck. It was also common to record the seal on a frame or lintel of the entrance door to homes…with the same protective character against the spirits or to potential fires.

– The Hexagram, Star of David or Seal of Solomon, Looking4thetruth77.blogspot.com
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One might apt to conclude that both the form and function of the Seal of Solomon were in perfectly alignment, thus explaining the legendary spiritual powers this symbol was believed to possess. These days, Christians (and Jews) are free to choose to believe or disbelieve in its significance, yet even today, in the 21st century, the Seal’s actual power over the minds of men (and women) has yet to disappear completely. Indeed, look at the dozens and dozens, perhaps even hundreds, if not thousands, of modern, educated adults who still use this symbol to practice magic and/or witchcraft. Even if one doesn’t believe in any magic whatsoever, there still has to be a reason why so many fellow humans have such an on-going obsession with this one particular geometric shape. as if by its very appearance the supernatural will then become possible. A more balanced view concerning the power of the Star of David/Seal of Solomon can be found in the Catholic Church of today. Mentioning the Star of David by name, the official Catechism of the Catholic Church reads as follows:
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The magi’s coming to Jerusalem in order to pay homage to the king of the Jews shows that they seek in Israel, in the messianic light of the STAR OF DAVID, the one who will be king of the nations. Their coming means that pagans can discover Jesus and worship him as Son of God and Savior of the world only by turning towards the Jews and receiving from them the messianic promise as contained in the Old Testament.

– Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church

AT TOP LEFT: A close-up picture of Pope Benedict XVI’s Papal hat known as a mitre. The six-pointed hexagram located in the front of the head-piece appears to be a Seal of Solomon, rather than a Star of David.
AT TOP RIGHT: The yellow star of David on the left side has the German word Jude (Jew in English) written in the center. The blue Star of David (Magen David in Hebrew) on the right side is found upon the official, national flag of Israel.
AT BOTTOM LEFT: These two black hexagrams in a all-white background are basic representations of a Star of David, seen on the left side, and a Seal of Solomon, seen on the right.
AT BOTTOM RIGHT: A six-pointed hexagram carved upon one of the walls of St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City, the official capital of the Roman Catholic Church.

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In conclusion, the specific place that the hexagram actually holds in terms of the Judeo/Christian ‘big picture’ shows a long and extensive history of Christian use dating back centuries to the Middle Ages. Hopefully, Christian respect and admiration for this particular emblem will extend itself into an open friendliness, rather than hostility, towards those who still practice and believe in Judaism, This seems to be the general attitude of today’s Catholic Church and the specific and deliberate reference to the Star of David in the most recent edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church (just cited above) is even further proof that times have changed for the better.
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A Book of Genesis Timeline according to Judaism

 

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the Cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

– Zechariah 10:3-4

The following timeline describes the people and events as recorded in the Book of Genesis as understood by Judaism. It was compiled utilizing information taken from three different Jewish websites: the Jewish Virtual Library.org, Being Jewish.com, and Akhlah.com. All three of these websites were in basic agreement as to the dates, but some included specific events that others did not. Thus, this timeline is a summation of all three put together into one comprehensive list. All dates have been translated from the Hebrew calendar into what is now called BCE- Before the Common Era. To be specific, this particular timeline starts at 3760 BCE and ends at 1452 BCE. It begins with the creation of Adam and ends with the death of Joseph.
NOTE: All dates are tentative and come from ‘Before the Common Era’ usually designated as B.C.E. or BCE.
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Judaism – Timeline for the Book of Genesis

3760 — The LORD God creates Adam and Eve
3630 — Birth of Seth
3525 — Birth of Enosh
3435 — Birth of Kenan
3365 — Birth of Mahalalel
3300 — Birth of Jared
3138 — Birth of Enoch
3074 — Birth of Methuselah
2886 — Birth of Lamech
2831 — Death of Adam, the first man
2773 — Ascension of Enoch into Heaven
2718 — Death of Seth
2704 — Birth of Noah
2204 — Vision of Noah. Noah begins construction on the Ark
2202 — Birth of Shem, first-born son of Noah
2109 — Death of Lamech
2104 — Death of Methuselah
2102 — The Great Flood begins
1882 — Birth of Terah
1813 — Birth of Abraham
1802 — Birth of Sarah
1765 — Attempted building of the Tower of Babel
1755 — Death of Noah
1743 — God’s Covenant with Abraham begins
1737 — Abraham leaves Haran with Sarah and Lot and migrates to Bethel in Canaan
1736 — Abraham flees to Egypt due to famine, Melchizedek blesses Abraham
1726 — Birth of Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar
1713 — Birth of Isaac, Circumcision of the House of Abraham, Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
1677 — Near Sacrifice of Isaac, Death of Sarah, wife of Abraham
1672 — Issac marries Rebecca
1653 — Birth of Jacob and Esau
1638 — Death of Abraham
1602 — Death of Shem
1590 — Isaac blesses Jacob, instead of his brother Esau
1589 — Death of Ishmael
1580 — Jacob begins working for his uncle Laban
1569 — Jacob marries Leah and Rachel
1565 — Birth of Levi, son of Jacob
1564 — Birth of Judah, son of Jacob
1562 — Birth of Joseph, son of Jacob
1560 — Jacob and family return to Canaan, Jacob is renamed Israel, Jacob and Esau reconcile
1546 — Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers
1533 — Death of Isaac, Death of Rachel, wife of Jacob
1532 — Joseph becomes Viceroy of Egypt
1524 — Seven Years of Famine begins
1523 — Jacob and family join Joseph and settle in Egypt
1516 — Seven Years of Famine ends
1505 — Death of Jacob
1452 — Death of Joseph
SOURCE(S):
1) Timeline of Jewish History, Jewish Virtual Library
2) Jewish Timeline, Akhlah.com
3) Jewish History Timeline Chart, BeingJewish.com
May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus

A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism


Six hundred and Thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty-five negative precepts, corresponding to the number of solar days in the year, and two hundred and forty-eight positive precepts, corresponding to the number of parts to a man’s body.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 23b


For most observers, 613 seems like such a strange, even random, number for anyone, let alone an entire world religion, to have held in such high regard for so long. Yet, ask any devout Jew of today how many Commandments their religion has and their answer would be no different from the Rabbis who ran the elite Jewish academies over 1,500 years previously. Back then, and as it still is now, the religion of Judaism believed in 613 Commandments and the preponderance of historical evidence seems to suggest this exact number has some extremely old roots, One could even contend the Jewish tradition of numbering their religious commandments at exactly 613 is, by any standard, a truly ancient practice that has stood the test of time, even unto this very day.

Thus are we introduced to 613, the magic number of Torah scholarship and Jewish living. Its source is the Babylonian Talmud; its importance is echoed in a vast body of scholarly literature spanning a millennium; its potential as an aid to studying and remembering Torah deserves our careful analysis.

– ‘Origin’ of 613 Commandments, by Rabbi Mendel Weinbach

The greatest proof of this particular number’s authenticity can be found in the pages of the Babylonian Talmud (Compiled 200-500 A,D.) where the 613 Commandments is mentioned at least six different times in five separate volumes of this comprehensive Jewish collection of religious doctrine (Makkoth 23b, Yebamoth 47b and 62a, Nedarim 25a, Shabbath 87a, Shebu’oth 29a). Thus, it must said the numerical tradition of precisely 613 Judaic laws, and no more or less than this, has to be at least 1,500 years old, if not far older. That’s quite a long time for a number, especially a rather large, number like 613 to have remained the same, especially when it comes to the law, which been subject to change since the dawn of civilization. Yet for Judaism, these laws are said to have come from God Himself and there seems to be little reason not to believe them.

NOTE: The following 613 Commandments of Judaism come from Sefer Hamitzvot (Book of Commandments), written by the great Jewish sage Maimonides (12th century). They are divided into 14 Books and further subdivided by different subjects. With that said, here are the 613 Commandments of Judaism, as they have been understood for many centuries:
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BOOK ONE: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE

Fundamentals of Torah:

1. To know there is a God (Ex. 20:2)

2. Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him (Ex. 20:3)

3. To know that He is one (Deut. 6:4)

4. To love Him (Deut. 6:5)

5. To fear Him (Deut. 10:20)

6. To sanctify His Name (Lev. 22:32)

7. Not to profane His Name (Lev. 22:32)

8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name (Deut. 12:4)

9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name (Deut. 18:15)

10. Not to test the prophet unduly (Deut. 6:16)

Laws of Character

11. To emulate His ways     (Deut. 28:9)

12. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20)

13. To love Jews (Lev. 19:18)

14. To love converts (Deut. 10:19)

15. Not to hate fellow Jews (Lev. 19:17)

16. To reprove (Lev. 19:17)

17. Not to embarrass others (Lev. 19:17)

18. Not to oppress the weak (Ex. 21:22)

19. Not to speak derogatorily of others (Lev. 19:16)

20. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)

21. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)

Laws of Torah Study

22. To learn Torah (Deut. 6:7)

23. To honor those who teach and know Torah (Lev. 19:32)

Laws of Idolatry and Paganism

24. Not to inquire into idolatry (Lev. 19:4)

25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see (Num. 15:39)

26. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27)

27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped (Ex. 20:5)

28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God (Ex. 20:5)

29. Not to make an idol for yourself (Ex. 20:4)

30. Not to make an idol for others (Lev. 19:4)

31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes (Ex. 20:20)

32. Not to turn a city to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)

33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship (Deut. 13:17)

34. Not to rebuild it as a city (Deut. 13:17)

35. Not to derive benefit from it (Deut. 13:18)

36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship (Deut. 13:12)

37. Not to love the missionary )Deut. 13:9)

38. Not to cease hating the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

39. Not to save the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

40. Not to say anything in his defense (Deut. 13:9)

41. Not to refrain from incriminating him (Deut. 13:9)

42. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry (Deut. 13:14)

43. Not to listen to a false prophet (Deut. 13:4)

44. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God (Deut. 18:20)

45. Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet (Deut. 18:22)

46. Not to swear in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13)

47. Not to perform ov (medium) (Lev. 19:31)

48. Not to perform yidoni (magical seer) (Lev. 19:31)

49. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)

50. Not to erect a column in a public place of worship (Deut. 16:22)

51. Not to bow down on smooth stone (Lev. 26:1)

52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard (Deut. 16:21)

53. To destroy idols and their accessories (Deut. 12:2)

54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories 9Deut. 7:26)

55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols (Deut. 7:250

56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters (Deut. 7:2)

57. Not to show favor to them (Deut. 7:2)

58. Not to let them dwell in our land (Ex. 23:330

59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing (Lev. 20:23)

60. Not to be superstitious (Lev. 19:26)

61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. (Deut. 18:10)

62. Not to engage in astrology (Lev. 19:26)

63. Not to mutter incantations (Deut. 18:11)

64. Not to attempt to contact the dead (Deut. 18:11)

65. Not to consult the ov (Deut. 18:11)

66. Not to consult the yidoni (Deut. 18:11)

67. Not to perform acts of magic (Deut. 18:10)

68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head (Lev. 19:270

69. Men must not shave their beards with a razor 9Lev. 19:27)

70. Men must not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

71. Women must not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

72. Not to tattoo the skin (Lev. 19:28)

73. Not to tear the skin in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

74. Not to make a bald spot in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

Laws of Repentance

75. To repent and confess wrongdoings (Num. 5:7)

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BOOK TWO: THE BOOK OF LOVE OF GOD

Laws of Reading the Shema

76. To say the Shema twice daily (Deut. 6:7)

Laws of Prayer and Kohanic Blessings

77. To serve the Almighty with prayer daily (Ex. 23:25)

78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily (Num. 6:23)

Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza and Sefer Torah

79. To wear tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)

80. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)

81. To put a mezuzah on each door post (Deut. 6:9)

82. Each male must write a Sefer Torah (Deut. 31:19)

83. The king must have a separate Sefer Torah for himself (Deut. 17:18)

Laws of Tzitzit

84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments (Num. 15:38)

Laws of Blessings

85. To bless the Almighty after eating (Deut. 8:10)

Laws of Circumcision

86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth (Lev. 12:3)

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BOOK THREE: THE BOOK OF SEASONS

Laws of the Sabbath

87. To rest on the seventh day (Ex. 23:12)

88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day (Ex. 20:10)

89. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3)

90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat (Ex. 16:29)

91. To sanctify the day with Kiddush and Havdallah (Ex. 20:8)

Laws of Eruvin (Rabbinical)

Laws of Yom Kippur Rest

92. To rest from prohibited labor (Lev. 23:32)

93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32)

94. To afflict yourself on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29)

95. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29)

Laws of Festival Rest

96. To rest on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:7)

97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

100. To rest on Shavuot     (Lev. 23:21)

101. Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot (Lev. 23:21)

102. To rest on Rosh Hashana  (Lev. 23:24)

103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashana (Lev. 23:25)

104. To rest on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

105. Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

106. To rest on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

Laws of Chometz and Matzah

108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)

109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan (Ex. 12:15)

110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 13:3)

111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 12:20)

112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 13:7)

113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 12:19)

114. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)

115. To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night (Ex. 13:8)

Laws of Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav

116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashana) (Num. 29:1)

117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)

118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days (Lev. 23:40)

Laws of Shekalim

119. Each man must give a half shekel annually (Ex. 30:13)

Laws of Sanctification of Months

120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins (Ex. 12:2)

Laws of Fasts

121. To afflict and cry out before God in times of catastrophe (Num. 10:9)

Laws of Megillah and Chanukah (Rabbinical)

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BOOK FOUR: THE BOOK OF WOMEN

Laws of Marriage

122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin (Deut. 22:13)

123. Not to have relations with women not thus married (Deut. 23:18)

124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife (Ex. 21:10)

125. To have children with one’s wife (Gen 1:28)

Laws of Divorce

126. To issue a divorce by means of a “get” document (Deut. 24:1)

127. A man must not remarry his wife after she has married someone else (Deut. 24:4)

Laws of Yivum and Chalitzah (Levirate Marriage)

128. To do yibum (marry childless brother’s widow) (Deut. 25:5)

129. To do chalitzah (freeing a widow from yibum) (Deut. 25:9)

130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (Deut. 25:5)

Laws of Women

131. The court must fine one who seduces a maiden (Ex. 22:15-16)

132. The rapist must marry the maiden (if she chooses) (Deut. 22:29)

133. He is not allowed to divorce her (Deut. 22:29)

134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife (Deut. 22:19)

135. He must not divorce her (Deut. 22:19)

Laws of Sotah (Suspect Wife)

136. To fulfill the laws of the Sotah (Num. 5:30)

137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

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BOOK FIVE: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS

Laws of Forbidden Relations

139. Not to have relations with your mother (Lev. 18:7)

140. Not to have relations with your father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)

141. Not to have relations with your sister (Lev. 18:9)

142. Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:110

143. Not to have relations with your son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)

144. Not to have relations with your daughter (Lev. 18:10)

145. Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:100

146. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter (Lev. 18:17)

147. Not to have relations with a woman and her son’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

148. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

149. Not to have relations with your father’s sister (Lev. 18:12)

150. Not to have relations with your mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)

151. Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:14)

152. Not to have relations with your son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)

153. Not to have relations with your brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)

154. Not to have relations with your wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)

155. A man must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

156. A woman must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

157. Not to have homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22)

158. Not to have homosexual relations with your father (Lev. 18:7)

159. Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)

160. Not to have relations with a married woman (Lev. 18:20)

161. Not to have relations with a menstrually impure woman (Lev. 18:19)

162. Not to marry non-Jews (Deut. 7:3)

163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:4)

164. Don’t keep a third generation Egyptian convert from marrying into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:8-9)

165. Not to refrain from marrying a third generation Edomite convert (Deut. 23:8-9)

166. Not to let a mamzer marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:3)

167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:2)

168. Not to castrate any male (including animals) (Lev. 22:24)

169. The High Priest must not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)

170. The High Priest must not have relations with a widow even outside of marriage (Lev. 21:15)

171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden (Lev. 21:13)

172. A Kohen must not marry a divorcee (Lev. 21:7)

173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who had forbidden relations) (Lev. 21:7)

174. A priest must not marry a chalalah (party to or product of 169-172) (Lev. 21:7)

175. Not to make pleasurable contact with any forbidden woman (Lev. 18:6)

Laws of Forbidden Foods

176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:2)

177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Deut. 14:11)

178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:9)

179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:21)

180. Not to eat non-kosher animals (Lev. 11:4)

181. Not to eat non-kosher fowl (Lev. 11:13)

182. Not to eat non-kosher fish (Lev. 11:11)

183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects (Deut. 14:19)

184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land (Lev. 11:41)

185. Not to eat non-kosher maggots (Lev. 11:44)

186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground  (Lev. 11:42)

187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish (Lev. 11:43)

188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter (Deut. 14:21)

189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)

190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded (Ex. 22:30)

191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature (Deut 12:23)

192. Not to eat blood (Lev. 3:17)

193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals (Lev. 3:17)

194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh (Gen. 32:33)

195. Not to eat meat and milk cooked together (Ex. 23:19)

196. Not to cook meat and milk together (Ex. 34:26)

197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years (Lev. 19:23)

201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

202. Not to eat untithed fruits (Lev. 22:15)

203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols (Deut. 32:38)

Laws of Slaughtering

204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it (Deut. 12:21)

205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day (Lev. 22:28

206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth (Lev. 17:13)

207. Not to take the mother bird from her children (Deut. 22:6)

208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest (Deut. 22:7)

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BOOK SIX: THE BOOK OF OATHS

Laws of Oaths

209. Not to swear falsely in God’s Name (Lev. 19:12)

210. Not to take God’s Name in vain (Ex. 20:7)

211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you (Lev. 19:11)

212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim (Lev. 19:11)

213. To swear in God’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court (Deut. 10:20)

Laws of Vows

214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed (Deut. 23:24)

215. Not to break oaths or vows (Num. 30:3)

216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah (Num. 30:3)

Laws of The Nazir

217. The Nazir must let his hair grow (Num. 6:5)

218.  He must not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)

219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar (Num. 6:3)

220. He must not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)

221. He must not eat raisins (Num. 6:3)

222. He must not eat grape seeds (Num. 6:4)

223. He must not eat grape skins (Num. 6:4)

224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpse ((Num. 6:6)

225. He must not come into contact with the dead (Num. 6:7)

226. He must shave after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite period (Num. 6:9)

Laws of Estimated Values and Vows

227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah (Lev. 27:2)

228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals(Lev. 27:12-13)

229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses (Lev. 27:14)

230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields (Lev. 27:16)

231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) (Lev. 27:28

232. Not to sell the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

233. Not to redeem the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

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BOOK SEVEN: THE BOOK OF SEEDS

Laws of Mixed Species

234. Not to plant diverse seeds together (Lev. 19:19)

235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

236. Not to crossbreed animals (Lev. 19:19)

237. Not to work different animals together (Deut. 22:10)

238. Not to wear sha’atnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen (Deut. 22:11)

Laws of Gifts to the Poor

239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor (Lev. 19:10)

240. Not to reap that corner (Lev. 19:9)

241. To leave gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

242. Not to gather the gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

243. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

245. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field (Deut. 24:19)

248. Not to retrieve them (Deut. 24:19)

249. To separate the tithe for the poor (Deut. 14:28)

250. To give charity (Deut. 15:8)

251. Not to withhold charity from the poor (Deut. 15:7)

252. To set aside Trumah Gedolah (tithe for the Kohen) (Deut. 18:4)

253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe (Num. 18:26)

254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order (Ex. 22:28)

255. A non-Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Trumah (Ex. 12:48)

258. An impure Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:4)

259. A chalalah must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:12)

Laws of Ma’aser

260. To set aside Ma’aser each planting year and give it to a Levite (Num. 18:24)

Laws of The Second Tithe and Fourth Year Produce

261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma’aser Sheni) (Deut. 14:22)

262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment (Deut. 26:14)

263. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni while impure (Deut. 26:14)

264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma’aser Sheni (Deut. 26:14)

265. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

266. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

267. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma’aser Sheni (Lev. 19:24)

269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year (Deut. 26:13)

Laws of First Fruits and other Kohanic Gifts

270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple (Ex. 23:19)

271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation (Deut. 26:5)

273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen (Num. 15:20)

274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals to a Kohen (Deut. 18:3)

275. To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen (Deut. 18:4)

276. To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen (Num. 18:15)

277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen (Ex. 13:13)

278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it (Ex. 13:13)

Laws of The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth (Ex. 34:21)

280. Not to work the land during the seventh year (Lev. 25:4)

281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year (Lev. 25:4)

282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner (Lev. 25:5)

283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way (Lev. 25:5)

284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year (Ex. 23:11)

285. To release all loans during the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)

286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower (Deut. 15:2)

287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss (Deut. 15:9)

288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years (Lev. 25:8)

289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:10)

290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves (Lev. 25:9)

291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties (Lev. 25:24)

295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely (Lev. 25:23)

296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities (Lev. 25:29)

297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in (Deut. 18:1)

298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war (Deut. 18:1)

299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields (Num. 35:2)

300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and after the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:34)

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BOOK EIGHT: THE BOOK OF SERVICE

Laws of The Temple

301. To build a Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)

302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal (Ex. 20:22)

303. Not to climb steps to the altar (Ex. 20:23)

304. To show reverence to the Temple (Lev. 19:30)

305. To guard the Temple area (Num. 18:2)

306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded (Num. 18:5)

Laws of Temple Vessels and Employees

307. To prepare the anointing oil (Ex. 30:31)

308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

309. Not to anoint with anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

310. Not to reproduce the incense formula (Ex. 30:37)

311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense (Ex. 30:9)

312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders (Num. 7:9)

313. Not to remove the staves from the ark (Ex. 25:15)

314. The Levites must work in the Temple (Num. 18:23)

315. No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite (Num. 18:3)

316. To dedicate the Kohen for service (Lev. 21:8)

317. The kohanic work shifts must be equal during holidays (Deut. 18:6-8)

318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service (Ex. 28:2)

319. Not to tear the priestly garments (Ex. 28:32)

320. The breastplate must not be loosened from the Efode (Ex. 28:28)

Laws of Entering the Temple

321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated (Lev. 10:9)

322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with long hair (Lev. 10:6)

323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes (Lev. 10:6)

324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately (Lev. 16:2)

325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service (Lev. 10:7)

326. To send the impure from the Temple (Num. 5:2)

327. Impure people must not enter the Temple (Num. 5:3)

328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area (Deut. 23:11)

329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple (Lev. 22:2)

330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service (Lev. 22:7)

331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service (Ex. 30:19)

332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar (Lev. 21:23)

333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve (Lev.21:17)

334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve (Lev. 21:17

335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve (Num. 18:4)

Laws of Restrictions Concerning Sacrifices

336. To offer only unblemished animals (Lev. 22:21)

337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar (Lev. 22:20)

338. Not to slaughter it (Lev. 22:22)

339. Not to sprinkle its blood (Lev. 22:24)

340. Not to burn its fat (Lev. 22:22)

341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal (Deut. 17:1)

342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews (Lev. 22:25)

343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals (Lev. 22:21)

344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified (Deut. 12:15)

345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)

346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog (Deut. 23:19)

347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar (Lev. 2:11)

348. To salt all sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

Laws of Sacrificial Procedure

350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 1:3)

351. Not to eat its meat (Deut. 12:17)

352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering (Lev. 6:18)

353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering (Lev. 6:23

354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering (Lev. 5:8)

355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering (Lev. 7:1)

356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple (Ex. 29:33)

357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard (Deut. 12:17)

358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat (Ex. 29:33)

359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering (Lev. 7:11)

360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood (Deut. 12:17)

361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 2:1)

362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 5:11)

363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 3:11)

364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest (Lev. 6:16)

365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread (Lev. 6:10)

366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings (Lev. 6:9)

367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival (Deut. 12:5-6)

368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow (Deut. 23:22)

369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple (Deut. 12:11)

370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple (Deut. 12:26)

371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard (Lev. 17:4)

372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard (Deut. 12:13)

Laws of Constant and Additional Offerings

373. To offer two lambs every day (Num. 28:3)

374. To light a fire on the altar every day (Lev. 6:6)

375. Not to extinguish this fire (Lev. 6:6)

376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day (Lev. 6:3)

377. To burn incense every day (Ex 30:7)

378. To light the Menorah every day (Ex. 27:21)

379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day (Lev. 6:13)

380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat (Num 28:9)

381. To make the show bread (Ex. 25:30)

382. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Num. 28:11)

383. To bring additional offerings on Passover (Num. 28:19)

384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (Lev. 23:10)

385. Each man must count the Omer – seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought     (Lev. 23:15)

386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot (Num. 28:26)

387. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice (Lev. 23:17)

388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana (Num. 29:2)

389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur (Num. 29:8)

390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot (Num. 29:13)

391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret (Num. 29:35)

Laws of Disqualified Offerings

392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished (Deut. 14.3)

393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions (Lev. 7:18)

394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them (Lev. 22:30)

395. Not to eat from that which was left over (Lev. 19:8)

396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure (Lev. 7:19)

397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices (Lev. 7:20)

398. To burn the leftover sacrifices (Lev. 7:17)

399. To burn all impure sacrifices (Lev. 7:19)

Laws of Yom Kippur Service

400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshat Acharei Mot (Lev. 16:3)

Laws of Misusing Sanctified Property

401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice (Lev. 5:16)

402. Not to work consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

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BOOK NINE: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES

Laws of Pascal Sacrifice

404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time (Ex. 12:6)

405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven (Ex. 23:18)

406. Not to leave the fat overnight (Ex. 23:18)

407. To slaughter the second paschal lamb (Num. 9:11)

408. To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the 15th of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)

409. To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar (Num.9:11)

410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled (Ex. 12:9)

411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group (Ex. 12:46)

412. An apostate must not eat from it (Ex.12:43)

413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it (Ex. 12:45)

414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it (Ex. 12:48

415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering (Ex. 12:46)

416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering (Num. 9:12)

417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning (Ex. 12:10)

418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning (Num. 9:12)

419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th (Deut. 16:4)

Laws of Pilgrim Offerings

420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot (Deut. 16:16)

421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Ex. 23:14)

422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Deut. 16:14)

423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings (Deut. 16:16)

424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites (Deut. 12:19)

425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)

Laws of First Born Animals

426. To set aside the firstborn animals (Ex. 13:12)

427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

428. Not to redeem the firstborn (Num. 18:17)

429. Separate the tithe from animals (Lev. 27:32)

430. Not to redeem the tithe (Lev. 27:33)

Laws of Offerings for Unintentional Transgressions

431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression (Lev. 4:27)

432. Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt (Lev. 5:17-18)

433. Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained (Lev. 5:25)

434. Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) (Lev. 5:7-11)

435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error  (Lev. 4:13)

Laws of Lacking Atonement

436. A woman who had a running issue must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:28-29)

437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 12:6)

438. A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:13-14)

439. A metzora must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh (Lev. 14:10)

Laws of Substitution of Sacrifices

440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)

441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration (Lev. 27:10)

442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another (Lev. 27:26)

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BOOK TEN: THE BOOK OF PURITY

Laws of Impurity of Human Dead

443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead (Num. 19:14)

Laws of The Red Heifer

444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Num. 19:2)

445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water (Num. 19:21)

Laws of Impurity through Tzara’at

446. Rule the laws of human tzara’at as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 13:12)

447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity (Deut. 24:8)

448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair (Lev. 13:33)

449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips (Lev. 13:45)

450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora (Lev. 14:2)

451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification (Lev. 14:9)

452. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of clothing (Lev. 13:47)

453. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of houses (Lev. 13:34)

Laws of Impurity of Reclining and Sitting

454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity (Lev. 15:19)

455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth (Lev. 12:2)

456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running issue (Lev. 15:25)

457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue (Lev. 15:3)

Laws of Other Sources of Impurity

458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast (Lev. 11:39)

459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (Lev. 11:29)

460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (Lev. 15:16)

Laws of Impurity of Food

461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods (Lev. 11:34)

Laws of Vessels (Rabbinical)

Laws of Mikveh

462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikveh to become pure (Lev. 15:16)

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BOOK ELEVEN: THE BOOK OF DAMAGES

Laws of Property Damage

463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox (Ex. 21:28)

464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating (Ex. 22:4)

465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit (Ex. 21:33)

466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire (Ex. 22:5)

Laws of Theft

467. Not to steal money stealthily (Lev. 19:11)

468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief (Ex. 21:37)

469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate (Lev. 19:36)

470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights (Lev. 19:35)

471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use (Deut. 25:13)

472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property (Deut. 19:14)

473. Not to kidnap (Ex. 20:13)

Laws of Robbery and Lost Objects

474. Not to rob openly (Lev. 19:13)

475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt (Lev. 19:13)

476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession (Ex. 20:14)

477. Not to desire another’s possession (Deut. 5:18)

478. Return the robbed object or its value (Lev. 5:23)

479. Not to ignore a lost object (Deut. 22:3)

480. Return the lost object (Deut. 22:1)

481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another’s property (Ex. 21:18)

Laws of Murder and Preservation of Life

482. Not to murder (Ex. 20:13)

483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer (Num. 35:31)

484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge (Num. 35:25)

485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge  (Num. 35:32)

486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial (Num. 35:12)

487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:11)

488. Not to pity the pursuer (Num. 35:12)

489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)

490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access (Deut. 19:3)

491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder (Deut. 21:4)

492. Not to work nor plant that river valley (Deut. 21:4)

493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property (Deut. 22:8)

494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs (Deut. 22:8)

495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) (Lev. 19:14)

496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it (Ex. 23:5)

497. Help others load their beast (Deut. 22:4)

498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) (Deut. 22:4)

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BOOK TWELVE: THE BOOK OF ACQUISITION

Laws of Sales

499. Buy and sell according to Torah law (Lev. 25:14)

500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article (Lev. 25:14)

501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words (Lev. 25:17)

502. Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily (Ex. 22:20)

503. Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words (Ex. 22:20)

Laws of Acquisitions and Gifts (Rabbinical)
Laws of Neighbors (Rabbinical)
Laws of Agents and Partners (Rabbinical)

Laws of Slaves

504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws (Ex. 21:2)

505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold (Lev. 25:42)

506. Not to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:43)

507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:53)

508. Not to have him do menial slave labor (Lev. 25;39)

509. Give him gifts when he goes free (Deut. 15:14)

510. Not to send him away empty-handed (Deut. 15:13)

511. Redeem Jewish maidservants (Ex. 21:8)

512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

513. The master must not sell his maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs (Lev. 25:46)

515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to Israel (Deut. 23:16)

516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge (Deut. 23:16)

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BOOK THIRTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGEMENTS

Laws of Hiring

517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard (Ex. 22:9)

518. Pay wages on the day they were earned (Deut. 24:15)

519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time (Lev. 19:13)

520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works (Deut. 23:25)

521. The worker must not eat while on hired time (Deut. 23:26)

522. The worker must not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)

523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing (Deut. 25:4)

Laws of Borrowing and Depositing

524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower (Ex. 22:13)

525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard (Ex. 22:6)

Laws of Creditor and Debtor

526. Lend to the poor and destitute (Ex. 22:24)

527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don’t have it (Ex. 22:24)

528. Press the idolater for payment (Deut. 15:3)

529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral (Deut. 24:10)

530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed (Deut. 24:13)

531. Not to delay its return when needed (Deut. 24:12)

532. Not to demand collateral from a widow (Deut. 24:17)

533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food (Deut. 24:6)

534. Not to lend with interest (Lev.25:37)

535. Not to borrow with interest (Deut. 23:20)

536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note (Ex. 22:24)

537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest (Deut. 23:21)

Laws of Plaintiff and Defendant

538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier (Ex. 22:8)

Laws of Inheritance

539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance (Num. 27:8)

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BOOK FOURTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGES

Laws of Sanhedrin and Punishments

540. Appoint judges (Deut. 16:18)

541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure (Deut. 1:17)

542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement (Ex. 23:2)

543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required (Ex. 23:2)

544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases (Deut. 23:2)

545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning (Deut. 22:24)

546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning (Lev. 20:14)

547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword (Ex. 21:20)

548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation (Lev. 20:10)

549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry (Deut. 21:22)

550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed (Deut.21:23)

551. Not to delay burial overnight (Deut. 21:23)

552. The court must not let the sorcerer live (Ex. 22:17)

553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer (Ex. 25:2)

554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes (Deut. 25:3)

555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence (Ex. 23:7)

556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime (Deut. 22:26)

557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial (Deut. 19:13)

558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor (Ex. 23;6)

561. A judge must not pervert justice (Lev. 19:15)

562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan (Deut. 24:17)

563. Judge righteously (Lev. 19:15)

564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment (Deut. 1:17)

565. Judges must not accept bribes (Ex. 23:8)

566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present (Ex. 23:1)

567. Not to curse judges (Ex. 22:27)

568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin (Ex. 22:27)

569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew (Lev. 19:14)

Laws of Evidence

570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court (Lev. 5:1)

571. Carefully interrogate the witness  (Deut. 13:15)

572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes (Deut. 19:17)

573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness (Deut. 19:15)

574. Transgressors must not testify (Ex. 23:1)

575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify (Deut. 24:16)

576. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)

577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant (Deut. 19:19)

Laws of Insurgents

578. Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations (Deut. 13:1)

581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part (Deut. 13:1)

582. Not to curse your father and mother (Ex. 21:17)

583. Not to strike your father and mother (Ex. 21:15)

584. Respect your father or mother (Ex. 20:12)

585. Fear your father or mother (Lev. 19:3)

586. Not to be a rebellious son (Deut. 21:18)

Laws of Mourning

587. Mourn for relatives (Lev. 10:19)

588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative (Lev. 21:11)

589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse (Lev. 21:11)

590. A Kohen must not defile himself for anyone except relatives (Lev. 21:1)

Laws of Kings and their Wars

591. Appoint a king from Israel (Deut. 17:15)

592. Not to appoint a convert (Deut. 17:15)

593. The king must not have too many wives (Deut. 17:17)

594. The king must not have too many horses (Deut. 17:16)

595. The king must not have too much silver and gold (Deut. 17:17)

596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:17)

597. Not to let any of them remain alive (Deut. 20:16)

598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people (Deut. 25:17)

600. Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert (Deut. 25:19)

601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt (Deut. 17:16)

602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms (Deut. 20:10)

603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them (Deut. 23:7)

604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege (Deut. 20:19)

605. Prepare latrines outside the camps (Deut. 23:13)

606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with (Deut. 23:14)

607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war (Deut. 20:2)

608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions (Deut. 24:5)

609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military (Deut. 24:5)

610. Not to panic and retreat during battle  (Deut. 20:3)

611. Keep the laws of the captive woman  (Deut. 21:11)

612. Not to sell her into slavery (Deut. 21:14)

613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her (Deut. 21:14)

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NOTE: Some words and phrases cited in the above 613 Commandments were carefully altered and edited by Judas Maccabaeus, the author of this post and publisher of this blog- the Judeo/Christian Tradition. This was done simply to make the English more readable and understandable by the general audience. Even so, the basic meaning of every Commandment that has been edited or re-written remains the same.

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We have been commanded Six hundred and Thirteen commandments: ‘Your people shall be my people’. We are forbidden idolatry: ‘And your God my God’.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 47b

 

Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell

He descended into Hell….

– Nicene Creed (451 A.D.)

+ Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell +
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There came a man, whose appearance was that of a thief, carrying a cross upon his shoulder, shouting from the outside of the door of Hell, saying: ‘Open up so that I may come in.’ And Satan, opening up to him a little, brought the man inside into his dwelling, and again shut the door behind him. And all the Saints saw him most clearly and said to him: ‘Your appearance is that of a robber. Tell us what it is that you carry on your back.’ The answered with humility: ‘Truly I was a thief in all ways; but the Jews hung me up on a cross, along with my Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father most high. I have now come proclaiming Him. He indeed is coming right behind me.’

– Gospel of Nicodemus

Near the end of every Sunday Mass, Roman Catholics join together to recite the exact words of what’s been called either the Nicene Creed, or the extremely similar Apostles’ Creed. They have been during this for nearly 1,700 years. Many other Christian sects do the same. One of the more frightening verses concerning Jesus in this age-old Creed states quite bluntly: ‘He descended into Hell.’ Over the centuries, many believers have probably wondered what exactly does this really mean. Did Jesus Christ really descend into Hell? What happened when He was down there? How did He manage to escape? Why did He even need to go to such a terrible place?

The answers to all these questions can be found in the oft-neglected Christian doctrine known as the Harrowing of Hell. As the basic story-line goes, the LORD Jesus Christ died on the Cross only to find Himself leading an entire army of Angels down the treacherous slopes of Hell. After travelling further and further down into the darkness of this wicked kingdom, both He and his Angelic forces finally came to the heavily-guarded fortress where the self-appointed ruler of the dead, a Pagan god called Hades, resided. While Jesus laid seige to this foul fortress, the ancient serpent known as Satan, the Devil found himself trying to reassure the Pagan ruler of this dark kingdom that there was nothing to fear.

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Shortly after their initial assault, the Divine expedition led by Christ finally manages to tear down and smash the Gates of Hell into a thousand pieces. The LORD Jesus then charges through the wreckage in order to capture and subdue two of the most evil beings ever known, namely the Pagan god of the dead Hades and his diabolical side-kick Satan. Here are the essential details of this epic battle which immediately followed the death of Jesus Christ on the Cross:

+ The Shattering of the Gates of Hell: And, behold, suddenly Hades trembled, and the gates of Heall and its bolts were shattered. The iron bars were broken and fell to the ground, and everything was laid open. And Satan remained in the midst, and stood confounded and downcast, bound with fetters on his feet. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Defeat of Satan: The Lord Jesus Christ…carrying a chain in His hand, bound Satan by the neck, tying his hands behind him. He then cast Satan into Hell, and placed His holy foot on his throat, saying: ‘Through all ages you have done many evils; you have not rested. Today I condemn you to everlasting fire.’ (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Damnation of Hades: The Hades was suddenly summoned and Jesus commanded him saying: ‘Take this most wicked and impious one, and keep him even unto that day in which I shall command you.’ And so Hades, as soon as he received Satan, was plunged under the feet of the Lord…into the depth of the abyss. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Conquest of the Underworld: Then the Savior, inquiring thoroughly about all, seized the underground kingdom of Hades, immediately threw some down into Hell, and led some with Him to Heaven…And the Lord set His cross in the midst of Hades, which is the sign of victory, and which will remain unto eternity. (Gospel of Nicodemus 9-10)

+ The Ascent into Heaven: Then we all went forth to Heaven along with the Lord, leaving Satan and Hades in Hell. (Gospel of Nicodemus 10)

After eventually coming face to face with Hell’s somewhat surprised and frightened ruler godKing Hades, Jesus Christ presses on to attack His traditional age-old foe the Devil named Satan. When they finally meet, Jesus quickly binds the adversary with a chain He had benn carrying with Him, then tosses His ancient enemy down onto the ground on his back. Having been subdued beneath the mighty feet of Christ, Satan ends up being cast even further down into the burning depths of Tartarus. This particular abode also happens to be the lowest level of Hell set aside for its most dangerous inhabitants- a fitting end for Satan. After having thoroughly defeating Satan, Jesus summons King Hades to appear before Him once again. He then orders this so-called Greco-Roman deity to take charge over his evil companion Satan as they are both officially banished into eternal exile- on a journey down into a bottomless pit of eternal damnation.

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Finally, Jesus Christ proceeds to cast judgment upon all the countless number of Hell’s deceased inhabitants, condemning some and redeeming many others until a perfect and eternal justice has been achieved. Whether this took a day, or a thousand years, is a question mere mortals have yet to answer. Making sure to gather together all of His fellow Saints and Angels, the only Son of God finally decides to leave a Sign of the Cross behind as both a monument to His Divine love and mercy, and as a warning to any stray forces of darkness, still haunting the depths of the Underworld. Jesus Christ then leaves this dark, foreboding world of the dead and ascends upwards into Heaven where He has been destined to rule for all eternity.

Herein lies the story of what really happened to Jesus the very moment after giving up the ghost during His crucifixion at Golgotha, just outside of Jerusalem. Indeed, it must be stated loudly and clearly that Jesus Christ really did die and really did descend into Hell nearly 2,000 years ago, thus achieving the eternal salvation of all mankind, One can sympathize with the fact this ancient Christian tale may leave some readers wishing, hoping, waiting for more or expecting it to contain additional drama and excitement. Suffice it to say that, even though the story of Christ’s descent into Hell may seem too simple, like a child’s fairy tale or nursery rhyme, for God-fearing Christians it remains the truest story ever told.

The Forgotten Judeo/Christian Tragedy of Interest

 

The Days of No Interest

The success of ancient Israel, and especially the financial success of the Jewish people, was indeed due to the their own religious laws regarding money, especially when it came to debts and loans. As the Torah clearly indicates, Israel was set up to be a banking nation from its very inception. As Moses predicted:

You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none.

– Deuteronomy 28:12

As the law clearly stated, Israel usually obeyed it and from the time of King David and Solomon onward were renowned throughout the world for their  business and financial skills and success. For a long time after, the financial and monetary system of Israel, then Judea, gave the Jews quite a bit of wealth and power along the way. The following prophecy seemed to be fulfilling itself without any real difficulties.

For the LORD your God will bless you as He has promised you, and you will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow; and you will rule over many nations, but they will not rule over you.

– Deuteronomy 15:6

This commercial success was interrupted by the Babylonian captivity, when Jerusalem was conquered by the Babylonian Empire and its Temple looted for all its gold and silver. Nevertheless, this exile proved temporary and even though the Jews never really regained their political independence again, their financial and commercial freedoms proved to be more than enough to allow for the practice of Judaism and for the prosperity of the Jewish people. One of the keys to their success was a simple rule, one could charge interest to foreigners, but never to their fellow Jews. As the Torah stated:

You may charge interest on what you lend to foreigners, but not on what you lend to Israelites. Obey this rule, and the LORD your God will bless everything you do.

– Deuteronomy 23:20

This religious tradition of not charging any interest to any fellow Jews kept a fair amount of economic equality among the Jewish people both in Israel and abroad in foreign countries. The Bible also established a system of debt relief every seven years, where all debts, especially debts on real estate, were canceled every seventh year regardless of the lender’s financial interests. As Moses stated in the Torah:

Do not refuse to lend them something, just because the year when debts are canceled is near. Do not let such an evil thought enter your mind. If you refuse to make the loan, they will cry out to the LORD against you, and you will be held guilty.

– Deuteronomy 15:9

One should keep in mind that the ancient laws of the Torah did not allow for any military expansion or conquest outside of the Divinely-ordained borders of Israel, but this did not stop the Jews from becoming extremely successful international businessmen who established large Jewish settlements and commercial colonies in Babylon, Egypt, Persia, and then eventually throughout the Greco-Roman Empire. The Jewish desire for mercy and justice for its own people, as commanded by the Bible and its one, true God caused the following general rule to be applied:

Be generous to these poor people, and freely lend them as much as they need. Never be hard-hearted and tight-fisted with them.

– Deuteronomy 15:8

The Biblical Ban on Interest

For those modern Judeo-Christian believers who remain in denial when it comes to the clear, and repeated condemnations of usury found throughout Scriptures, it should be remembered that the system was never perfect, or perfectly fair. Regardless, today’s total acceptance of the taking of interest on loans and debts should be tempered with a firm knowledge that the modern world is far from the Hebrew financial traditions of yesteryear. In reality, usury is against the laws of God and today’s believers still need to know this, rather than slipping away into some sort of anti-religious socialist ideals of the recent past. Here is a summary of the relevant Biblical passages when it comes to charging interest:

If you lend money to any of my people who are poor, do not act like a moneylender and require him to pay interest.

– Exodus 22:25

Do not make them pay interest on the money you lend them.

– Leviticus 25:37

When you lend money or food or anything else to Israelites, do not charge them interest.

– Deuteronomy 23:19

My brothers, my servants, and I are lending money and grain to the poor, but we must stop charging them interest.

– Nehemiah 5:10

[He] who lends money to the poor without interest; who does not accept a bribe against the innocent. Whoever does these things will never be shaken.

– Psalm 15:5

He lends money on interest and takes increase; will he live? He will not live! He has committed all these abominations. He will surely be put to death; his blood will be on his own head.

– Ezekiel 18:13

According the the Jewish prophets, the perfect, righteous man was one who, regardless of wealth or prestige, remained staunch in their refusal to practice usury of any kind, even to the smallest degree. Honesty, integrity, holiness, and the ban on the taking of interest, went together just as Moses, indeed, just as God Himself, had originally commanded. Two separate passages of Ezekiel sums this attitude up:

He doesn’t lend money for profit. He refuses to do evil and gives an honest decision in any dispute.

– Ezekiel 18:8

He refuses to do evil and doesn’t lend money for profit. He keeps my laws and obeys my commands.

– Ezekiel 18:17

 

Scriptural Finance

Sound business advice includes the imperative to avoid poverty at all costs and to never be a borrower, but always a lender. As Solomon intoned, in the Book of Proverbs, ‘Poor people are slaves of the rich. Borrow money and you are the lender’s slave.’ (Proverbs 22:7) Also, one needed to be wary of those who might have the power to refuse to pay back any loans. This makes sense because many lenders would not ever pay back their loans, if they could actually get away with it without any penalties. This is the way of the world and lenders would be wise to heed this advice. The Bible writes as follows:

He will…bless all your work, so that you will lend to many nations, but you will not have to borrow from any.

– Deuteronomy 28:12

You should not lend anything to someone more powerful than you. If you do, you might as well consider it lost.

– Sirach 8:12

The people of Israel were repeatedly commanded by God to remain obedient to His laws and to be wary of any nation which was more financially powerful and who might even try lending money to Israel. As the LORD God warns advisedly, ‘They will have money to lend you, but you will have none to lend them. In the end they will be your rulers.’ (Deuteronomy 28:44) If one is absolutely forced to borrow any money at all, the following rule should be applied:

When you are in debt, pay it back as soon as you can.

– Sirach 29:1-2

The Old Testament also warns against being greedy when it comes to the collection of collateral on any loan. Lenders are advised to be less cautious and to trust that those who borrow money will, in fact, pay it back. The general idea is for those with money to not be so quick to demand collateral and to accept less, all the while giving more to others. The Bible reads:

When you lend someone something, you are not to take as security his millstones used for grinding his grain. This would take away the family’s means of preparing food to stay alive.

– Deuteronomy 24:6

When you lend someone something, do not go into his house to get the garment he is going to give you as security.

– Deuteronomy 24:10

In several different places, the Bible advises those who have the money to freely lend it out to those who need it. The Gospels state: ‘When someone wants to borrow something, lend it to him.’ (Matthew 5:42) This includes friends, neighbors, and the poor. Scriptures also promises those who lend without interest that the LORD God Himself will reward them for their good deeds. The reward for their generosity will not only come in this life, but also in the next. Besides, lending at no interest is something the LORD God wants his followers to do. The pertinent passages can be read as follows:

Be kind enough to lend to your neighbor when he needs help. You are keeping the LORD’s commands if you help him. If he needs something, lend it to him.

– Sirach 29:1-2

Good will come to those who are generous and lend freely, who conduct their affairs with justice.

– Psalm 112:5

Whoever is kind to the poor lends to the LORD, and He will reward them for what they have done.

– Proverbs 19:17

When you give to the poor, it is like lending to the LORD, and the LORD will pay you back.

– Proverbs 19:17

In terms of freely lending to those in need at no interest, Jesus Christ goes even further. He recommends to lenders that they should give their money out to people who may never pay it back, This practice of basically giving money away for free should be done in order to ensure a blessing from the LORD God. This is because even the wicked will lend at no interest in order to secure some form of future gain if possible. Jesus Christ advised the following:

Do good and lend, expecting nothing in return and your reward will be great.

– Luke 6:35

 

The End of Usury?

Unlike the Pagan nations, and their laws, the Jews continued in their tradition of refusing to charge interest on loans, at least amongst themselves, long after the Second Temple of Jerusalem had fallen to the Roman military, scattering the remaining Jews throughout the Empire. The general rules, as stated in the Babylonian Talmud, were as follows:

The general principle of usury is: All payment for waiting for one’s money is forbidden.

– Babylonian Talmud, Nezikin I, Baba Mezi’a 63b

Lenders on interest are compared to shedders of blood.

– Babylonian Talmud, Kodashim III, Temurah 6b

After the religion of Christianity managed to take over the Pagan traditions of the Greco-Roman economic system both slavery and usury were abolished due to the growing influence of the Christian Churches who saw themselves as the New Israel where all men were brothers in Christ and equal before God. Like the religious authorities of ancient Israel had done many centuries before, the Church hierarchy soon banned the taking of interest throughout Christendom. The policy of Jesus Christ was just like that of Moses when it came to the practice of usury:

If you lend only to those from whom you hope to get it back, why should you receive a blessing? Even sinners lend to sinners to get back the same amount!

– Luke 6:34

After awhile, Jews were allowed to lend money to Christians at interest for purposes of economic necessity. Eventually, the Church lost control over the financial laws of the various Christian kingdoms and the taking of interest, a distinctly Pagan, anti-Jewish, anti-Christian practice, was again legal throughout the Western world of Christianity. This may not have been a good thing, or the only way to modern prosperity. Perhaps someday, mankind will recognize the sheer genius and inherent goodness of the Biblical laws which prohibited usury among fellow religious believers. Indeed, it may still be a possibility to have a capitalistic system not based upon money and interest, but re-established upon the ancient laws of the one, true God once again.

$1 — The Eye of the Pyramid is One-Half the Star of David — $1

Too far by half…

– A common British slang phrase

They are higher than the Heavens Above. What can you do? They are deeper than the depths Below. What can you know?

– Job 11:8

Eye Above the Pyramid + Eye Below the Pyramid = The Star of David


The mystery of the Eye of the Pyramid has both puzzled and intrigued many Americans, and more than a few foreigners, for well over 200 years, since 1782 to be exact. The origins of this design are sometimes believed to be connected to the Freemasons, but even a little bit of research reveals that this is simply not the case at all. At the time, a few, but not all, the Founding Fathers, were members of Freemasonry, but literally every one of them had been baptized and brought up a Church-going Christian, as the tradition of the time dictated. Even the great ‘heretic’ Benjamin Franklin had been raised in a happy, joyous, loving Christian home where he was, quite literally, the only non-believer in the entire family. His relatives would laugh and scold at his alleged atheism.

Also, the most convincing evidence that the Eye of the Pyramid has nothing to do with Freemasonry happens to be the documented historical fact that four out the five men who even had say in the design of the U.S. Great Seal were NOT Freemasons. The only one who was, Benjamin Franklin, was never able to get any of his design suggestions approved by the American government overseeing final approval of the project. In other words, over 80% of those who originally designed the Eye of the Pyramid were NOT Freemasons, thus completely disproving the so-called Masonic influence on the final appearance of the Great Seal of the United States.

So where exactly did the idea for an Eye floating on top of an unfinished pyramid come from anyway? Well, the general notion of God benevolently watching over humanity from up above in the sky (the Heavens) had already a major theme of Christian civilization long, long before the American Revolution. On more than a few occasions, Christian artists and illustrators would use the theme of a giant eye in the sky overlooking the earth, in a symbolic attempt to represent the pervading reality of God’s actual presence in this world. One source explains it in the following manner:

[The All-Seeing Eye’s] meaning in all cases, however, was that commonly given it by society at large – a reminder of the constant presence of God. For example, in 1614 the frontispiece of The History of the World by Walter Raleigh showed an eye in a cloud labeled “Providentia” overlooking a globe….The eye of Providence was part of the common cultural iconography of the 17th and 18th centuries. When placed in a triangle, the eye went beyond a general representation of God to a strongly Trinitarian statement.

– MasonicInfo.com

With this in mind, one can reasonably conclude that historically speaking, the Eye in the Sky was a thoroughly Christian idea, and had absolutely nothing to do with Egyptian Paganism or some other exotic, foreign influence. Therefore, the never-ending parade of conspiracies about the Eye of the Pyramid one hears about and constantly sees on-line should always be taken in stride. When it comes to the back of the dollar bill, the manure tends to get thick and very smelly, This includes some of the absurd claims that the Eye is an inherently anti-Christian symbol, and possibly even Satanic. Indeed, the historical facts speak otherwise.

Anyway, the main point of this post is not to try and dispute the so-called Occult meaning of the Eye of the Pyramid. Instead, it is to clearly show that the real riddle of this symbol, if indeed there is one, has a very, very simple answer. First, if any reader has ever taken out a one dollar bill and then looked carefully enough at the roundish, flower-life design situated directly above the Eagle’s head, then they may well have already noticed the clearly recognizable shape of the Star of David. In other words, those little tiny five-pointed pentagrams, 13 in total, are also carefully arranged into a six-pointed hexagram pattern, obviously a Star of David. As one online reference writes:

Among unanswered questions is if there is any historical significance of the six pointed star pattern formed by the glory of stars above the eagle’s head on the obverse side. Beginning in 1841, the individual stars themselves were drawn with only five points, rather than six.

– Why the Pyramid on the American Dollar?, Answerbag

This same Ikon has also been traditionally known as the Star of Creation, or Seal of Solomon, and was commonly believed to be the royal family coat-of-arms for all of King David and his son Solomon’s many numerous descendants. By this logic, one must concede that the Star which best represents Jesus Christ, the Star of Bethlehem so to speak, should also be a six-pointed star as well. One could tentatively view this star as the guardian spirit of the Gentle Rabbi Jesus, encouraging the United States’ on-going loyalty to the Judeo/Christian tradition- a distinctly American concept.

Now consider the immediate implication of this somewhat obvious little Star of David above the Eagle’s head. This one, simple fact truly helps to bolster the quite reasonable claim that the Eye of the Pyramid is nothing more than the top-half, upward triangle of yet another Star of David. This so-called theory becomes even more plausible due to the exact proportions of the eye itself as compared to the pyramid below it as a whole. In other words, if one carefully places an additional pyramid turned upside down on top of the original pyramid, a near perfect Star of David is created as a result. As the picture shown at the very beginning of this essay clearly demonstrates, the precise intersection of the two pyramids is exactly at the bottom edge of both triangular eyes. As one, independent commentator notes:

The triangular pyramid symbol,,,represents half of the so-called Star of David. Superimpose upon it another upside-down pyramid, and you have the full star. When Solomon’s Seal, the six-pointed Star of [David], is overlaid upon the pyramid on the back side of the Great Seal of The United States (seen on the one dollar bill) the all-seeing Eye…fills the top point (triangle) the position of the chief cornerstone.

– Control Towers, by William Thomas Thompson, Homestead.com

Such a concise pattern of measurement and proportion may well be an indication that the artist who originally drew this picture actually intended it this way, in a clever effort for the viewer to discover it’s true meaning. The Star of David above the Eagle serves as further proof that this could well be case, for if there is already one Star of David in the Great Seal, why not two? Quite a few sources on the internet agree with this basic conclusion. but sadly most of them tend to immediately go off on a tangent, in a raving, hysterical manner about the supposed evil, Occult significance of the Star of David. Before too long their Jew-hating ways are revealed, as they then point the finger at Israel and its flag with the Magen David in the center. Needless to say, they are dead wrong about both the Eye of the Pyramid and its derivative, the Star of David. They are also dead wrong about the Jews and their so-called ‘diabolical’ intentions. Here is a brief synopsis about the historical, factual truth about the Eye of Pyramid.

+ All-Seeing Eye: A common 17th-18th century Christian motif for God and His Heavenly view of mankind.
+ Pyramid/Triangle: An age-old Christian symbol connoting the Trinity of God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost
+ U.S. Great Seal: The front side has the Bald Eagle rising towards the 13-point Star of David directly above, while the back side of the Seal has the Eye of the Pyramid precisely proportioned to fit an additional Pyramid turned upside down- thus creating the Star of David.
+ Star of David: The family Coat-of-Arms representing himself, his son Solomon, and all the rest of his descendants, including the Joseph and Mary, the Earthly parents of Jesus Christ, who is the root and branch of David, the bright, morning Star.

Even though this post has decidedly ignored the many on-line fanatics who remain completely opposed to the Eye of the Pyramid, and to the Star of David, Christian believers should use their common sense first and trust in the simple truth. Basically, this means that when it looks like a Star (above the Eagle’s Head), and acts like a Star (the Eye Above and the Eye Below the Pyramid), then one should stop being silly or stubborn, and finally admit that it is indeed the Star of David, and also the family Coat-of-Arms of his great-great-great-great-great-great….grandson Jesus Christ, the Jew from Nazareth.

As to be expected, this solution to the mystery of the All-Seeing Eye may seem like child’s-play and nowhere near as fun and exciting as the endlessly complex, and nonsensical theories of certain Radio Talk-Show hosts and online conspiracy forums. Nonetheless, it is still far closer to the truth than the WWW dot wackos and the fear-mongering self-opportunists will ever admit to. Surveying the modern, psychological landscape, it seems truly sad that many of these paranoid Christian believers, who listen to conspiracy theories constantly, would much rather gossip and speculate about clearly deluded and mentally ill worldviews, then admit their madness and accept the stupid, dumb, boring truth about the back of the one dollar bill- that it is filled with authentic Judeo/Christian symbolism and nothing more.

In reality, those who worship and believe in the God of the Holy Bible have nothing to fear from this decidedly Judeo/Christian symbol. It seems extremely odd to claim that this unique, one and only Seal, which has symbolized a nation of God-fearing citizens from the very start, is secretly a Satanic symbol meant to destroy the Christian faith. To hysterically insist that the U.S. Great Seal is actually filled with the wicked, evil patterns of the Devil doesn’t seem to match up with the reality of this country, either then, now, or in the future. If history is any clue, then the so-called diabolical aspects of this symbol may actually be nothing more than the mystical insignia of a Christian God and another unexplainable aspect of the Judeo/Christian tradition.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccbaeus.

The stone the builders rejected has become the Cornerstone. By the LORD has this been done and it is wonderful in our eyes.

– Psalms 118:22-23

You are Peter, and upon this Rock I will build my Church, and the Gates of Hell will not prevail against it.

– Matthew 16:18

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

The Judeo-Christian – Comparing the Talmud and the Gospels

Yet again, the Talmud and the Gospels appear as one and the same text, strongly implying that Joshua (Jesus in Greek), the lanky carpenter from the ‘certain Galilean’ countryside, studied with the best student Pharisees of His day. Embittered by their arrogant dismissal of his lowly pious father and mother, Joseph and Mary, this outsider Rabbi rebel with a cause has still managed to bring the greatest teachings of the Talmud to Gentiles throughout the world.
TALMUD: God has a seal, and His seal is truth. (Deuteronomy Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: He who has received His testimony has set his seal to this, that God is true. (John 3:33)

TALMUD: If you sit in judgment and you find one of the litigants anxious to verify his statement by taking an oath, have suspicion against that individual. (Leviticus Rabba 6)
GOSPEL: ‘Woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.’ And Judas, who was betraying Him, said, ‘Surely it is not I, Rabbi?’ Jesus said to him, ‘You have said it yourself.’ (Matthew 26:24-25)

The Joshua Talmud
TALMUD: Consider the immeasurable distance from us of what we know as God’s dwelling-place, the Heavens; yet how near He is to us when we call upon Him. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: Truly I tell you, whatever you bind on Earth will be bound in Heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth will be loosed in Heaven. (Matthew 18:18)

TALMUD: Heaven and Earth wept at the death of Moses. (Deuteronomy Rabba 11)
GOSPEL: It was now about noon, and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, for the sun stopped shining. And the curtain of the Temple was torn in two. Jesus called out with a loud voice, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.’ When He had said this, He breathed His last. (Luke 23:44-46)

TALMUD: If you sit in judgment and you find one of the litigants anxious to verify his statement by taking an oath, have suspicion against that individual. (Leviticus Rabba 6)
GOSPEL: Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not break your oath, but fulfill to the Lord the vows you have made.’ But I tell you, do not swear an oath at all, either by Heaven, for it is God’s throne, or by the Earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. (Matthew 5:33-35)

TALMUD: God has a seal, and his seal is truth. (Deuteronomy Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: He who has received His testimony has set his seal to this, that God is true. For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for He gives the Spirit without measure. (John 3:33-34)

TALMUD: Heaven and Earth wept at the death of Moses. (Deuteronomy Rabba 11)
GOSPEL: For truly I tell you, until Heaven and Earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law (of Moses) until everything is accomplished. (Matthew 5:18)

The Talmud’s Classical Format

TALMUD: Justice is one of the supports of God’s throne. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)
GOSPEL: Woe to you Pharisees, because you give God a tenth of your mint, rue and all other kinds of garden herbs, but you neglect justice and the love of God. You should have practiced the latter without leaving the former undone. (Luke 11:42)

TALMUD: One of the reasons why Moses called upon Heaven and Earth as witnesses (Deuteronomy 33) is that by them the Torah was given (Deuteronomy 4). (Deuteronomy Rabba 10)
GOSPEL: For truly I tell you, until Heaven and Earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law (of Moses) until everything is accomplished. (Matthew 5:18)

TALMUD: If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: Jesus said, ‘Watch out for the teachers of the law. They like to walk around in flowing robes and be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, and have the most important seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets.’ (Mark 12:38-39)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ He that proclaims the absolute unity of God proclaims the kingdom of Heaven. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate. (Mark 10:7-9)

TALMUD: Death is designed for man from time immemorial. When the hour of man’s departure hence arrives, nothing will save him from it. (Talmud, Tanchum. Voeschanan)
GOSPEL: And who of you by being worried can add a single hour to his life? (Matthew 6:27)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: Jesus went around teaching from village to village. Calling the Twelve to him, he began to send them out two by two and gave them authority over impure spirits. (Mark 6:7)

An Age-Old Talmud

TALMUD: If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: When he noticed how the guests picked the places of honor at the table, he told them this parable: ‘When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for a person more distinguished than you may have been invited.’ (Luke 14:7-8)

TALMUD: If you want a vine to flourish it should be replanted on another soil. God replanted his vine, Israel, from Egypt to Palestine, and it became famous. (Exodus Rabba 44)
GOSPEL: When they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. ‘Get up,’ he said, ‘take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him.’ So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: ‘Out of Egypt I called my son.’ (Matthew 2:13-15)

TALMUD If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: When he noticed how the guests picked the places of honor at the table, he told them this parable: “When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for a person more distinguished than you may have been invited. If so, the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this person your seat.’ Then, humiliated, you will have to take the least important place. But when you are invited, take the lowest place, so that when your host comes, he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up to a better place.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all the other guests. For all those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.” (Luke 14:7-11)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: After this the LORD (Jesus) appointed seventy-two others and sent them two by two ahead of him to every town and place where he was about to go. (Luke 10:1)

Old Preface to the Talmud

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Jewish, Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Bibles

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Judeo-Christian Bible – Tanakh, the Bible of Judaism

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And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

The Facts about the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible
– The Jewish Bible is commonly known as the Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ”ךְ‎, pronounced also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach). It is a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible consisting of 24 separate books. The Tanakh has also been known as the Masoretic Text or the Miqra.
– The name ‘Miqra’ (מקרא), meaning ‘that which is read’, is a traditional alternative Hebrew term for the Tanakh.
– The word ‘Tanakh’ is, in fact, an acronym created from the first few Hebrew letters of the Masoretic Text’s three traditional subdivisions: The Torah (‘Teaching’, also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi’im (‘Prophets’) and Ketuvim (‘Writings’). When the Hebrew letters for Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim are combined together they become the word TaNaKh, thus the name Tanakh stands for the whole Jewish Bible.
– Thus, the offiical Bible of Judaism, the Tanakh, has 3 distinct sections which can be seen as follows:

The Tanakh (Ta = Torah, Na = Nevi’im, Kh = Ketuvim)
Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)

– The exact number of 24 books is mentioned in Midrash Koheleth 12:12.
– The 2st century book called ‘Against Apion’, by th Jewish historian Josephus lists only 22 sacred books of the Jewish Bible. In response to this discrepancy (22 versus 24 books), some scholars and researchers ‘have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah; as St. Jerome noted in the 4th century AD. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical.’
– According to Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. In stark contrast to Christian Bibles, the Tanakh counts as a single book each Book of Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah and it also considers the Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar) as one book.
– The Tanakh is the Hebrew name for the 24 Books of the Old Testament which, in both English and Hebrew, include the following:

1) Genesis (Bereshith), 2) Exodus (Shemot), 3) Leviticus (Vayikra), 4) Numbers (Bamidbar), 5) Deuteronomy (Devarim), 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets including Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi, 14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)

15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 16) Job (איוב/Iyov), 17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 18) Ruth (רות/Rut), 19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 21) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– What has usually been called ‘The Book of Twelve Prophets’, a singular text situated as the 13th book in the Tanakh, includes all of the following Christian books: Book of Hosea, Book of Joel, Book of Amos, Book of Obadiah, Book of Jonah, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Zephaniah, Book of Haggai, Book of Zechariah, and Book of Malachi

The Law (Torah)
1) Genesis (Bereshith)
2) Exodus (Shemot)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim)

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar/תרי עשר)

The Writings (Ketuvim)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– Judaism believes that the books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were relayed with an accompanying oral tradition passed on by each generation, called the Oral Torah.
– According to the Talmud, most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the ‘Men of the Great Assembly’ by 450 BCE, and have since remained unchanged. Modern scholars tend to assume that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BC and 200 AD
– The tradition of dividing the Tanakh into 3 sections is well-documented all the way back to the Second Temple period. Even so, the word ‘Tanakh’ a three-part acronym representing Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim, wasn’t used back then, Instead the Bible of Judaism was called Mikra, meaning ‘reading’ or ‘that which is read’ in Hebrew. As one source notes: ‘Mikra continues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Jewish scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew both are used interchangeably.’
– According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a), most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei K’nesset HaGedolah), a task completed in 450 BCE. The Bible of Judaism has remained unchanged since that date.
– Other scholars state that the ‘evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE. A popular position is that the Torah was canonized circa 400 BCE, the Prophets circa 200 BCE, and the Writings circa 100 CE, perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia. This position, however, is increasingly criticised by modern scholars.’
– A few scholars believe that the entire Jewish canon of the Bible was, in fact, decided upon after the Maccabees defeated the Greeks and regained their religious independence sometime during the subsequent Hasmonean royal dyasty in 140-37 BC.
– Formal finalization of the canon has often been ascribed to Rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. One researcher Heinrich Graetz has concluded that the 24 Books of the Tanakh were officially canonized ‘at a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew), some time in the period 70-90 CE.’
– Even so, there are still different Rabbinical texts dating from later on which ‘seem to indicate that certain books were disputed as accepted canon (such as Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Esther, called the Antilegomena), but it may not necessarily be the case.’ The Talmud, which was written soon after the destruction of the Second Temple, still disagrees with these various writings strongly implying ‘that the books themselves were already accepted canon, but may have been misunderstood on philosophical or ecclesiastical grounds. The Talmud eliminates this misunderstanding.’
– The Hebrew text was originally written with just consonants, having very few, if any applied vowel letters. This made it extremely difficult to learn or to actually study and read. Then, in the early part of the Middle Ages, a group of scholars known as the Masoretes created a single system of pronunciation and vocatization, making the entire text far easier to learn and read.  During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization.
– The major force behind the Masoretes was a man named Aaron ben Moses ben Asher who helped to establish the Tiberias school of reading and pronouncing the Tanakh. Because of its mysterious origins, some Orthodox Jews ‘believe the pronunciation and cantillation derive from the revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses.’ In short, the ability to understand the multi-layered meaning of Scriptures is heavily dependent on this system. One sources put it bluntly: ‘The combination of a text (מקרא mikra), pronunciation (ניקוד niqqud) and cantillation (טעמים te`amim) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text.’

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The Facts about Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
– The 1st section of the Tanank called the Law, or ‘Teaching’ (תּוֹרָה/Torah) consists of 5 books, commonly referred to as the ‘Five Books of Moses’ or Pentateuch. Printed copies of the Torah are often called Chamisha Chumshei Torah or simply, a Chumash.
– In Hebrew language, the five books of the Torah are identified using the first prominent word which has been written at the beginning of each book. Thus, the actual names of the Torah books has nothing, or little, to do with the book’s entire contents. This is quite different from the English names for them which originate from the Greek words originally given to the books in the Septuagint. These Greek words attempted to describe or summarize the book’s contents.
– According to Rabbinic tradition the five books of the Torah were all written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy which describe his death. The past 200-300 years of modern research has changed this assumption so that now ‘the majority of scholars agree that the Pentateuch does not have a single author, and that its composition took place over centuries.’
– In short, the Torah consists of the following five books:

The Law (Torah)
1. Bereshith – Genesis (Bereshith)
2. Shemot – Exodus (Shemot)
3. Vayikra – Leviticus  (Vayikra)
4. Bamidbar – Numbers   (Bamidbar)
5. Devarim – Deuteronomy (Devarim)

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The Facts about Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
– The 2nd section of the Tanakh, called the Prophets (Nevi’im) has 8 books. They include: 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets named Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi
– This section covers the time period from the beginning of the Israelite settling of the Holy Lands (Israel) up until the time of the destruction of the First Temple, the Temple of Solomon, and the subsequent Babylonian captivity. This era is known as the ‘period of prophecy’
– The Prophets section are also sometimes divided into two parts called the Earlier Prophets and Later Prophets.
– The Prophets contain 8 Books according to Judaism. These same Books total 21 in the Christian Old Testament. The reason why is because Samuel I and II are counted as one book, as is Kings I and II. The single Book of the Twelve Prophets, known as the minor prophets, becomes 12 separate Christian Books of hte Old Testament.
– The Prophets (Nevi’im), which are the 6th through 13th Books in the Tanakh, can be listed as follows:

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
2) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)

Contents of the Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)
I. Hosea (הושע/Hoshea)
II. Joel (יואל/Yo’el)
III. Amos (עמוס/Amos)
IV. Obadiah (עובדיה/Ovadyah)
V. Jonah (יונה/Yonah)
VI. Micah (מיכה/Mikhah)
VII. Nahum (נחום/Nakhum)
VIII. Habakkuk (חבקוק/Havakuk)
IX. Zephaniah (צפניה/Ts’phanyah)
X. Haggai (חגי/Khagai)
XI. Zechariah (זכריה/Z’kharyah)
XII. Malachi (מלאכי/Mal’akhi)

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The Facts about Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim), the third and final section of the Tanakh, which consists of 11 books, is also known as the ‘Hagiographa’, a Greek word,
– The 4th through 8th Book, in the third section of the Tanakh called the Writings, are traditionally knows as the Five Scrolls (Megillot). They are as follows: I. Song of Songs, II. Ruth, III. Lamentations, IV. Ecclesiastes, V. Esther
– Sometimes the Writings (Ketuvim) are divided in the following manner: I. The Books of Truth (Psalms, Proverbs, Job), II. The Books of Widsom (Job, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs) III. The Books of Poetry (Psalms, Lamentations, Song of Songs), and IV. The Books of History (Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles I/II)
– Because of differences in organization, these 11 Jewish books of the Writings (Ketuvim) equal 13 Books of the Christian Old Testament. This is because in Judaism, Chronicles I and II, along with Ezra and Nehemiah, are counted as one book each.
– The 3 Books of Truth are also known in Hebrew as Sifrei Emet (ספרי אמת, literally “Books of Truth”)
– The exact ordering and names of the Writings, both in Hebrew and English, can be seen as follows: 1) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
2) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 3) Job (איוב/Iyov), 4) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 5) Ruth (רות/Rut), 6) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 7) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 8) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 9) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 10) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 11) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim) which are the 14th throuth 21st Books in the Tanakh can also be divided into 3 distinct sections, they can be listed in the following manner:

The Books of Truth (Sifrei Emet)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)

The Five Scrolls (Megilot)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)

The Rest of the Writings
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

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Some Additional Facts about the Tanakh
– Like the Christian Bible, the original Jewish Bible had no chapters or verses. They eventually adopted the same basic system used by Christianity, but even today, ‘chapter divisions and verse numbers have no significance in the Jewish tradition. Nevertheless, they are noted in all modern editions of the Tanakh so that verses may be located and cited.’
– Some Tanakhs even note the ‘division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into parts I and II is also indicated on each page of those books in order to prevent confusion.’
– The inclusion of numbered chapters, and then later verses, in the Jewish Bible ‘began in the late Middle Ages in Spain, partially in the context of forced clerical debates which took place against a background of harsh persecution and of the Spanish Inquisition (the debates required a common system for citing biblical texts).’
– Because of this ugly history of conflict with Christianity, Judaism does not rely so heavily upon the numbered chapter and verse format. Indeed, as one source notes: ‘From the standpoint of the Jewish textual tradition, the chapter divisions are not only a foreign feature with no basis in the mesorah, but are also open to severe criticism of three kinds:..Nevertheless, because they proved useful for citations, they are often included in most Hebrew editions of the biblical books.’
– In older versions of the Jewish Bible, the Christian-based chapter and verse numbers were featured very prominently on each page. In the past fifty years or so, things have changed and there is now a ‘major trend towards minimizing the impact and prominence of the chapter and verse numbers on the printed page. Most editions accomplish this by removing them from the text itself and relegating them to the margins of the page.’
– The only significant difference in the numbering system between Jewish and Chrisian Bibles occurs in 1 Chronicles. Other than that the numbered chapter and verse system typically coinicides between the two religions.
– For the most part, there are two main approaches to the study, analysis, and interpretation of the Tanakh. The traditional approach is to assume that the Bible has a Divine, supernatural, origin. The modern approach is to assume exactly the opposite, namely that the Tanakh is nothing more than the writings of man.
– Because more than a few professionals and professors of what is called Biblical Studies do not have any religious faith, their commentary and conclusions are often different from that of believers. As one source states: ‘Biblical criticism seems to contradict commitment to the idea that the Bible was written by prophets inspired by God. Indeed, this practice, when applied to the Torah, is generally considered heresy by the entire Orthodox Jewish community. As such, much modern day Bible commentary written by non-Orthodox authors is considered treif (forbidden) by rabbis teaching in Orthodox yeshivas.’
– Even so, numerous Rabbinical experts from the past such as Abraham Ign Ezra, Gersonides, and Maimonides still managed to use the same techniques of modern Biblical scholarship including in-depth historical and scientific analysis of the Bible. There is a crucial difference, however, between these classical Rabbis and modern experts. Put bluntly, the Rabbis from centuries past truly believed that ‘God revealed the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai.’ Many of the modern scholars do not.
– In the modern world of today, the two non-Orthodox branches of Judaism, called Conservative and Reform Judaism now tend to ‘accept the validity of both traditional and secular approaches to Bible studies.’

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A Brief Publishing History of the Tanakh
– The first ever printed Hebrew Chumash simply had Biblical text with Rashi on the page, and since then many editions have appeared.
– The first Masoretic Mikraot Gedolot was printed in 1524-1525 in Venice, edited by Daniel Bomberg. The Soncino edition was printed in 1527 in Venice. Many editions of Mikraot Gedolot have been made since then.
– Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica appeared in 1906 and was reprinted in 1913.
– The Leningrad Codex, an ancient version of the Tanakh still intact, was originally edite under Paul E. Kahle as the Biblia Hebraica (BHK) and was published in Stuttgart in 1937.
– The Leningrad codex was also used for Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) in 1977 and will continue to be used for Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ). The Leningrad Codex lists a different order for the books of the Ketuvim and has ‘also served as the basis for two important Jewish editions of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh).’
– Aharon Dotan’s Edition is viewed as the official Tanakh of the Israeli military which includes which was reprinted with ‘a concise commentary’. It has been updated recently as the ‘Codex Leningradensis’.
– The Koren Tanakh (Bible) Edition (1962) is considered the first edition in alomst 500 years that was ‘designed, edited, printed, and bound by Jews.’
– The Aleppo Codex Edition (1977) has been called  the ‘first edition to include a reconstruction of the letters, vowels, and cantillation marks in the missing parts of the Aleppo Codex.’
– Jerusalem Crown: The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Edition (2000) has been written and edited ‘according to the method of Mordechai Breuer under the supervision of Yosef Ofer’, two prominent Hebrew Bible scholars.

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the 24 Books of the Tanakh

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books. (Numbers Rabba 14)

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them. He must be meek, and even humble; every act of his life should testify to his worth, and withal if his hearers do not like his preaching he is to desist from it. (Midrash Songs 4)

There is no hard and fast rule as to any part with which books in Holy Writ should open. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Exact Sequence of the Tanakh

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Authors of the Tanakh

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job. Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch. Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth. David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. (Baba Bathra 15a)

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time. (Baba Bathra 15a)
This confirms the opinion of Rab, since Rab Judah has said, ‘Ezra did not leave Babylon to go up to Eretz Yisrael until he had written his own genealogy.’ Who then finished it the Book of Chronicles? – Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. (Baba Bathra 15a)

You say that Joshua wrote his book. But is it not written, And Joshua son of Nun the servant of the Lord died? – It was completed by Eleazar. But it is also written in it, And Eleazar the son of Aaron died?  – Phineas finished it. You say that Samuel wrote the book that bears his name. But is it not written in it, Now Samuel was dead?  – It was completed by Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet. You say that David wrote the Psalms, including work of the ten elders. Why is not Ethan the Ezrahite also reckoned with? – Ethan the Ezrahite is Abraham. The proof is that it is written in the Psalms, Ethan the Ezrahite, and it is written elsewhere, Who hath raised up righteousness from the East. (Baba Bathra 15a)

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Torah (First 5 Books of the Tanakh)

The Torah or knowledge increases, and the intellect becomes keener by proper study, and any difficult matter submitted to scholars will find solution; as a structure will be satisfactorily erected by skilful workmen each contributing his skill.–Mid. Songs 5.

In one sense there is an advantage in failing memory; if man’s memory did not fail, there would be no study of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum. Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum. Vayakhail)

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it. (Tanchum. Devorim)

Torah borrows from righteousness, and righteousness from the Torah; all without charging any interest. Is man, and man only, not to extend a helping hand to his fellow-man without exacting usury for a kind act? (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was to God, when He created the world, what the plan is to an architect when he erects a building. (Genesis Rabba 1)

There is a limit to everything except to the greatness and depth of the Torah. (Genesis Rabba 10)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah is full of holy fire; it was written with a black fire upon a white fire. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The Torah has meekness as its footgear, and the fear of God as its crown. Hence Moses was the proper person through whose hands it should be delivered; he was meek, and with the fear of the Lord he was crowned. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

You cannot expect to occupy yourself with the study of the Torah in the future world and receive the reward for so doing in this world, you are meant to make the Torah your own in this life, and to look for reward in the life to come.(Tanchum, Bereshith)

God consulted the Torah when about to create man, but the Torah was dubious about calling man into existence, for since his days would be so short and his ways so perverted he would require much forbearance. God’s reply was, ‘By thee (Torah) I declare myself as a God merciful, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and in truth.’ (Tanchum, Pekudai)

Ben Azai was in a deep study, and to those who passed him it seemed as if he was sitting in the midst of a flame. They told Rabbi Akiba of it, who went to him and asked him whether he was studying any mystery. ‘Not at all,’ said Ben Azai. ‘I was looking up the Pentateuch, the Prophets and the Hagiographa, and rejoiced over their contents as though I had been one of those who received the Torah at the foot of Sinai when God proclaimed His word in the midst of fire.’ (Midrash Songs 1)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Prophets of the Tanakh

With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, viz. Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo. Once at the assembly of the wise men in Jericho they heard the echo proclaim, ‘There is one amongst you who is well worthy of the Holy Spirit, but alas the present generation is unworthy of it.’ They thought of Hillel the elder. At his death they lamented him with the words, ‘Oh that saintly man, that meek man, that pupil of Ezra.’ (Midrash Song of Songs 8)

All the prophets started with admonitions and ended with words of comfort. Jeremiah alone had no words of comfort to offer.(Midrash Psalms 4)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Psalms

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them. It is like a company of musicians who appear before a king, and are told: ‘Although you are, everyone of you, efficient in your art, yet I wish the one with the sweetest voice to sing before me.’ (Midrash Songs 4)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Job

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses – The proof is that it is written here (in connection with Job), ‘O that my words were now written,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with Moses, ‘For wherein now shall it be known.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– But on that ground I might say that he was contemporary with Isaac, in connection with whom it is written, Who now is he that took venison?  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Or I might say that he was contemporary with Jacob, in connection with whom it is written, If so now  do this? or with Joseph, in connection with whom it is written, ‘Where they are pasturing?’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

– The proof that Job was contemporary with Moses is that] it is written [in continuation of the above words of Job], Would that they were inscribed in a book, and it is Moses who is called ‘inscriber’, as it is written, ‘And he chose the first part for himself, for there was the lawgiver’s’ portion reserved. (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Raba said that Job was in the time of the spies. The proof is that it is written here in connection with Job, ‘There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with the spies, ‘Whether there be wood therein.’ Where is the parallel? In one place it is Uz, in the other EZ? – What Moses said to Israel was this: ‘See if that man is there whose years are as the years of a tree and who shelters his generation like a tree.’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

A certain Rabbi was sitting before R. Samuel b. Nahmani and in the course of his expositions remarked, Job never was and never existed, but is only a typical figure. He replied: To confute such as you the text says, There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name. But, he retorted, if that is so, what of the verse, The poor man had nothing save one poor ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up etc. Is that anything but a parable? So this too is a parable. If so, said the other, why are his name and the name of his town mentioned? (Baba Bathra 15a)

R. Johanan and R. Eleazar both stated that Job was among those who returned from the (Babylonian) Exile, and that his house of study was in Tiberias. An objection [to this view] was raised from the following: ‘The span of Job’s life was from the time that Israel entered Egypt till they left it.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

Job was born when the Jews went down to Egypt; he married Dinah, Jacob’s daughter, and he died when the Israelites left Egypt.(Genesis Rabba 57)

Job probably never existed, and if he did exist, the events recorded concerning him never took place. The whole narrative is intended as a moral lesson.  (Genesis Rabba 57)

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The Bible of Judaism (Tanakh)
1) Genesis (Bereshith) – 1st Book of the Law (Torah)
2) Exodus (Shemot) – 2nd Book of the Law (Torah)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra) – 3rd Book of the Law (Torah)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar) – 4th Book of the Law (Torah)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim) – 5th Book of the Law (Torah)
6) Joshua (Y’hoshua) – 1st Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim) – 2nd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel) – 3rd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim) – 4th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu) – 5th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu) – 6th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel) — 7th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar) – 8th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim) – 1st Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei) – 2nd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov) – 3rd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim) – 4th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut) – 5th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah) – 6th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet) – 7th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther) – 8th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el) – 9th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia) – 10th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim) – 11th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Samuel, St. Jeremiah, and St. Isaiah.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible

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Some Strange and Astonishing Numbers of the Bible
– The King of Bashan was apparently so huge he had a bed measuring 13 and 1/2  feet long long and 6 feet wide. (Deutronomy 3:11)
– Absalom once had 6.5 pounds of actual hair removed during his annual haircut. (2 Samuel 14: 26)
– King Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines, and 12,000 horses. (1 Kings 11:1-3)
– An Army of 185,000 wound up being destroyed in a single night (Isaiah 37:36)
– Rehoboam was a father of 88 children. (2 Chronicles 11:21)
– King Zimri is said to have reigned for only 7 days. (I Kings 16:15)
– Methuselah, a son of Adam, lived to be 969 years old. (Genesis 5:27)
– Noah was 600 years old when he built the ark, and 950 years old when he died. (Genesis 7:6 and Genesis 9:29)
– Adam was 930 years old when he died. (Genesis 5:5)
– One man supposedly had 12 fingers and 12 toes. (2 Samuel 21:20)
– A Biblical army once consisted of 700 left-handed men. (Judges 20:16)

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Strange and Impossible Occurrences in the Bible
– A large group of men actually drank water like dogs. (Judges 7:5)
– A soaking wet sacrifice was then burnt through a supernatural occurrence. (1 Kings 18:17-40)
– A man named Balaam was once directly spoken to by a donkey. (Numbers 22:28-30)
– Women shaved their heads completely before getting married. (Deuteronomy 21:11-13)
– The once sun stood still for an entire day. (Joshua 10:13)
– One man increased his overall lifettime by 15 years simply with prayer. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– The sun is purported to have gone backward, from west to east. (Isaiah 38:8)
– A prostitute named Rachab truly was an actual ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:5)
– The Prophet Elijah once outran a chariot. (1 Kings 18:41-46)
– An axe head made of iron ended up floating on top of the water. (2 Kings 6:1-6)
– A desperate woman eventually boiled and ate her son  (2 Kings 6:29)
– The wicked Jezebel eventually had her body eaten by dogs. (2 Kings 9:30-36)
– Jacob once used a stone for a pillow. (Genesis 28:1)
– A baby named Zarah once had scarlet thread tied around her hand before birth. (Genesis 38:28-30)
– The Prophet Isaiah allegedly walked around naked for three years. (Isaiah 20:2-3)
– The Bible is described as being cut with a pen knife. (Jeremiah 36:20-2)
– John the Baptist supposedly ate only locusts and honey for food. (Mathew 3:4)
– A woman personally killed a man by driving a nail through his head. (Judges 4:17-21)
– Moses once caused a victory on the battlefield simply because he stretched out his hand (Exodus 17:11)
– The life of Hezekaih was increased by 15 years because he prayed. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– Seven women once wanted and sought after the same man.  (Isaiah 4:1)
– Obviously dead, dry bones were then miraculously brought to life. (Ezekiel 37)
– God is described as having had a wash pot (Psalms 60:6-8)
– An ancient bottle of milk is also described. (Judges 4:19)
– Someone is reputed to have been the first left-handed man in history. (Judges 3:15)
– There are 2 men in the Bible who never died but were instead caught up into Heaven are Enoch, from Genesis, and Elisjah: 1) Enoch, who walked with God and was no more (Genesis 5:22-24), and 2) Elijah, who was caught up by a whirlwind into heaven (II Kings 2:11).
– In ancient Israel, men closed a deal by exchanging sandals. (Ruth 4:7)
– Once when Ezekiel was just sitting in his house alone, a gigantic hand suddenly picked him up by the hair of his head and took him somewhere between heaven and earth. (Ezekiel 8:3)

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The Biblical Roots of Odd and Original Phrases
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

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+ The Biblical Origins of 10 Specific Phrases +

1) Spare the rod, spoil the child-

He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.

– Proverbs 13:24

2) By the sweat of your brow-

To Adam he said, Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. … By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

– Genesis 3:17,19

3) It is better to give than to receive-

In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’

– Acts. 20:35

4) A leopard cannot change its spots-

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil

– Jeremiah 13:23

5) Money is the root of all evil-

For the love of money is a root of all sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.

– Timothy 6:10

6) Nothing new under the sun-

That which has been is that which will be, And that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun.

– Ecclesiastes 1:9

7) Let him who is without sin cast the first stone-

But when they persisted in asking Him, Jesus straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.’

– John 8:7

8) A Fly in the ointment-

Dead flies make a perfumer’s oil stink, so a little foolishness is weightier than wisdom and honor.

– Ecclesiastes 10:1

9) The Salt of the earth-

You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

– Matthew 5:13

10) Being Used as a Scapegoat-

The goat on which the lot for the scapegoat fell shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat.

– Leviticus 16:10

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Elijah.

Bible – The New Testament Basics

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The New Testament Basics +

The English Bible – a book which if everything else in our language should perish, would alone suffice to show the whole extent of its beauty and power.

– Julia Crawford

The Basic Aspects of the New Testament
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters totalling 27 different texts in all.
– The 4 Gospels are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
– The Four Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel is considered to be the only exception.
– In chronological order, the 27 Books of Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. Nearly 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The New Testament is mainly about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph, the Nazarene. Therefore the vast majority of the New Testament takes places from O BC to 33 AD, starting out with His birth in Bethlehem and ending with His crucifixion, death, and burial in Jerusalem 33 years later.
– Various passages which speak of Jesus Christ as God include John 1:1, John 20:28, Romans 9:5, Philippians 2:11, and Colossians 1:16.
– Other passages which speak of Jesus Christ as Man can be listed as follows: John 1:14, Luke 2:7, Luke 2:40, Luke 8:23, John 4:6 and Hebrews 4:15.
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek, nearly 800 of which were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years. Interestingly, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day.
– The heroic saga known as ‘Iliad’, by Homer, still considered the most renowned book of ancient Greece, has 643 copies of manuscripts to prove itself the authentic writings of Homer. Even so, there are still 764 disputed lines of text which have yet to be determined as authentic. In comparison there are only 40 lines in all the New Testament manuscripts which remain subject to dispute.
– The supporting literature and commentary on the New Testament also provides a strong foundation of reliability as to its origins. If one tried to rewrite the entire text, even without having an actual copy of the New Testament, literally all of it, except eleven verses, ‘can be reconstructed from the writings of the early church fathers in the second and third centuries.’

The Basic Use of Names in the New Testament
– Jesus had many names including Immanuel, Alpha and Omega, Bright and Morning Star, Good Shepherd, I Am, King of Kings, Lamb of God, Master, Prince of Life, Root of Jesse. Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace (Revelation 1:11, 22:16, 19:16, John 10:14, 8:58, 1:29, 38, 15:1, Acts 3:15, Isaiah 11:10, 9:6).
– The names of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, as described in the Book of Revelation, are called Conquest, Slaughter, Famine, and Death.
– The names of the ‘Three Wise Men’ are known as Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar as these names were detailed in an early 6th century Greek manuscript.
– The various gifts of the ‘Three Wise Men’ were as follows: Melchoir (means king of light) offered Gold; Gaspar (means the white one) offered Frankincense (Frankincense is a gum resin used as a base for incense); and Balthazar (means lord of treasures) offered Myrrh (Myrrh is a gum resin, was valued as a perfume and unguent used in embalming).
– Although it is written nowhere to be found in the New Testament, the two robbers crucified next to Jesus were named Dismas and Gestas.

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What can I do with respect to the next world without my Bible?

– John Bacon

The Basic Timeline of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins writing his 13 Letters
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing his 13 Letters
90 A.D. – John writes the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3 Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

NOTE: The 13 Letter of Paul are Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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+ The Basic Gospels, Books, and Letters of the New Testament+

The Traditional Names of the 4 New Testament Gospels
1) The Gospel According to St. Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to St. Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to St. John

The Traditional Names of the 2 New Testament Books
1) The Book of Acts of the Apostles, 2) The Book of Revelation of St. John

The Traditional Names of the 21 New Testament Letters
1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) Letter to Titus, 13) Letter to Philemon, 14) Letter to the Hebrews, 15) Letter of James, 16) 1st Letter of Peter, 17) 2nd Letter of Peter, 18) 1st Letter of John, 19) 2nd Letter of John, 20) 3rd Letter of John, 12) the Letter to Jude.

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+ The Basic Authorship of the New Testament +

The English Bible has been a greater influence in the course of English literature than all other forces put together. It is impossible to read standard authors intelligently without knowing something about the Bible, for they all assume familiarity with it on the point of their readers…….to any young man or woman, eaten with ambition to become a writer, I shall advise first of all, KNOW THE BIBLE.

– William Lyon Phelps, Prof. of English Literature at Yale University

The Basic Facts about the Authors of the New Testament
– The 27 Books of the New Testament were all written by only  8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude
– These 8 individual New Testament authors, along with the names of the various 27 books they are responsible for writing, can be seen as follows: 1) Matthew = Gospel of Matthew,  2) Mark = Gospel of Mark, 3)  Luke = Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts,  4) John = Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation, 5) James = Letter of James, 6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 7) St. Jude = Letter of Jude, 8) St. Paul = Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
– Some of the traditional names given to the 8 New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)
– John, Paul, and Luke are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters). The can be represented in the following manner:

The 3 Primary Authors of the New Testament (20 Books)
1) John (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters): Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
2) Paul (13 Letters): Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
3) Luke (2 Books): Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

– Only two, out of the eight New Testament authors, namely St. Peter and St. Matthew, were ever considered to be actual Apostles, a group of Twelve men previously chosen by Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph (Rabbi Jesus, the Nazarene) to carry on in His name and to serve as the chosen leaders of His growing religious movement.The other six authors were seen instead as Disciples, a name given to a much larger, constantly expanding, circle of followers and associates who had chosen Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) as their LORD and Savior.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

I Thoroughly believe in a University education for both men and women, but I believe a knowledge of the Bible without a college education is more valuable that a college education without the Bible.

– William Lyon Phelps

The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

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Jesus loves me – this I know, For the Bible tells me so.

– Anna Bartlett Warner

The Basic Organization of the New Testament
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– In chronological order, the New Testament of the Christian Bible, including all Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Bibles, consists of the following 27 different Books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The Book of Acts, usually seen as a Historical book, was written by Luke, the same author who wrote the Gospel of Luke.
– The Book of Revelation, written by St. John of Patmos, is a terrifying series of prophetic visions as personally experienced by St. John, the author. Because of this, the Book is categorized as Apocalyptic. This book has also been called the Apocalypse of John.
– Most scholars, including the Roman Catholic Church itself, believe that the prophecy of the Beast, and anti-Chrsit, has already been fulfilled many centuries ago. Thus, the actual identity of the infamous Beast, whose number is 666, was non other than Caesar Nero, the Emperor of Rome.
– The 4 Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel of John is considered to be the only exception to the other three.
– Luke, one of the Gospel authors was also a medical doctor. (Colossians 4:14)
– The 21 Letters, can be further divided into two basic groups, commonly known as the 13 Pauline Letters, and the 7 General, or Catholic, Letters. The last letter, Letter to the Hebrews, is the only New Testament Book with an unknown author.
– Overall, these 21 Letters, as they are written in the New Testament, include the following: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon, 14) Hebrews, 15) James, 16) 1 Peter, 17) 2 Peter, 18) 1 John, 19) 2 John, 20) 3 John, 21) Jude.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon,
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, the General Epistles, or Catholic Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude

The Basic Organization of the New Testament Letters
– As described previously, they 21 Letters of the New Testament have always been categorized into two main groups called the 13 Letters of Paul and 7 Catholic Letters of the New Testament.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, Catholic Epistles, or the General Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude
– In brief, the Seven Catholic Letters (General Epistles) of the New Testament are as follows: 1) James, 2) I Peter, 3) II Peter, 4), I John, 5) II John, 6) III John, and 7) Jude
– The 2 letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– The General epistles, or Catholic Epistles, are individual books of the New Testament in the form of letters.
– Traditional full length names and titles of these letters are: the Epistle of James, First Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle of Peter, First Epistle of John, Second Epistle of John, Third Epistle of John, Epistle of James, Epistle of Jude
– These Letters have been called ‘general’ because for the most part, their intended audience seems to be Christians in general rather than individual persons or congregations as is the case with the Pauline epistles.
– 2nd John and 3rd John are included as General Epistles despite the fact they are addressed to the ‘elect lady’, thought by many scholars to be the Church itself, and to ‘Gaius’, about whom there has been much speculation but little in the way of conclusive proof as to his actual identity.
– Even today, some scholars continue to question the actual authorship of these works. Some believe 2 Peter to be a pseudepigraphal work.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years
– The Letter to the Hebrews has been deemed the work of an unknown author since the very beginning of Christianity. More than one Church Father declared that only God would ever know the actual identity of the author who wrote Hebrews. Even so, numerous theories and conjectures as to who really wrote it have been circulating throughout the Church for many centuries. Some believers have contended that St. Paul is the real author. A careful reading of the text, however, reveals that ‘the grammar and use of certain key Pauline terms is markedly different from the whole body of his identified (written) work.’ In other words, there is substantial linguistic evidence that someone else besides St. Paul wrote the Letter to the Hebrews.
– Considering the fact that quite a few Old Testament books were also wtitten by unknown authors, one could rightfully say that occasional anonymity is actually a key aspect of the overall Biblical (Judeo-Christian) tradition. In other words, it may well be considered an authenticlly Hebrew tradition to include anonymous sacred writings into Scriptures. As one source puts it bluntly, ‘Most of the writings in the Old Testaments are authored by anonymous Israelites, and in many cases it is not known whether they were compiled by individuals or groups.’ Thus, the anonymous nature of the Letter to the Hebrews is nothing new to the the Bible or to the religions of Judaism and Christianity
– The Syrian Orthodox Peshitta, ‘excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch).’ Even today, the educational program for this particular Eastern Christian Sect: ‘presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.’
– The Third Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.

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0 A.D. – The Birth of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)
33 A.D. – The Death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)

The Basic Dates, Books, and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

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The Basic Chronological List of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament

1) The Gospel of Matthew was probably written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D. or later

2) The Gospel of Mark was probably written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D. or later

3) The Gospel of Luke was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D. or later

4) The Gospel of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

5) The Book of Acts was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D. or later

6) The Letter to the Romans was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.or later

9) The Letter to the Galatians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

10) The Letter to the Ephesians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

11) The Letter to the Philippians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

12) The Letter to the Colossians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was probably  written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

17) The Letter to Titus was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

18) The Letter to Philemon was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

19) The Letter to the Hebrews was probably written by an unknown author in the year 65 A,D. or later

20) The Letter of James was probably written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D. or later

21) The 1st Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

23) The 1st Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

25) The 3rd Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

26) The Letter of Jude was probably written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D. or later

27) The Book of Revelation was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Jude

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity +

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim

A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b

– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’

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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah): This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:

Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)
1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)
6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)
14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles

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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

The Bible of Christianity
– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi
– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament

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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

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The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi

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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible

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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible
Authors: over 40 individuals
Translations: over 1,200 languages
Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible
Chapters:1,189
Verses: 31,071
Words: 783,137
Letters: 3,566,480
Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)
Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)
Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)
Shortest Book: 3 John
Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)
Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’
Middle Books: Micah and Nahum
Middle Chapter: Psalm 117
Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8
The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times
The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible

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Facts and Figures of the Bible
~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.
~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.
~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’
~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).
~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’
~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.
~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.
~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years.  Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

+ The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397),  Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)
~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte

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Numbers and Statistics of the Bible
~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.
~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.
~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.
~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.
~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages
~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)
~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35
~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35
~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters
~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions
~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.
~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454
~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535
~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee

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Versions and Translations of the Bible
~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.
~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.
~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.
~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.
~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).
~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible
~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.
~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies
~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.
~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.
~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).
~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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History and Language of the Bible
~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.
~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.
~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.
~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.
~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.
~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.
~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.
~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of  procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.
~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.
~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.
~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.
~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.
~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’
~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.
~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.
~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.
~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.
~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa

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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible

~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.
~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.
~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.
~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.

~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)
~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.
~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.
~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.
~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.
~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.
~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.
~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.
~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.
~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.
~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.
~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.
~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.
~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. –
– The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The  4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter.

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In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

A Reference Guide to the Books, the Authors, and the Dates of the Old Testament

The Protestant Old Testament (39 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Esther, 18) Job, 19) Psalms, 20) Proverbs, 21) Ecclesiastes, 22) Song of Songs, 23) Isaiah, 24) Jeremiah, 25) Lamentations, 26) Ezekiel, 27) Daniel, 28) Hosea, 29) Joel, 30) Amos, 31) Obadiah, 32) Jonah, 33) Micah, 34) Nahum, 35) Habakkuk, 36) Zephaniah, 37) Haggai, 38) Zechariah, 39) Malachi

The Catholic Old Testament (46 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Tobit, 18) Judith, 19) Esther, 20) 1 Maccabees, 21) 2 Maccabees, 22) Job, 23) Psalms, 24) Proverbs, 25) Ecclesiastes, 26) Song of Songs, 27) Wisdom, 28) Sirach, 29) Isaiah, 30) Jeremiah, 31) Lamentations, 32) Baruch, 33) Ezekiel, 34) Daniel, 35) Hosea, 36) Joel, 37) Amos, 38) Obadiah, 39) Jonah, 40) Micah, 41) Nahum, 42) Habakkuk, 43) Zephaniah, 44) Haggai, 45) Zechariah, 46) Malachi

Basic Statistics of the Old Testament
The Number of Protestant Books = 39
The Number of Catholic Books = 46
The Number of Eastern Orthodox Books = 51
The Middle book = Book of Proverbs
The Largest Book = Book of Psalms
The Smallest Book = Book of Obadiah
The Oldest Book = Book of Job (~1,000 B.C.)
The Newest Book = Book of Malachi (400 BC)
The Chapters = 929
The Middle chapter = Job 20
The Longest chapter = Psalms 119
The Verses = 23,114
The Middle verses = 2 Chronicles 20:17,18
The Shortest verse = 1 Chronicles 1:25
The Longest verse = Esther 8:9
The Words = 602,585
The Letters = 2,278,100

The Books, Authors, and Dates of the Old Testament
1. The Book of Genesis was written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
2. The Book of Exodus was written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
3. The Book of Leviticus was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
4. The Book of Numbers was written by the Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
5. The Book of Deuteronomy was written by Moses in 1,400 B.C.
6. The Book of Joshua was written by Joshua in the year 1,350 B.C.
7. The Book of Judges was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
8. The Book of Ruth was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
9. The 1st Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
10. The 2nd Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
11. The 1st Book of Kings was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
12. The 2nd Book of Kingswas written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
15. The Book of Ezra was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
16. The Book of Nehemiah was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author in the year 400 B.C.
18. The Book of Job was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
19. The Book of Psalms was written by King David in the year 1,000 B.C.
20. The Book of Proverbs was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
22. The Song of Solomon was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C,
23. The Book of Isaiah was written by the Prophet Isaiah in the year 700 B.C.
24. The Book of Jeremiah was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
25. The Book of Lamentations was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
26. The Book of Ezekiel was written by the Prophet Ezekiel in the year 550 B.C.
27. The Book of Daniel was written by the Prophet Daniel  in the year 550 B.C.
28. The Book of Hosea, was written by the Prophet Hosea in the year 750 B.C.
29. The Book of Joel, by was written by the Prophet Joel in the year 850 B.C.
30. The Book of Amos was written by the Prophet Amos in the year 750 B.C.
31. The Book of Obadiah was written by the Prophet Obadiah in the year 600 B.C.,
32. The Book of Jonah was written by the Prophet Jonah in the year 700 B.C.
33. The Book of Micah was written by the Prophet  Micah in the year 700 B.C.
34. The Book of Nahum was written by the Prophet Nahum in the year 700 B.C.
35. The Book of Habakkuk was written by the Prophet  Habakkuk in the year 600 B.C.
36. The Book of Zephaniah was written by the Prophet  Zephaniah in the year 650 B.C.
37. The Book of Haggai was written by the Prophet Haggai in the year 520 B.C.
38. The Book of Zechariah was written by the Prophet Zechariah in the year 500 B.C.
39. The Book of Malachi was written by the Prophet Malachi in the year 430 B.C.
40. The Book of Tobit was written by Tobit in the year 200 B.C.
41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author in the year 150 B.C.
42. The Book of Wisdom was written by Solomon in the year 100 B.C.
43. The Book of Sirach was written by Jesus ben Sirach in the year 200 B.C.
44. The Book of Baruch was written by Baruch in the year 150 B.C.
45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.
46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

Official Church Lists of The Old Testament Books

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach], twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

– Council of Carthage III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

The whole canon of the Scriptures, however, in which we say that consideration is to be applied, is contained in these books: the five of Moses…and one book of Joshua (Son of) Nave, one of Judges; one little book which is called Ruth…then the four of Kingdoms, and the two of Paralipomenon…(T)here are also others too, of a different order…such as Job and Tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of Maccabees, and the two of Esdras…Then there are the Prophets, in which there is one book of the Psalms of David, and three of Solomon…But as to those two books, one of which is entitled Wisdom and the other of which is entitled Ecclesiasticus and which are called of Solomon’ because of a certain similarity to his books, it is held most certainly that they were written by Jesus Sirach. They must, however, be accounted among the prophetic books, because of the authority which is deservedly accredited to them.

– Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397)

A brief addition shows what books really are received in the canon. These are the things of which you desired to be informed verbally: of Moses, five books, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, of Deuteronomy, and Joshua, of Judges, one book, of Kings, four books, and also Ruth, of the Prophets, sixteen books, of Solomon, five books, the Psalms. Likewise of the histories, Job, one book, of Tobit, one book, Esther, one, Judith, one, of the Maccabees, two, of Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books.

– Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408)

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books . . . Let this be sent to our brother and fellow bishop, [Pope] Boniface, and to the other bishops of those parts, that they may confirm this canon, of these are the things which we have received from our fathers to be read in church.

– The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419)
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The Traditional Names of the Books of the Old Testament
The 39 Traditional Names of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Traditional Names of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
– John 1:1

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Books of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Books of the Bible
– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.
– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.
– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).
– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.
– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.
The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 ohn instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets
– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.
– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses
– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.
– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.
– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

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Chapters of the Bible

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible
– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.
– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.
– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.
– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses
– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.
– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.
– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.
– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.
– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.
– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!
– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.
– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.
– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

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Verses of the Bible

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

Brief Facts about the Verses of the Bible
– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.
– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.
– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.
– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.
– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.
– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.
– Joshua 7:24, 1Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.
– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.
– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.
– According to populr opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \
– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.
– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.
– The middle verse of theOld Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.
– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words

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Words of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible
– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains pproximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.
– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible
– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)
– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’
– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible
Bath = about 9 gallons
Bekah = ¼ of an ounce
Cab = 2 quarts
Cubit = about 18 inches
Day’s journey = 20-25 miles
Ephah = about 1 bushel
Farthing = ¼ cent
Fathom = 6 feet
Finger = ¾ of an inc
Firkin = 9 gallons
Furlong = fraction of a mile
Gerah  = .4 ounces
Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches
Hin = 6 quarts
Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry
Log = 1 pint
Mite = of a cent
Omer = 7 pints
Pound = about $16 in money
Reed = about 11 feet
Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile
Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver
Span = about 9 inches
Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

Word Repetition in the Bible
– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times
– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times
– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.
– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.
– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.
– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times
– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.
– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible
– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).
– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.
– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.
– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)
– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)
– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)
– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.
– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)
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Names of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible
– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.
– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spellingand pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.
– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

Male Name Repetition in the Bible
– David: mentioned 1118 times
– Moses: mentioned 740 times
– Aaron: mentioned 339 times
– Saul: mentioned 338 times
– Abraham: mentioned 306 times
– Solomon: mentioned 295 times
– Jacob: mentioned 270 times
– Joseph: mentioned 208 times
– Joshua: mentioned 197 times
– Paul: mentioned 185 times
– Peter: mentioned 166 times
– Joab: mentioned 137 times
– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times
– Samuel: mentioned 135 times
– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

Female Name Repetition in the Bible
– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times
– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times
– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times
– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times
– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times
– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times
– Abigail: 15 times
– Miriam: 15 times
– Mary Magdalene: 14 times
– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times
– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters
– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)
– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)
– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)
– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)
– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)
– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)
– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)
– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)
– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)
– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)
– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)
– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)
– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)
– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)
– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)
– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)
– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)
– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)
– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)
– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)
– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his own daughter (Judges 11:30)
– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)
1. Hosea
2. Joel
3. Amos
4. Obadiah
5. Jonah
6. Micah
7. Nahum
8. Habakkuk
9. Zephaniah
10. Haggai
11. Zecariah
12. Malachi

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colosians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

 

 

Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the age.

– Matthew 28:19-20

 

 

The Tradition of Christianity –

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

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Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– President Barack Obama, a Protestant Christian for over 20 years

Barack Obama, the first African-American President in a nation that was still practicing black slavery a mere 140 years ago, is one of the most inspiring occurrences in the 21st century and may well be a sign that the third millennium will turn out to be an era of peace and prosperity for all Americans, and for all God’s children throughout the world. In many ways, his election as the most powerful leader in the world, indicates that the Christian doctrine of universal brotherhood has managed to emerge triumphant after a very scary, and completely evil, previous century that threatened the very foundations of Christianity. At the same time, a great many of Obama’s public statements have been infused with the inspirational and moral certainty that originates with his faith in Christianity. Here are just a few highlights:

My Bible tells me that if we train a child in the way he should go, when he is old he will not turn from it. I think faith and guidance can help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence all young people for the act of sexual intimacy.

– Senator Barack Obama

We believe in a country that rewards hard work and responsibility, a country where we look after one another, a country where we say, ‘I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, I’m not just thinking about myself.’

– President Barack Obama

The fact of the matter is that, regardless of Barack Obama’s politics, some of which are in opposition to traditional Christian doctrines, he is still an authentic, genuine Christian believer who has been properly baptized by an ordained Christian minister. After this he did not fall, and he did not stray. Instead, he dutifully attended Christian Sabbath on a weekly basis for over 20 years before running for President. What follows is a basic guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama. It has been organized in the following manner:

Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

Part IV. America’s Confusion and Misinformation about Obama’s Christianity

Part V. The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity

Part VI. The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans

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Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

As somebody who relies heavily on my Christian faith in my job, I understand the passions that religious faith can raise.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(The story of Jesus’ birth) that we are called to love each other as we love ourselves, that we are our brother’s keeper and our sister’s keeper, and our destinies are linked…It’s a message that guides my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(We can) see God in other people and do our best to help them find their, you know, their own grace…So that’s what I strive to do…That’s what I pray to do everyday. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

= President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I found myself drawn – not just to work with the church but to be in the church…It was through this service that I was brought to Christ.

– President Barack Obama, University of Notre Dame (May 17, 2010)

It was because of these new-found understandings – that religious commitment did not require me to suspend critical thinking…that I was finally able to walk down the aisle of Trinity United Church of Christ one day and be baptized…But kneeling beneath that cross on the South Side of Chicago, I felt God’s spirit beckoning me. I submitted myself to His will, and dedicated myself to discovering His truth.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

Secularists are wrong when they ask believers to leave their religion at the door before entering into the public square. Frederick Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, Williams Jennings Bryant, Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King – indeed, the majority of great reformers in American history – were not only motivated by faith, but repeatedly used religious language to argue for their cause. So to say that men and women should not inject their “personal morality” into public policy debates is a practical absurdity. Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– Barack Obama (June 28, 2006)

There is hope for a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again and that its tender branch will not cease…The work ahead will not be easy, and there will be setbacks. There will be challenges along the way. But thanks to you, thanks to the great people of this great city, New Orleans is blossoming again.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I am a Christian by choice…I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead…Being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper. Treating others as they would treat me. And I think also understanding that you know, that Jesus Christ dying for my sins spoke to the humility that we all have to have as human beings.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I’m a Christian by choice. My family didn’t-frankly, they weren’t folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn’t raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead-being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper, treating others as they would treat me….

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead: being my brother’s and sister’s keeper, treating others as they would treat me…I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

It’s interesting listening to the girls, what they pray for…They’ll talk about family and thanking God for blessing us, but they’ll always add a little twist: ‘I hope we have a great Thanksgiving, I can’t wait to see the cousins…They used to pray for a dog, until we got a dog.

– President Barack Obama, commenting on the Obama family prayer before dinner

It means all the world to us to know that there are prayer circles out there and people who are keeping the spirits clean around us.

– First Lady Michelle Obama

I’d just sit in the back and I’d listen to the choir and I’d listen to the sermon…There were times that I would just start tearing up listening to the choir and share that sense of release..

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

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Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Obama’s Christian Rhetoric

QUOTE- As president, Barack Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ in a number of high-profile public speeches – something his predecessor George W. Bush rarely did in such settings, even though Bush’s Christian faith was at the core of his political identity…Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House – even though Bush’s victories were powered in part by evangelical voters….Still, it is ironic that Obama, who rode a wave of young, Internet-savvy and more secular voters to the White House, would more freely invoke the name of Jesus Christ than did Bush. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

QUOTE- In openly personal terms, President Barack Obama on Tuesday honored the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, saying he draws inspiration from an eternal story of pain, suffering and redemption…Obama’s comments provided a brief, uncommon opening into how he views his Christian faith. He told the religious leaders that their examples are followed by millions of people. He welcomed them warmly as “my brothers and sisters in Christ” and honored Christ as “our risen savior.”…Obama has also held White House events honoring the Jewish and Muslim faiths. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Family Prayer

QUOTE- The first family says grace each night before dinner, President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle told ABC News in an interview that aired Friday…The Obamas have frequently spoken about prayer since arriving in the White House. Last month, Michelle Obama told a nationally syndicated radio show that the Obamas can feel prayers that are said for them…In 2009, Barack Obama said that he had stepped up his praying since becoming president ‘because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate, and I need guidance all the time.’…He told ABC News then that he starts each morning by reviewing a devotional he receives on his BlackBerry. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Little Known Christian Faith

QUOTE- A new poll from the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life indicates that the number of Americans who erroneously believe President Obama is a Muslim is growing…In March 2009, the percentage was 11 percent. Today, it’s 18 percent…The percentage of those asserting that the president is a Christian — which he is — has gone down in that time, from 48% in March 2009 to 34% today…A plurality of Americans — 43% — say they don’t know what religion the president is. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Daily Christian Readings

QUOTE- President Barack Obama is a great example of how technology and religion are symbiotic. Each morning, Obama reads a devotional on his BlackBerry….“I pray all the time now – because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate and I need guidance all the time,” he said with a laugh during an interview with ABC’s Nightline that was aired Thursday night…Obama sai receives his daily devotional from Joshua DuBois, his director of faith and neighborhood initiatives….“That’s how I start my morning. You know, he’s got a passage, scripture, in some cases quotes from other faiths to reflect on. This is something where you just hope that you are aligning your work with His purposes and that you’re attuned to the needs of the people you’re there to serve,” he said. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Tolerant Christian Understanding of Faith and Sin

QUOTE- “This is a country that is still predominantly Christian, but we have Jews, Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, Buddhists” and others, he said, adding that “their own path to grace is one that we have to revere and respect as much as our own, and that is part of what makes this country what it is.”…Humans are “sinful” and “flawed” beings that make mistakes and “achieve salvation through the grace of God,” the president continued….Obama responded that abortion should be “safe, legal and rare” in America, adding that families — not the government — “should be the ones making the decision.”…Restrictions against late-term abortion are in place now, he said, adding that “people still argue and disagree about it. That’s part of our Democratic tradition.” -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Faith Denied and Defamed

QUOTE- Americans have some extreme views of President Obama, with a new controversial survey suggesting that 40 percent of adults believe he is a socialist, and about a quarter of survey participants thinking the president is a racist, anti-American and even doing things Hitler did…When broken out by political party, results showed some stark differences. For instance, the majority of Republicans believed the president is a Muslim and a socialist, while around 40 percent believe he is a racist, someone who resents American heritage and “wants terrorists to win.”…Forty percent of Republicans, compared with just 15 percent of Democrats, think Wall Street pulls his strings. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Non-Muslim Past and Christian Present

QUOTE- Obama, however, claimed that his father, who he only knew as an infant, was an atheist. He assured that his time as President has only served to deepen his commitment to Christianity….Obama has repeatedly said that he is a Christian and prays regularly, but more Americans than ever have raised doubts over his beliefs. -UNQUOTE

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Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

– President Obama publically affirmed his Christian faith to a predominantly Muslim audience in Cairo, Egypt. He went to mention the famous Islamic legend of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed came together as one and prayed to God.

– Speaking to students at the University of Notre Dame, Barack Obama repeatedly described about his religious conversion to Christianity which occurred in Chicago working with the inner-city poor as a community activist.

– While discussing his economic policies in a speech at Georgetown Univeristy, President Obama deliberately invoked the Christian Gospel parable of building a house upon a foundation of either sand or solid rock to illustrate his political strategy.

– Even though he remains virulently opposed to nearly all of Obama liberal politics, Mr. Tony Perkins, who is president of the Family Research Council, a conservative Christian interest group, is on record praising the President’s openly Christian faith. Commenting on Barack Obama’s religious faith, He stated: ‘I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort.’

– Obama also managed to schedule an Easter prayer breakfast at the White House specifically for Christian pastors. During his opening remarks, he openly and specifically employed devout Christian rhetoric, even welcoming all the assembled guests as ‘my brothers and sisters in Christ.’

– A growing number of different news organizations have been reluctantly forced to make note of President Obama’s astonishing, and frequent, use of the term Jesus Christ, as well as other blatantly Christian terminology. One particular article even admitted the following: ‘Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House’.

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America’s Misinformed Confusion about Obama’s Christianity

Did you know that…

1) Since becoming President, Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ by name in public far more often than George W. Bush ever did during his tenure?

2) The Obama family, including his wife Michelle and their two daughters, recite Christian grace and prayers every night before eating dinner?

3) Barack Obama begins each morning by reading and reflecting upon Christian Scriptures and Prayers with one of his Christian staff members?

4) The historical evidence shows that Obama was never really a Muslim believer, while his sincere and authentic conversion to Christianity later in life has been clearly documented and verified?

5) President Obama has read and studied Roman Catholic Saint Augustine, the Christian intellectual Graham Greene, and the famous Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr?

President Obama prays at the Western Wall in Jerusalem

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+ The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity +

Obama’s Public Christian Witness

Opposition To: I don’t need to hear politicians tell me how religious they are…Obama in a very overt way does what Bush tended to do in a more covert way. (Rev. Barry Lynn, United for Separation of Church and State)

Acceptance Of: I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort. (Tony Perkins, President of Family Research Council)

Obama’s Actual Christian Faith

Opposition To: Obama can call himself anything he likes, but there is a clear requirement for one to qualify as a Christian and Obama doesn’t meet that requirement…Such people do have a label applied to them in Scripture. They are called ‘false prophets’. (Cal Thomas)

Acceptance Of: Obama has accepted Jesus Christ. That’s what he says he has done. So I just have to believe that the president is what he has said. (Reverend Franklin Graham, Son of Billy Graham)

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

Opposition To: The fact Senator Obama denies Jesus is the only way to be saved…calls into question whether he believes…It is time for Senator Obama to be held accountable for what he says he believes to examine if he really is a Christian. (Bill Keller)

Acceptance Of: The president says he’s a Christian. I take him at his word…I think the faith that most Americans are questioning is the President’s faith in the government to generate jobs. (Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell)

Obama’s Christian Theology

Opposition To: I think he’s deliberately distorting the traditional understanding of the Bible to fit his own worldview, his own confused theology…He is dragging biblical understanding through the gutter. (James Dobson, Focus on the Family)

Acceptance Of: He presents his Christianity as an important aspect of his identity but one he doesn’t want to foist upon anyone else, and he would rather risk downplaying it than offending somebody…This notion that we are our brothers’ keepers…is kind of a mantra for him.(Jeffrey Siker, Loyola Marymount University)

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– The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans –

Some Astonishing Facts about the Misinformed Beliefs of American Voters

+ Bill Keller, a Internet Televangelist, accused President Barack Obama on-air of being an ‘Enemy of God’

+ 14 percent of Americans (24 percent of Republicans and 6 percent of Democrats) believe President Barack Obama may be the Antichrist.

+ A Pew Research poll in August (2010) revealed ‘that one in five Americans falsely believe the president is a Muslim, more than thought so last year’.

+ In a poll by Newsweek, 12 percent of voters incorrectly believe he’s Muslim; more than a quarter believe he was raised in a Muslim home.

+ A Time Magazine poll found that 24 percent of Americans believe Obama is a Muslim, rather than a Christian.

A typical poster filled with lies and disinformation originally created by an Obama Hater

A List of Specific Beliefs of Certain Americans

38% – Believe Obama wants to abolish the right to bear arms

32% – Believe Obama is actually a Muslim in disguise

29% – Believe Obama intends to end U.S. independence and establish a single world government.

29% – Believe Obama has secretly violated the U.S. Constitution

27% – Believe Obama resent’s America’s heritage

27% – Believe Obama is the puppet of Wall Street bankers

25% – Believe Obama was not actually born on United States soil

25% – Believe Obama is the enemy of the U.S. Constitution

23% – Believe Obama is a racist

23% – Believe Obama is anti-American

23% – Believe Obama plans on staging a economic collapse of terrorist incident to seize control and declare Martial Law

20% – Believe Obama is doing the same thing Hitler did

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My the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles.

A Last Important Quote-

And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

Bible – Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible

Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible




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Some Strange and Astonishing Numbers of the Bible
– The King of Bashan was apparently so huge he had a bed measuring 13 and 1/2  feet long long and 6 feet wide. (Deutronomy 3:11)
– Absalom once had 6.5 pounds of actual hair removed during his annual haircut. (2 Samuel 14: 26)
– King Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines, and 12,000 horses. (1 Kings 11:1-3)
– An Army of 185,000 wound up being destroyed in a single night (Isaiah 37:36)
– Rehoboam was a father of 88 children. (2 Chronicles 11:21)
– King Zimri is said to have reigned for only 7 days. (I Kings 16:15)
– Methuselah, a son of Adam, lived to be 969 years old. (Genesis 5:27)
– Noah was 600 years old when he built the ark, and 950 years old when he died. (Genesis 7:6 and Genesis 9:29)
– Adam was 930 years old when he died. (Genesis 5:5)
– One man supposedly had 12 fingers and 12 toes. (2 Samuel 21:20)
– A Biblical army once consisted of 700 left-handed men. (Judges 20:16)



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Strange and Impossible Occurrences in the Bible
– A large group of men actually drank water like dogs. (Judges 7:5)
– A soaking wet sacrifice was then burnt through a supernatural occurrence. (1 Kings 18:17-40)
– A man named Balaam was once directly spoken to by a donkey. (Numbers 22:28-30)
– Women shaved their heads completely before getting married. (Deuteronomy 21:11-13)
– The once sun stood still for an entire day. (Joshua 10:13)
– One man increased his overall lifettime by 15 years simply with prayer. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– The sun is purported to have gone backward, from west to east. (Isaiah 38:8)
– A prostitute named Rachab truly was an actual ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:5)
– The Prophet Elijah once outran a chariot. (1 Kings 18:41-46)
– An axe head made of iron ended up floating on top of the water. (I Kings 6:1-6)
– A desperate woman eventually boiled and ate her son  (2 Kings 6:29)
– The wicked Jezebel eventually had her body eaten by dogs. (2 Kings 9:30-36)
– Jacob once used a stone for a pillow. (Genesis 28:1)
– A baby named Zarah once had scarlet thread tied around her hand before birth. (Genesis 38:28-30)
– The Prophet Isaiah allegedly walked around naked for three years. (Isaiah 20:2-3)
– The Bible is described as being cut with a pen knife. (Jeremiah 36:20-2)
– John the Baptist supposedly ate only locusts and honey for food. (Mathew 3:4)
– A woman personally killed a man by driving a nail through his head. (Judges 4:17-21)
– Moses once caused a victory on the battlefield simply because he stretched out his hand (Exodus 17:11)



– The life of Hezekaih was increased by 15 years because he prayed. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– Seven women once wanted and sought after the same man.  (Isaiah 4:1)
– Obviously dead, dry bones were then miraculously brought to life. (Ezekiel 37)
– God is described as having had a wash pot (Psalms 60:6-8)
– An ancient bottle of milk is also described. (Judges 4:19)
– Someone is reputed to have been the first left-handed man in history. (Judges 3:15)
– There are 2 men in the Bible who never died but were instead caught up into Heaven are Enoch, from Genesis, and Elisjah: 1) Enoch, who walked with God and was no more (Genesis 5:22-24), and 2) Elijah, who was caught up by a whirlwind into heaven (II Kings 2:11).
– In ancient Israel, men closed a deal by exchanging sandals. (Ruth 4:7)
– Once when Ezekiel was just sitting in his house alone, a gigantic hand suddenly picked him up by the hair of his head and took him somewhere between heaven and earth. (Ezekiel 8:3)



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The Biblical Roots of Odd and Original Phrases

A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)



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– The Biblical Origins of 10 Specific Phrases –

1) Spare the rod, spoil the child –

He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.

– Proverbs 13:24

2) By the sweat of your brow-

To Adam he said, Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. … By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

– Genesis 3:17,19

3) It is better to give than to receive-

In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’

– Acts. 20:35

4) A leopard cannot change its spots-

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil

– Jeremiah 13:23



5) Money is the root of all evil-

For the love of money is a root of all sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.

– Timothy 6:10

6) Nothing new under the sun-

That which has been is that which will be, And that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun.

– Ecclesiastes 1:9

7) Let him who is without sin cast the first stone-

But when they persisted in asking Him, Jesus straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.’

– John 8:7

8) A Fly in the ointment-

Dead flies make a perfumer’s oil stink, so a little foolishness is weightier than wisdom and honor.

– Ecclesiastes 10:1



9) The Salt of the earth-

You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

– Matthew 5:13

10) Being Used as a Scapegoat-

The goat on which the lot for the scapegoat fell shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat.

– Leviticus 16:10



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Elijah.


Bible – The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

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God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim



A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b



– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’



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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism

– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah):
This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:



Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)

1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)

6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)

14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles



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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

Facts about the Bible of Christianity

– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi



– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity


 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1


– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

 

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

Facts about the Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Canons
– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon
= 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament



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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah
was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras
was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –



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– The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1
st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi



The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi



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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.



The Four Circles of Judeo-Christian WItchkraft = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire



The Four Corners
of Judeo-Christian Magick = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire

Bible – Books, Chapters, Verses, Words, and Names of the Bible

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

Books, Chapters, Verses, Words and Names of the Bible


 

– The Books of the Bible –

Facts about the Books of the Bible
– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.
– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.
– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).
– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.
– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.
The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 ohn instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets
– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.
– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses
– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.
– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.
– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

– The Chapters of the Bible –

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible
– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.
– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.
– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.
– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses
– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.
– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.
– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.
– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.
– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.
– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!
– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.
– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.
– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

– The Verses of the Bible –

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

Facts about the Verses of the Bible
– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.
– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.
– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.
– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.
– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.
– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.
– Joshua 7:24, 1Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.
– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.
– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.
– According to populr opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \
– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.
– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.
– The middle verse of the Old Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.
– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words.

– The Words of the Bible –

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible
– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains pproximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.
– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible
– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)
– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’
– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible
Bath = about 9 gallons
Bekah = ¼ of an ounce
Cab = 2 quarts
Cubit = about 18 inches
Day’s journey = 20-25 miles
Ephah = about 1 bushel
Farthing = ¼ cent
Fathom = 6 feet
Finger = ¾ of an inc
Firkin = 9 gallons
Furlong = fraction of a mile
Gerah  = .4 ounces
Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches
Hin = 6 quarts
Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry
Log = 1 pint
Mite = of a cent
Omer = 7 pints
Pound = about $16 in money
Reed = about 11 feet
Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile
Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver
Span = about 9 inches
Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

Word Repetition in the Bible
– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times
– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times
– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.
– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.
– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.
– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times
– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.
– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible
– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).
– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.
– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.
– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)
– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)
– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)
– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.
– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

– The Names of the Bible –

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible
– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.
– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spellingand pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.
– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

Male Name Repetition in the Bible
– David: mentioned 1118 times
– Moses: mentioned 740 times
– Aaron: mentioned 339 times
– Saul: mentioned 338 times
– Abraham: mentioned 306 times
– Solomon: mentioned 295 times
– Jacob: mentioned 270 times
– Joseph: mentioned 208 times
– Joshua: mentioned 197 times
– Paul: mentioned 185 times
– Peter: mentioned 166 times
– Joab: mentioned 137 times
– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times
– Samuel: mentioned 135 times
– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

Female Name Repetition in the Bible
– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times
– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times
– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times
– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times
– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times
– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times
– Abigail: 15 times
– Miriam: 15 times
– Mary Magdalene: 14 times
– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times
– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters
– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)
– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)
– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)
– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)
– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)
– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)
– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)
– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)
– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)
– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)
– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)
– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)
– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)
– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)
– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)
– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)
– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)
– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)
– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)
– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)
– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his owndaughter (Judges 11:30)
– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)
1. Hosea
2. Joel
3. Amos
4. Obadiah
5. Jonah
6. Micah
7. Nahum
8. Habakkuk
9. Zephaniah
10. Haggai
11. Zecariah
12. Malachi

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colosians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Christianity – Names, Numbers, Authors and Ikons of the New Testament

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.


Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark),

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Christianity – The Good News about Barack Obama, an American Christian President

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

The Good News about Barack Obama, an American Christian President
The following quotes from Christian President Barack Obama were taken during an interview conducted by Cathleen Falsani, a Chicago Sun-Times reporter, in 2004 when the possibility of him being elected President four years later would have been unthinkable. In the interview, Barack Obama’s public honesty towards his Christian faith was far more pronounced than today in the year 2011. This is mainly because the Republican opposition’s mockery and ridicule of his authentic and learned form of Christian faith has paid off with the American voters, many of whom are so delusional that they ignorantly believe him to be the anti-Christ and/or a secret Muslim lying about his Christian faith.

This interview goes far in proving that President Obama’s adherence to Christianity is very informed and directly based upon the teachings of Rabbi joshua (Jesus) as recorded in the Gospels. Here is a direct comparison of Barack Obama’s actual remarks and the relevant New Testament passage which clearly shows his authentic Christian faith to be just as rooted in Scriptures as any Republican believer, including ex-President George W. Bush. These comparisons also suggest that the ugly, vile attacks and brutal questioning of his religious beliefs since he became President has very little to do with the Bible and is most likely a subtle form of white racism in disguise.

THE OBAMA: (In Chicago’s) South Side working class and lower income communities…it was in those places where I think what had been more of an intellectual view of religion deepened…I became much more familiar with the ongoing tradition of the historic black church and it’s importance in the community. And the power of that culture to give people strength in very difficult circumstances, and the power of that church to give people courage against great odds. And it moved me deeply.
THE GOSPELS: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven….Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied…Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great. (Matthew 5:4-12)

THE OBAMA: But my mother was deeply spiritual person…her view always was that underlying these religions were a common set of beliefs about how you treat other people and how you aspire to act, not just for yourself but also for the greater good.
THE GOSPELS: In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.(Matthew 7:12)

THE OBAMA: I probably didn’t get started getting active in church activities until I moved to Chicago…one of the churches that I became involved in was Trinity United Church of Christ. And the pastor there, Jeremiah Wright, became a good friend. So I joined that church and committed myself to Christ in that church. It was a daytime service, during a daytime service. And it was a powerful moment. Because, it was powerful for me because it not only confirmed my faith, it not only gave shape to my faith, but I think, also, allowed me to connect the work I had been pursuing with my faith.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John…Jesus replied, ‘Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.’ Then John consented. As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, ‘This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.’ (Matthew 3:13-17)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith. So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition.
THE GOSPELS: “Have faith in God,” Jesus answered. “Truly I tell you, if anyone says to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself into the sea,’ and does not doubt in their heart but believes that what they say will happen, it will be done for them.” (Mark 11:22-23)

THE OBAMA: There are values that transcend race or culture, that move us forward, and there’s an obligation for all of us individually as well as collectively to take responsibility to make those values lived.
THE GOSPELS: Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and teach them to obey everything I have commanded. And I will be with you always, to the end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20)

THE OBAMA: I retain from my childhood and my experiences growing up a suspicion of dogma. And I’m not somebody who is always comfortable with language that implies I’ve got a monopoly on the truth, or that my faith is automatically transferable to others.
THE GOSPELS: Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, ‘You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant.’ (Mark 10:42-43)

THE OBAMA: I’m a big believer in tolerance. I think that religion at it’s best comes with a big dose of doubt. I’m suspicious of too much certainty in the pursuit of understanding just because I think people are limited in their understanding.
THE GOSPELS: (Jesus) said, “Woe to you lawyers as well! For you weigh men down with burdens hard to bear, while you yourselves will not even touch the burdens with one of your fingers.’ (Luke 11:46)

THE OBAMA: I think that, particularly as somebody who’s now in the public realm and is a student of what brings people together and what drives them apart, there’s an enormous amount of damage done around the world in the name of religion and certainty.
THE GOSPEL: Again I say to you, that if two of you agree on earth about anything that they may ask, it shall be done for them by My Father who is in Heaven. For where two or three have gathered together in My name, I am there in their midst. (Matthew 18:19-20)

THE OBAMA: Jesus is an historical figure for me, and he’s also a bridge between God and man, in the Christian faith, and one that I think is powerful precisely because he serves as that means of us reaching something higher.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus answered, ‘I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.’ (John 14:6)

THE OBAMA: And he’s also a wonderful teacher. I think it’s important for all of us, of whatever faith, to have teachers in the flesh and also teachers in history.
THE GOSPELS: The student is not above the teacher, nor a servant above his master. It is enough for students to be like their teachers, and servants like their masters. (Matthew 10:23-25)

THE OBAMA: Some of the things I talked about…are channeled through my Christian faith and a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.
THE GOSPELS: He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me. He who sees Me sees the One who sent Me. I have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. (John 12:44-46)

THE OBAMA: Alongside my own deep personal faith, I am a follower, as well, of our civic religion. I am a big believer in the separation of church and state…I am a great admirer of our founding charter, and its resolve to prevent theocracies from forming, and its resolve to prevent disruptive strains of fundamentalism from taking root ion this country. As I said before, in my own public policy, I’m very suspicious of religious certainty expressing itself in politics.
THE GOSPELS: Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. (Matthew 22:21)

THE OBAMA: I can give religious expression to that. I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, we are all children of God. Or I can express it in secular terms. But the basic premise remains the same. I think sometimes Democrats have made the mistake of shying away from a conversation about values for fear that they sacrifice the important value of tolerance. And I don’t think those two things are mutually exclusive.
THE GOSPELS: So Jesus was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, ‘If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.’ (John 8:31-32)

THE OBAMA: I think that I am disturbed by, let me put it this way: I think there is an enormous danger on the part of public figures to rationalize or justify their actions by claiming God’s mandate.
THE GOSPELS: Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows’ houses, and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive greater condemnation. (Matthew 23:14)

THE OBAMA: This is something that I’m sure I’d have serious debates with my fellow Christians about. I think that the difficult thing about any religion, including Christianity, is that at some level there is a call to evangelize and proselytize. There’s the belief, certainly in some quarters, that people haven’t embraced Jesus Christ as their personal savior that they’re going to Hell.
THE GOSPELS: Go throughout the whole world and preach the gospel to all people. (Mark 16:15)

THE OBAMA: I find it hard to believe that my God would consign four-fifths of the world to hell…I can’t imagine that my God would allow some little Hindu kid in India who never interacts with the Christian faith to somehow burn for all eternity…That’s just not part of my religious makeup.
THE GOSPELS: See that you do not despise one of these little ones. For I tell you that their angels in Heaven always see the face of my Father in Heaven. (Matthew 18:14)

THE OBAMA: When I tuck my daughters in at night and I feel like I’ve been a good father to them, and I see in them that I am transferring values that I got from my mother and that they’re kind people and that they’re honest people and that they’re curious people, that’s a little piece of Heaven.
THE GOSPELS: If anyone causes one of these little ones-those who believe in me-to stumble, it would be better for them to have a large millstone hung around their neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea. (Matthew 18:6)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith…So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition. I believe that there are many paths to the same place.
THE GOSPELS: John said unto him, ‘Teacher, we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followed not us.’ But Jesus said, ‘Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. For he that is not against us is for us.’ (Mark 9:38-40)

THE OBAMA: And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.
THE GOSPELS: Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:17-20)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition.

The New Testament – A Comprehensive Summary

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 

– John 1:1

Understanding the Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.

Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. –

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament

45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

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The Formal Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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– The New Testament in Brief –

A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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This shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, says the LORD. I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

– Jeremiah 31:33

– A Summary of the Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament –

For the most part, the 27 different Books of the Christian New Testament have remained exactly the same since the earliest centuries of Christianity. However, because of the lack of proper Church documentation during these times, most Biblical scholars and historians have tended to rely upon the written proclamations o the later Church Councils, most especially the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. which was convened by the order of Emperor Constantine I, who later became the first Roman Emperor to ever convert to Christianity.

For many scholars and historians, surviving documents dating from the 4th century Christian Councils of Nicea (325 A.D.) and Carthage (397 A.D.) represent the first actual official statements concerning the Biblical Canon of the Christian faith, including the exact contents of both the Old and New Testament. In reality, the New Testament Canon of 27 different books had already been fully established within the early Church, and among most believers,  long before it ever became ‘official’ under the reign of Constantine, who assisted in the first official State recognition of Christianity and the Church. Before then, the Christian faith had undergone a series of persecutions which then slowly transformed into acceptance and eventual recognition

In terms of history, the reign of Emperor Constantine I represented a clear and decisive victory for the religion of Christianity. After centuries of state-sponsored oppression and animosity, the Christian Church finally achieved official recognition and legal status according to the Imperial laws of Rome. Most of this was due to Constantine I and his benevolent influence. In time, this inevitably led to a declaration calling for a general meeting of all the Christian bishops found throughout the Roman Empire. that was clearly intended to be ‘the first ecumenical conference of the early Christian Church.’ This initial push to better organize the Christian religion throughout the Empire culminated in the year 325 A.D. with what is now called the First Council of Nicea. One of the Council”s main achievements, which had historical ramifications for centuries to come, involved the creation of ‘the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed.’

A Summary of the Council of Nicea (325 AD)  and the Synod of Carthage (397 AD)
Historically speaking, this same Council at Nicea also decided upon the final version of the Holy Bible including the total number of Books which were to be accepted as Scripture. In reality, the Church had already made their up their minds about the precise content of the Christian Bible. The Council of Nicea simply made things official. Even so, another general conference of Church leaders took place in 397 A.D. called the Synod of Carthage. One of their official Church decrees was deliberately intended as ‘an effort to protect the scriptures from various heresies and offshoot religious movements’. Thus, in order to prevent Scriptures from any future danger, the Council of Carthage held a special meeting on the 28th of August (397) where “the current 27 books of the New Testament were formally and finally confirmed and ‘canonized'” The Council of Carthage’s official list of accepted Biblical books, comprised of both the the Old and New Testament, reads as follows:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Josue, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kingdoms, 2 books of Paralipomenon, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaias, Jeremias, Daniel, Ezechiel, Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Machabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John.

– The Council of Carthage (397 A.D.)

Thus, it can be stated with all authority that the 27 different New Testament books, as they are still being used today, has been the only officially recognized text of Christianity for over 1,600 years. In other words, the every single Christian denomination since that time has remained in fundamental agreement over Scriptures, regardless of the any traditional Protestant/Catholic/Orthodox animosity. Put bluntly the New Testament, considered the fundamental sacred text of the religion of Christianity, has remained the same since the very beginning of the Church. Likewise, the Eastern Orthodox Church officially accepted the same 27 New Testament books in the year 367 A.D. and listed them in ‘the 39th Paschal Letter of Athanasius’.

Thus, the official names and  actual sequence of the 27 different books of the New Testament has been a key aspect of official Christian doctrine since the very beginning. Even so, the precise dates and actual authors of the various texts continue to remain a controversial issue even today, nearly 2,000 years later, and have yet to be settled to any great extent among a number of relevant scholars and experts in the field. Because of the strong, on-going differences in opinion about who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament and when they were actually written, the following list of authors and dates should not be seen as any final statement or ultimate conclusion. Even so, the general Church consensus has, for several centuries now, tended to believe that the entire 27 books of the Christianity’s New Testament were written by eight specific men. They include:

The 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) St. Matthew
2) St. Mark
3) St. Luke
4) St. John
5) St. Paul
6) St. Peter
7) St. Jude
8) St. James

There is compelling evidence that this ‘8 men’ theory is, in fact, true. Nevertheless, certain compelling questions remain about  even though the simplicity of such a claim has caused numerous Biblical scholars to reject it as too simplistic of an explanation. To be fair to the skeptics and naysayers, there still remain serious discrepancies in some of the basic orthodox assumption about who really wrote at least some of the 27 official New Testament books of Christianity. Thus, the following list should be seen as a summary of what most Biblical scholars have concluded over the many centuries since the Councils of Nicea and Carthage finalized the New Testament Canon of the early Christian Church. So, even though debate still rages on about the precise dates and actual authors, the list below can still help to establish a general picture of who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament along with the dates when they were written. As history has shown, the fierce debate about these particular issues have always been a crucial part of the Judeo-Christian tradition and will continue to be as time goes by.

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A List of the Authors and Dates of the New Testament

1. The Gospel of Matthew: by St. Matthew (55-90 A.D.)
2. The Gospel of Mark: by St. Mark, also known as John Mark (50-90 A.D.)
3. The Gospel of Luke: by St. Luke (60-90 A.D.)
4. The Gospel of John: by St. John, John the Elder (70-90 A.D.)
5. The Book of Acts: by St. Luke (65-90 A.D.)
6. The Letter to the Romans: by St. Paul (58 A.D.)
7. 1st Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
8. 2nd Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (55 A.D.)
9. Letter to the Galatians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
10. Letter to the Ephesians: by St. Paul (50-92 A.D.)
11. Letter to the Philippians: by St. Paul (50-65 A.D.)
12. Letter to the Colossians: by St. Paul (50-63 A.D.)
13. 1st Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
14. 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
15. 1st Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
16. 2nd Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
17. Letter to Titus: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
18. Letter to Philemon: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
19. Letter to the Hebrews: unknown, possibly by St. Paul, or Luke, Barnabas, or Apollo (60-90 A.D.)
20. Letter of James: by St. James (45-132 A.D.)
21. 1st Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-96 A,D,)
22. 2nd Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-150 A.D.)
23. 1st Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
24. 2nd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
25. 3rd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
26. Letter of Jude: by St. Jude (60-100 A.D.)
27. Book of Revelation: by St. John, John Mark, John the Elder (81-96 A.D.)

As stated previously, this list was never intended to be seen as the absolute authority on the subject of New Testament authors and dates. Instead, it was meant to provide a basic frame of reference for those who are relatively new to the subject. One should remember that the precise identity of any Biblical author has never been deemed that important to the overall understanding of Scriptures. This is why the continued mystery about who actually wrote the New Testament Letter to the Hebrews does not detract from the God-fearing words which have been left behind. More than one Old Testament book has also been written by yet another nameless, faceless source who is destined to remain anonymous, perhaps forever. Listed below are some of the more important aspects concerning the 27 books of the New Testament. They include the following:

Eight Key Aspects of the Judeo-Christian New Testament
I- In the 21st century, the New Testament is still considered to have exactly 27 Books. This has been the clear consensus among every known sect of Christianity since the earliest days of the Church.
II- In terms of exact numbers, the New Testament is a set of 27 separate books composed of around 7,959 verses made up of approximately 181,253 different words.
III- The oldest book of the New Testament is probably the book of James, written as early as 45 A.D. On the other hand, the Book of Revelation represents the youngest book of the New Testament, written about 95 A.D.
IV- Nearly the entire New Testament (90% or more) was written in Greek, although some scholars claim that at least ‘some may have been first written in Aramaic.’
V- The specific 27 books still found in today’s New Testament were officially canonized sometime around the year 375 A.D. After that, these same writings were then deemed by the leaders of the Church to be a distinctive part of what has been called the Word of God.
VI- From 367 A.D. onward, the Church’s final list of books for the New Testament clearly included the same 27 books that can be seen and studied using today’s Scriptures and are accepted by both modern Protestants and Catholic forms of Christianity. Even so, the highly apocalyptic Book of Revelation continued to be debated and disputed within the early Church hierarchy until almost 600 CE.
VII- Interestingly enough, the New Testament Canon decided to retain only four Gospels, out of some fifty other Gospels which were available throughout the first few centuries of Christianity.
VIII- Due to the inherent nature of Christianity, the Bible has inevitably become some of ‘the most disseminated books in the world,’ at least according to the New American Bible (Research Group). Some of the major factors underlying this global occurrence include: ‘St. Paul’s extensive evangelization to the Gentiles, the legalization of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire in 313, and the Bible’s first printing with movable type in 1455.’ Now, mainly due to the computer revolution which has occurred in the last decade or so, the continued promotion and inevitable ‘dissemination’ of the Bible appears to be the most likely outcome for the many decades which lie ahead.

In conclusion it must be stated that the Judeo-Christian Bible has proven itself to be a powerful source of inspiration which can affect others in a vast number of ways. This includes the more intelligent types of inspiration such as scholastic endeavor. academic excellence, and intellectual perfection. Thus, it should not come as much of a surprise to the many secular intellectuals of today to find highly intelligent men and women who still get very excited about the endless intellectual possibilities they have discovered through their continued study and renewed interest in Judeo-Christian Scriptures. One fairly enthusiastic source boldly claims that ‘the Holy Bible is the most influential and most popular book in history, it is first of all a religious book but also it is a work of literature, it is a work of history, it contains religious and secular laws, advice, poetry…It has been studied for thousands of years and yet much still remains to be known.’

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Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, 5th century Bible scholar

The Official Statistics of the New Testament
Number of books: 27
Chapters: 260
Verses: 7,957
Words: 180,552
Letters: 838,380
Middle book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle chapters: Romans 8, 9
Middle verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest book: 3 John
Shortest verse: John 11:35
Longest verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest chapter: Luke 1
Largest book: Luke

A Few Assorted New Testament Facts
– The New Testament has 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Epistles
– The 4 Gospels are: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
– The 2 Books are: Acts and Revelation
– The 21 Epistles are: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude. III. The Book of Revelation
– In chronological order, the Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The Peshitta edition of the New Testament excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official list followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church…presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta.
– The 3rd Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.
– The New Testament has different orders in the Slavonic, Ethiopian, Syriac and Armenian traditions. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia also imitate the local Orthodox order for the New Testament.
– Four New Testament works were questioned or ‘spoken against’ by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran authorities done so since that time. Traditional German ‘Luther Bibles’ are still printed with the New Testament in this changed ‘Luther Bible’ order.
– Many Evangelical Christian groups do not accept the theory that the Christian Bible was not known until various local and Ecumenical Councils, which they deem to be ‘Roman-dominated’, made their official declarations.
– The Evangelical Christians of today tend to believe that the New Testament supports that Paul (2 Timothy 4:11-13), Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16), and ultimately John (Revelation 22:18-19) finalized the canon of the New Testament.
– Some Christian researchers have taken careful note that Peter, John, and Paul wrote 20 (or 21) of the 27-books of the New Testament and personally knew all the other New Testament writers. The Books not attributed to these three men include: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, James, and Jude. The authorship of Hebrews has long been disputed.)
– The New Testament includes the following statistics: Middle Book = 2 Thessalonians, Middle Chapter = Romans 8,9, Middle Verse = Acts 27:17, Largest Book = Luke, Smallest Book = 3 John, Longest Chapter = Luke 1, Shortest Verse = John 11:35
– The Book of Hebrews is the only anonymous letter in the New Testament, which is why it was placed at the end of Paul’s letters by the collectors of the Canon. The King James Version attributes this letter to Paul, but later versions don’t, as Paul doesn’t identify himself and there are other differences to his writings elsewhere.
– The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, with only 294 words in 14 verses. 2 John has 1 less verse but still has 4 more words.
– The four Gospels, according to tradition, were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and john (the four evangelists); the Acts of the Apostles was probably written by the evangelist Luke, while most of the Letters or Epistles were written by Paul.
– There is one book of prophecy and it is Revelation, written by the apostle John
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is quite dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek still in existence today. Of these copies, nearly 800 of them were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years.
– Interestingly enough, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day. Here is a comparison chart:

CHRISTIANITY
The New Testament: 5,300 manuscripts remain, 800 of them dating from before 1,000 A.D.

PAGANISM
The Gallic Wars, by Julius Caesar: 10 manuscripts remain, with the earliest one dating to 1,000 years after the original autograph
History, by Pliny the Younger: 7 manuscripts written 750 years after the original
History, by Thucydides: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
History, by Herodotus: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
Sophocles: 193 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original
Euripides: 9 manuscripts written 1,500 years after the original
Aristotle: 49 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original

– In sum, there are still 5,300 Christian manuscripts Vs. 284 total Pagan manuscripts existing today. Yet still, the doubts and the skepticism is completely focused on the New Testament, rather than the Pagan alternative references to history and historical truth.
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XXVII. A Simple List of the 27 Titles, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament

+ The 27 Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament +

1) The Gospel of Matthew was written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D.
2) The Gospel of Mark was written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D.
3) The Gospel of Luke was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D.
4) The Gospel of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
5) The Book of Acts was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D.
6) The Letter to the Romans was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
9) The Letter to the Galatians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
10) The Letter to the Ephesians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
11) The Letter to the Philippians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
12) The Letter to the Colossians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
17) The Letter to Titus was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
18) The Letter to Philemon was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
19) The Letter to the Hebrews was written by an unknown author in the year 65 A.D.
20) The Letter of James was written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D.
21) The 1st Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
23) The 1st Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
25) The 3rd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
26) The Letter of Jude was written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D.
27) The Book of Revelation was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

 

 

Defining the word ‘Judeo-Christian’
Before any serious discussion or analysis of the Judeo-Christian tradition can actually take place, one must first define the terms being utilized. The specific English word, ‘Judeo-Christian’ has only been in use since around the year 1899. Here are just a few definitions as can be found on-line today: 

 

 

 

The Judeo-Christian, Part VIII. The Basic Facts of Freemasonry


Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13


Part VIII. The Basic Facts of Freemasonry

Freemasonry goes farther and attacks Catholicism openly.

– Catholic Encyclopedia

In general, the Judeo-Christian Tradition has little time, or patience, for the endless number of absurd conspiracy theories that are, for the most part, a display of intellectual ignorance and misunderstanding. Nevertheless, it must be stated with all sincerity that, ever since the French Revolution in 1789,  Freemasonry has repeatedly proven itself to be an anti-Judeo-Christian organization with blatantly Pagan rituals and religious doctrines. It is quite probable that they also remain staunchly opposed to the continued spread of the age-old Biblical faiths which include both traditional Judaism and Christianity. The Roman Catholic Church, most especially its most learned and accomplished academic leaders, such as the Pope and his professional staff, have known this for literally centuries. Unfortunately, their historically accurate research findings have been almost completely ignored by the modern world, even though many of the Church theologians who were opposed to Freemasonry had advanced degrees from prominent universities and were some of the most intelligent religious scholars of their day. Here is just a partial sampling of official Christian documents, including a list of 17 different official Roman Catholic Church proclamations condemning Freemasonry since 1738. They are as follows:

I. Clement XII, Constitution “In Eminenti”, 28 April, 1738
II. Benedict XIV, “Providas”, 18 May, 1751
III. Pius VII, “Ecclesiam”, 13 September, 1821
IV. Leo XII, “Quo graviora”, 13 March, 1825
V. Pius VIII, Encyclical “Traditi”, 21 May, 1829
VI. Gregory XVI, “Mirari”, 15 August, 1832
VII. Pius IX, Encyclical “Qui pluribus”, 9 November, 1846
VIII. Pius IX, Allocution “Quibus quantisque malis”, 20 April, 1849
IX. Pius IX, Encyclical “Quanta cura”, 8 December, 1864
X. Pius IX, Allocution “Multiplices inter”, 25 September, 1865
XI. Pius IX, Constitution “Apostolicæ Sedis”, 12 October, 1869
XII. Pius IX, Encyclical “Etsi multa”, 21 November, 1873
XIII. Leo XIII, Encyclical “Humanum genus”, 20 April, 1884
XIV. Leo XIII, “Præclara”, 20 June, 1894
XV. Leo XIII, “Annum ingressi”, 18 March, 1902
XVI. Leo XIII, Encyclical “Etsí nos”, 15 February, 1882
XVII. Leo XIII, “Ab Apostolici”, 15 October, 1890


It seems most unfortunate that a great many of today’s Christian believers have little, to no, idea what the historical facts are about Freemasonry. Here are just a few of them, taken directly from the Catholic Encyclopedia, a long-standing, premier scholarly text of reference for the Roman Catholic Church:

Issue
Passage from Catholic Encyclopedia

The Corruption and Nepotism of Freemasonry
It is a fact attested by experienced men of all countries that, wherever Masonry is influential, non-Masons have to suffer in their interests from the systematical preferment which Masons give each other in appointment to offices and employment…which is detrimental alike to civic equality and to public interests. In Masonic books and magazines unlawful and treacherous acts, performed in rendering this mutual assistance, are recommended and praised as a glory of Freemasonry.
 

Freemasonry Caused the French Revolution

Freemasonry in the eighteenth century, as a powerful ally of infidelity, prepared the French Revolution. The alliance of Freemasonry with philosophy was publicly sealed by the solemn initiation of Voltaire, the chief of these philosophers…Prior to the Revolution various conspiratory societies arose in connection with Freemasonry from which they borrowed its forms and methods; Illuminati, clubs of Jacobins, etc. A relatively large number of the leading revolutionists were members of Masonic lodges, trained by lodge life for their political career. Even the program of the Revolution expressed in the “rights of man” was…drawn from Masonic principles, and its device: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” is the very device of Freemasonry

Freemasonry’s Plan for Christianity
To destroy radically by open persecution of the Church or by a hypocritical fraudulent system of separation between State and Church, all social influence of the Church and of religion, insidiously called “clericalism”, and, as far as possible, to destroy the Church and all true, (i.e., superhuman) religion.
 

Freemasonry’s Plan for Children

To laicize, or secularize…all public and private life and, above all, popular instruction and education….(including) anti-Catholic and even anti-Christian, atheistic, positivistic, or agnostic sectarianism in the garb of unsectarianism. Freedom of thought and conscience of the children has to be developed systematically in the child at school and protected, as far as possible, against all disturbing influences, not only of the Church and priests, but also of the children’s own parents, if necessary, even by means of moral and physical compulsion.

Freemasonry’s Anti-Christian Statements
In similar discussions, containing in almost every word a hidden or open attack on Christianity, the truly Masonic magazines and books of all countries abound. Past Grand Deacon J.C. Parkinson, an illustrious English Mason, frankly avows: “The two systems of Romanism and Freemasonry are not only incompatible, but they are radically opposed to each other” and American Masons say: “We won’t make a man a Freemason, until we know that he isn’t a Catholic.”

Freemasonry’s Inherent Danger to Society
(Even if) some Masonic associations pursued for themselves no purposes contrary to religion and to public order, they would be nevertheless contrary to public order, because by their very existence as secret societies based on the Masonic principles, they encourage and promote the foundation of other really dangerous secret societies and render difficult, if not impossible, efficacious action of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against them.

Freemasonry’s Danger to Christianity
Pope Pius IX characterizes Freemasonry as an insidious, fraudulent and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to society; and condemns anew “this Masonic and other similar societies, which differing only in appearance coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against the Church or lawful authority”…The ultimate purpose of Freemasonry is ‘the overthrow of the whole religious, political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the establishment of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its principles and laws on pure Naturalism.’ 

 


Freemasonry’s False Claims of Persecution
(Roman Catholic) Papal edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of erroneous and unjust charges. The excommunication was interpreted as an “imprecation” that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition…The pope and the bishops, therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ’s flock, cannot but condemn Freemasonry.


The fact of the matter is that Roman Catholicism continues to be the leading organization of Christianity with by far the greatest number of adherents world-wide. Fortunately, 21st century Evangelical Protestant America appears to finally be waking up from their metaphysical slumber, realizing that their fellow Christian neighbors who are also Freemasons may be at least slightly hypocritical concerning their membership in the Craft (Slang for Freemasonry). Indeed, a growing number of Protestant Christian Churches have publicly expressed their opposition to Freemasonry, calling it a blatantly Pagan organization that may well continue to grow more and more hostile to Christianity as the years and decades go by. Here is a short list of Protestant Churches that have spoken out against Freemasonry within the past 50 years.

Salvation Army International
Greek Orthodox
Lutheran Church
Methodist Church
Presbyterian Church
Mennonite Church
Nazarene Church
Church of Christ
Pentecostal Church
Brethren Assemblies Church
Church of England
Free Church of Scotland
British Methodist Church
Baptist Church of Scotland
Baptist Church of New Zealand
Baptist Church of Ireland


Does the Judeo-Christian tradition stand in any danger of collapse or eventual defeat by Freemasonry? The answer is probably not, but the soul of every man (and woman) is considered equally important, just as the continued allure and temptation of joining Freemasonry may pose a danger to the 2,000 year-old Judeo-Christian method of spiritual redemption after death. God-fearing believers need to remember that this system was founded upon principles of justice that see everyone as being worthy enough to be saved and, after proper penance, to eventually be allowed into Paradise to meet face-to-face with the one, true God, the LORD God of Israel.

The Church
The Official Christian Doctrine
Presbyterian Church of America, 1988 No one shall be received into membership into a (Presbyterian) church who is a member of a Masonic organization….in light of the clear statement of incompatibility of Freemasonry with Biblical Christianity.
Orthodox Presbyterian Church The evidence presented concerning the religion of Masonry permits but one conclusion… that Masonry is a religious institution and as such is definitely anti-Christian… membership in the Masonic fraternity is inconsistent with Christianity.
Christian Reformed Church of America, 1974 Membership in the lodge and in the church of Jesus Christ involves a double commitment which our Lord himself does not tolerate. Those in the church who affiliate with the Lodge must be shown the error of their way, and if they refuse to repent must be placed under the censure of the Church.
Church of Scotland, 1965 In our view total obedience to Christ precludes joining…the Masonic movement which seems to demand a wholehearted allegiance to itself, and at the same time refuses to divulge all that is involved in that allegiance… The initiate is required to commit himself to Masonry in a way that a Christian only should commit himself to Christ. 

 

Free Church of Scotland In the minds of the committee, according to their interpretations of the IScriptures, membership of Freemasonry… is inconsistent with a profession of the Christian faith.
Baptist Church of Scotland (Great Britain and Ireland), 1987 The clear conclusion we have reached from our inquiry is that there is an inherent incompatibility between Freemasonry and the Christian faith.
Anglican Church of England, 1987 There are a number of very fundamental reasons to question the compatibility of Freemasonry with Christianity.
Russian Orthodox Church The Church does not worship the god that is worshipped in Masonic temples… Masonry is a spiritual disease and is a rival of the Church…It declares that it is not a religion and yet claims to be religious… Since Masonry rejects the divinity of Jesus Christ and places Him on an equal level with founders of other religions, every Christian should stop and realise the implications of Masonry to his Christian faith.
Methodist Church of England, 1985 There is a great danger that the Christian who becomes a Freemason will find himself compromising his Christian beliefs or his allegiance to Christ, perhaps without realising what he is doing.
Lutheran Church, 1958 Masonry is guilty of idolatry. Its worship and prayers are idol worship. The Masons may not with their hands…but they created one with their own mind and reason out of purely human thoughts and ideas. The latter is an idol no less than the former.
Roman Catholic Church, 1985 The principles and basic rituals of Masonry embody a naturalistic religion, active participation in which is incompatible with Christian faith and practice. Those who knowingly embrace such principles are committing serious sin… In depth research on the ritual and on the Masonic mentality makes it clear that it is impossible to belong to the Catholic Church and to Freemasonry at the same time.


May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition


The Judeo-Christian, Part IV. The Two Serpents of the Caduceus and the Double Helix of DNA

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13


End of All Flesh, End of Days.
Two evil spirits joined together,
the spirit of the male is subtle,
the spirit of the female is diffused in many ways and paths
but joined to the spirit of the male.

– Lilith as the Serpent, by Margi B.

Part IV. The Two Serpents of the Caduceus and the Double Helix of DNA

 

The Caduceus is an ancient Greco-Roman relic, or symbol, that happens to be thousands of years old and has been found in several different pre-Christian cultures and religious traditions. The actual shape of this mysterious object, considered to be one of a kind and supernaturally powerful, is composed of two serpents directly opposite one another which are both coiled upwards upon a short staff or rod. Traditionally, this staff, or scepter, was seen as a unique, even sacred, device used by the ‘gods’ in unknown ways to both control and assist mankind. Here are just two short definitions of the Caduceus:

(The) Caduceus is a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it. It was an ancient astrological symbol of commerce and is associated with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger for the gods.

– Caduceus, Rod of Hermes – DNA

The caduceus (from Greek κηρύκειον kērukeion “herald’s staff”) is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology….It is a short staff entwined by two serpents, sometimes surmounted by wings. In Roman iconography it was often depicted being carried in the left hand of Mercury, the messenger of the gods, guide of the dead and protector of merchants, shepherds, gamblers, liars and thieves.

– Caduceus, Wikipedia

During the late 20th century, the actual physical structure of molecular DNA was then finally discovered to also resemble two opposing serpents wrapped around each other as if on an axis, or a pole, just like the ‘magical’ Pagan talisman, the Caduceus. As Wikipedia states: ‘In 1953, James D. Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first correct double-helix model of DNA structure in the journal Nature.’

The astonishing resemblance in the shape and function of both the age-old Caduceus and the microscopic Double-Helix of DNA may simply be just a coincidence. Even so, it has been noted by both the established leaders of modern medicine and conspiracy theorists alike. The real question is whether the actual shape of the ancient Caduceus, which pre-dated the discovery of DNA by thousands of years, has any real meaning at all. Some truly believe that it does. Here are just a few selected passages:

Thus about the origins and meaning of this DNA symbol, the Caduceus, the full answers remain unclear. How do we honor this symbol of the DNA wrapped around a central column with wings as a sign of healing yet have real knowledge of the symbology of it?

– THE ASCENDING GODDESS: Kundalini Shakti, Chapter 5, by Ruth A. Bailey

Historically, the two astrological symbols had distinct meanings in alchemical and astrological principles. Some medical organizations join the serpents of the caduceus with rungs to suggest a DNA double-helix.

– Caduceus – Rod of Hermes – DNA

While this assumption may seem fairly impossible, mankind’s ancient legends of the Caduceus may well have been some sort of garbled, supernaturally-transmitted message implanted in primitive man concerning the actual structure of microscopic DNA, which can be found in all biological life, and is a primary unit of evolution and reproduction.

On a similar note, the Double Helix of DNA’s crucial functioning in cellular replication, as well as all plant and animal fertilization and reproduction also has incredible similarities to the ancient Hebrew/Jewish legends of the two, evil serpent/angels known as Samael (the Devil) and Lilith (Queen of Demons). Consider the following centuries-old passages from Jewish Rabbis and other sources:

Lilith and Samael also have intercourse through a ‘snake’ like intermediary also. ‘You already know that evil Samael and wicked Lilith are like a sexual pair who, by means of an intermediary, receive an evil and wicked emanation from one and emanate to the other…The heavenly serpent is a blind prince, the image of an intermediary between Samael and Lilith…The masters of tradition said that just as this serpent slithers without eyes, so the supernal serpent has the image of a spiritual form without color–these are ‘the eyes.’ They call it an eyeless creature…He is the bond, the accompaniment, and the union between Samael and Lilith.’ (Quoting Treatise on the Left Emanation)

– Lilith as the Serpent, by Margi B. (2004-2005), from LilithGate Website

Lilith and Samael are also described as serpents of two qualities; the Slant Serpent and the Torturous Serpent.’…Leviathan is the connection and the coupling between the two who have the likeness of serpents. Therefore it is doubled: the Slant Serpent corresponding to Samael, and the Tortuous Serpent corresponding to Lilith...’ (Quoting Moses Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim 186d)

– Lilith as the Serpent, by Margi B.2004-2005, from LilithGate Website

In conclusion, these incredible correlations and similarities between the legends of the Greco-Roman Caduceus, the completely separate Hebrew folk-tales of the evil serpent couple Samael and Lilith, and the actual molecular structure of DNA cannot be, and are most probably not, just a coincidence. Instead, they could well represent a miraculous connection between religion and science spanning more than 3,000 – 4,000 years of history which remains completely unexplainable.

Does this mean the God of the Holy Bible is a genetics engineering genius? Of course He is, but this totally mysterious parallel between absurd superstitious religious myths (Two Serpents Copulating) and actual modern science (DNA and Genetics) could also imply that the LORD God may be far more like us than we have ever imagined. It is quite possible that direct contact with the Divine could somehow be achieved through a Judeo-Christian scientific break-through sometime very soon, perhaps even within the next century or so. Here is just a Scriptural hint of metaphorical genetic engineering (Divine Intervention) and its healing potential from the time of Moses:

The LORD sent fiery serpents among the people and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died…And Moses interceded for the people. Then the LORD said to Moses, ‘Make a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come about, that everyone who is bitten, when he looks at it, he will live.’ And Moses made a bronze serpent and set it upon the pole; and it came about, that if a serpent bit any man, when he looked to the bronze serpent, he lived.

– Numbers 21:6-9

The Caduceus of Samael, Lilith, and Molecular DNA

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

The higher the position, the greater is the fall, and this applies to the serpent who was not only the chief of all animals at first, but walked upright like man, and when it fell it sank into the reptile world.

– Talmud, Genesis Rabba 19

The Judeo-Christian Number Seven

777


The Seven Archangels

I. Michael
II. Gabriel
III. Raphael
IV. Uriel
V. Raguel
VI. Remiel.
VII. Saraqael

The Seven Virtues of God

I. Prudence
II. Justice
III. Restraint
IV. Courage
V. Faith
VI. Hope
VII. Love

The Seven Sacraments
I. Baptism
II. Communion
III. Confession
IV. Confirmation
V. Matrimony
VI. Ordination
VII. Anointing

The Seven Material Deeds of Mercy
I. Feed the Hungry
II. Quench the Thirsty.
III. Clothe the Naked.
IV. Shelter the Homeless
V. Visit the Imprisoned
VI. Comfort the Sick
VII. Bury the Dead

The Seven Spiritual Deeds of Mercy
I. Instruct Ignorance
II. Counsel Doubt
III. Rebuke Sinners
IV. Endure Others Patiently
V. Forgive Others Willingly
VI. Comfort Affliction
VII. Pray for the the Living and the Dead

The Seven Deadly Sins
I. Lust
II. Gluttony
III. Greed
IV. Sloth
V. Wrath
VI. Envy
VII. Pride

The Seven Heavenly (Contrary) Virtues
I. Chastity
II. Temperance
III. Charity
IV. Diligence
V. Patience
VI. Kindness
VII. Humility

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The Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost
I. Wisdom
II. Understanding
III. Counsel
IV. Courage
V. Knowledge
VI. Reverence
VII. Fear of the LORD

The Seven Mysteries of the Holy Ghost

I. The Annunciation (St. Luke 1:35)
II. The Visitation (St. Luke 1:42)
III. The Baptism (St. Luke 3:22)
IV. The Wedding (John 2:1-11)
V.. The Crucifixion (John 19:30)
VI. The Resurrection (St. John 20:19, 22)
VII. The Pentecost (Acts 2:1)

The Seven Beliefs of the Apostles Creed
I. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth.
II. I believe in Jesus Christ, his only son, our Lord. He was conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost and born of the Virgin Mary. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell. On the third day he rose again. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again to judge the living and the dead.
III. I believe in the Holy Ghost
IV. I believe in the Holy Catholic Church
V. I believe in the Communion of Saints
VI. I believe in the forgiveness of sins,
VII. I believe in the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting.

The Seven Elements of Mankind’s Creation
I. Man’s flesh from the earth
II. His blood from the dew
III. His eyes from the sun
IV. His bones from stone
V. His intelligence from the swiftness of the angels and from clouds
VI. His veins and his hair from the grass of the earth;
VII. His Soul from the wind. (II Enoch 30:10)

The Seven Elements Used to Create Man
1. Earth
2. Morning Dew
3. the Sun
4. Stone
5. Clouds
6. Grass,
7. Wind (II Enoch 30:10)

The Seven Parts and Sensations of Man
I. The flesh for hearing
II. The eyes for Seeing
III. The soul for smelling,
IV. The veins for touching
V. The blood for taste
VI. The bones for endurance
VII. The intelligence for enjoying (II Enoch 30:11)

The Seven Natures of Man
I. Listening
II. Seeing
III. Smelling
IV. Touching
V. Tasting
VI. Enduring
VII. Enjoying (II Enoch 30:11)

God’s Seven Free gifts to the World:
I. The Torah (Exodus 31:18)
II. Light (Genesis 1:17)
III. Rain (Leviticus 26:4)
IV. Peace (Leviticus 26:6)
V. Salvation (Psalms 18:36)
VI. Mercy (Psalms 106:46)
VII. Navigation (Talmud, Genesis Rabba 6)

The Seven Woes of Joshua the Messiah (Matthew 23)
I. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You shut the kingdom of heaven in men’s faces. You yourselves do not enter, nor will you let those enter who are trying to. (Matthew 23:13-14)
II. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as you are. (Matthew 23:15)
III. Woe to you, blind guides! You say, ‘If anyone swears by the temple, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind fools! Which is greater: the gold, or the temple that makes the gold sacred? You also say, ‘If anyone swears by the altar, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gift on it, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind men! Which is greater: the gift, or the altar that makes the gift sacred? Therefore, he who swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. And he who swears by the temple swears by it and by the one who dwells in it. And he who swears by heaven swears by God’s throne and by the one who sits on it. (Matthew 23:16-22)
IV. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You give a tenth of your spices-mint, dill and cummin. But you have neglected the more important matters of the law-justice, mercy and faithfulness. You should have practiced the latter, without neglecting the former. You blind guides! You strain out a gnat but swallow a camel. (Matthew 23:23-24)
V. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean. (Matthew 23:25-26)
VI. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside, but on the inside are full of dead men’s bones and everything unclean. In the same way, on the outside you appear to people as righteous but on the inside you are full of hypocrisy and wickedness. (Matthew 23:27-28)
VII. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You build tombs for the prophets and decorate the graves of the righteous. And you say, ‘If we had lived in the days of our forefathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ So you testify against yourselves that you are the descendants of those who murdered the prophets. Fill up, then, the measure of the sin of your forefathers! (Matthew 23:29-31)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

The Tradition of Judaism, Part I. Quotations about Jews and Judaism

Part I. Quotations about Jews and Judaism

I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that.

– Shylock, From The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare.


Who hates the Jews more than the Jew?

– Henry Miller

It is extremely difficult for a Jew to be converted, for how can he bring himself to believe in the divinity of another Jew?

– Heinrich Heine

Pessimism is a luxury that a Jew can never allow himself.

– Golda Meir

HEBREW, n. A male Jew, as distinguished from the She-brew, an altogether superior creation.

– Andrew Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary.

What one Christian does is his own responsibility, what one Jew does is thrown back at all Jews. – Anne Frank

To be a Jew is a destiny.

– Vicky Baum

Israel has created a new image of the Jew in the world – the image of a working and an intellectual people, of a people that can fight with heroism.

– David Ben-Gurion

If you ever forget you’re a Jew, a Gentile will remind you.

– Bernard Malamud

A baptised Jew is a circumcised Christian.

– German Proverb

In Jewish history there are no coincidences.

– Elie Wiesel

The Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation. If I were an atheist, and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations.

– John Adams

Yes, I am a Jew, and when the ancestors of the Right Honorable gentleman were brutal savages in an unknown island, mine were priests in the temple of Solomon.

– Benjamin Disraeli, Reply to a taunt by Daniel O’Connell.

Historically the profoundest meaning of Passover is something which sets Judaism apart from other religions. It marks the birth of a nation. Out of a mass of slaves, Moses fashioned a nation and gave them a faith.

– Philip S. Bernstein

These three are the marks of a Jew – a tender heart, self-respect, and charity.

– Hebrew Proverb

Why do Jewish men die before their wives? They want to.

– Henny Youngman

I marvel at the resilience of the Jewish people. Their best characteristic is their desire to remember. No other people has such an obsession with memory.

– Elie Wiesel

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the God of Israel.

The Judeo-Christian, Part II. The Left and Right Hands of American Political Reality

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

Part II. The Left and Right Hands of American Political Reality

In actual political reality, the colors red, white and blue have represented Protestant Christian democracy (Freemasonry) as seen in the flags of Great Britain, France, the United States, and Australia, while the colors red, white and green represented Roman Catholic democracy (Society of Jesus) as in the flags of Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Mexico.

Knights Hospitallier — The Republic of France — The Nation of Italy

Knights of St. John –> A Protestant Republic –> A Catholic Democracy

Unlike the past 200-300 years when Catholics and Protestants were basically still at war with one another, these distinctions no longer seem to matter as much as the dichotomy found between the political Left, symbolized by the color red, and the political Right, symbolized by the color blue or green. The current patterns of thought that distinguish these two main strands of political reality, especially in this country, can be grouped together in the following manner:

Field of Thought Left-Ism (Red) Right-Ism (Blue)
Policy Liberalism Conservatism
Government Globalism Nationalism
Economics Socialism Capitalism
Warfare Pacifism Patriotism
Culture Multiculturalism Pluralism
Society Modernism Traditionalism
God Atheism Monotheism
Religion Paganism Judeo-Christian-Islam
Christianity Ecumenism Fundamentalism
Philosophy Nihilism Pragmatism
Morality Relativism Idealism
Ethics Utilitarianism Dualism
Outlook Existentialism Realism
Identity Collectivism Individualism

As can be seen, many of the basic differences in political doctrine between the Left and the Right cannot, and will not, be reconciled. Year after year, the Right appears to be more and more in favor of Christianity, while the Left is tragically becoming more hostile towards traditional religion. Indeed, in the eyes of some God-fearing Jews and Christians, modern liberalism seems to be showing its true Canaanite colors as a front for the religion of Greco-Roman Paganism while the vampire ‘gods’ of Mt. Olympus loom in the distance. Some on the Left are quick to contend that Paganism is the only, true universal brotherhood of all men, while the Judeo-Christian tradition has always been inherently racist. Nonetheless, and as history clearly shows, from Egypt to Rome, from Pharaoh to Caesar, the religion of Paganism always degenerates into an ‘Evil Empire’. Each and every time that moderate, Hebrew monotheism (Abel) has been either obliterated or enslaved, both civil society and private, natural, communal spirituality withers and dies and is replaced by a ruthless military Empire (Cain) maintained by a brutal slave-based economy and inevitably ruled by an elite class of sexual perverts, con-men, and violent criminals who serve as their henchmen and bodyguards.

The Eye of the Pyramid Upside-Down is the Cornerstone of the LORD our God

This is especially true in the United States of America where, since the late 1960s, hard-working, culturally conservative Democrats and wealthy, economically liberal Republicans are fast becoming anachronisms. All the while, the spooky laughter and obscene sexual exploits of past Pharaohs and Greco-Roman Emperors and their lovers echo throughout the politics of 21st century America as today’s push towards ‘Gay marriage’ continues to succeed. Thankfully, the truly sacred example of the Obama family’s deeply-held, patently Judeo-Christian traditions and personal behavior have given the God-fearing people throughout Africa, and throughout the world, a new hope that Hebrew monotheism will not fail. As the great Jewish philosopher Maimonides wrote nearly 1,000 years ago:

What did they do in Egypt in those days (during the time of Moses)? A man would marry another man, or a woman two men…

Ominously, American politics may be slowly polarizing along religious lines, with the Republicans becoming more Christian (perhaps Racist) and the Democrats becoming more Pagan (perhaps shamelessly Perverted) with each passing year. At the same time, President Barak Obama, the so-called ‘anti-Christ’, turns out to be a righteous example of a man, like the Biblical Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob, who sincerely loves and takes care of his family, and his country, while more than a few hypocritical Republicans continue in their blue-belled, spring-time fornication rituals. The relevant issues that define current American political reality can be listed as follows:

The U.S. Political Issues Red Left
Blue Right
Political Party
Democratic Republican
Inheritance Taxes
Approve Oppose
Euthanasia Approve Oppose
Gun Control
Approve Oppose
No-Fault Divorce
Approve Oppose
Gay and Lesbian Marriage
Approve Oppose
Affirmative Action
Approve Oppose
Sex Education
Approve Oppose
Global Warming Regulation
Approve Oppose
Public Funding for PBS
Approve Oppose
Support for United Nations
Approve Oppose
Teaching Darwinian Evolution
Approve Oppose
School Prayer
Oppose Approve
School Vouchers
Oppose Approve
New Oil Drilling in Alaska
Oppose Approve
Military Spending Increases
Oppose Approve
Death Penalty
Oppose Approve
Nuclear Power
Oppose Approve

The recent influx of Hispanics onto the American political scene may change these polarizing tendencies. They are politically liberal, but culturally conservative. They support high taxes for the rich due to their traditional Catholic loathing of usury, but vehemently oppose same-sex marriage. They approve of school choice so that they can send their own children to a premier Catholic school, but also want to raise the minimum wage through government mandate. They represent a unique, political voting bloc destined to become more powerful as they increase in population. The enduring statement of Barak Obama’s excellent example as a caring husband and father of a good African-American, south-side Chicago family in the White House has pleased many Judeo-Christian religious believers who were truly horrified by the openly, anti-Christian sexual decadence of the Clintons from Arkansas. Neither the Christian Right or the Pagan Left will dominate American politics anytime soon, but their influence can still be seen in today’s issues and will continue to be seen in tomorrow’s political reality.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Obama in 2012!!! God save the Queen!!!!!!!

The Judeo-Christian, Part III. Neoliteralism, the Cornerstone of Judeo-Christian Theology

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13


Part III. Neoliteralism, the Cornerstone of Judeo-Christian Theology

Today, there are a countless number of methods along with differing schools of thought when it comes to Bible Studies and Theology. At least some astute observers might say there are already far too many, with each ‘method’ or ‘school’ contradicting another so that these traditionally Christian fields of study have become nothing more than a ‘Mystery Babylon’ intellectual enterprise. Obviously, adding yet another catchy term to the list would seem to be compounding the problem, rather than providing a solution. Nevertheless, the project of Neoliteralism, a new term for a new scholarly outlook, has only one intent and that is simplification. Neoliteralism, as the word implies, presumes to take the Bible literally, but it also includes a basic understanding of what the Bible represents. This understanding is simple, not complex, and general, rather than specific. Thus, a perfect example of Neoliteralism can be seen in the following comments and remarks:

I. The Holy Bible is the most published, read, studied, documented, analyzed, interpreted and discussed book ever known in the history of the world.
II. The Holy Bible is currently available in more alphabets, languages, and versions which are spoken and written by more ethnicities and cultures than any other book on earth today.
III. The Holy Bible is the the single most influential book underlying the development of nearly all the written languages still used on earth today.
IV. The Holy Bible is the official text of Christianity, the largest religion with the most followers in the entire world.
V. The Holy Bible is the cornerstone of monotheism, represented by the three great religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
VI. The Holy Bible is the chronological story of a single family’s relationship with a specific supernatural entity that began in 3760 B.C. with Adam and ended with Joshua ben Joseph (Jesus) in 33 A.D.
VII. The Holy Bible is the most powerful piece of literature in the modern world that has inspired, motivated, and influenced more individuals to think and act in more ways than any other written document in the history of the world.

Even if the simple generalizations just mentioned may appear controversial to some readers, each one of them is not only true, but a scientific fact that cannot be denied or dis-proven. In other words, Neoliteralism is willing to make ample use of the Statistical Sciences in order to further its primary agenda, simplicity. Is simplicity an objective goal? Is simplicity biased or politically motivated? The answers to both of those questions depend on the assumptions of what simplicity will do to the fields of Theology and Religious Studies. Put bluntly, there is an infinite number of ways of interpreting Neoliteralism‘s emphasis on simplicity. The non-believer might suspect that it is simply a code word for fundamentalist Christianity intent on quashing complex, sophisticated dissent of traditional Biblical belief systems. On the other hand, the believer may mistake simplicity as either an attempt to water down or dilute Christian truth or an absurd strategy to tear down the Church which has been built upon a continuing accumulation of scholarship compiled and studied throughout the centuries.

In other words, religious scholars may well be skeptical of this new contraption, this intellectual tool known as Neoliteralism. All things considered, they have every right to be. Indeed, for most readers this is the first mention of the word Neoliteralism. This original piece of jargon could end up being nothing more than another case of self-promotion. Theologians and Religious Scholars, just like nearly everybody in today’s world, crave attention. They crave readers, listeners, endowments, large offices, and higher salaries. For some, the spread of Christian intellectual truth is also a strong underlying motivation.

With that in mind, Neoliteralism must be honest with itself and with others about what the term really means. This includes the inventor of the word and author of this essay. In other words, who is the man behind the curtain pulling the strings of Neoliteralism? Well, for starters, Neoliteralism is obviously a self-interested attempt to be different. Are not all ‘methods’ and ‘outlooks’ found in Theology the same way? Of course they are. Theologians, like all intellectuals, entered the field out of a desire to have their religious ideas read and listened to by others. Assuming the factor of self-interest remains, here are the basic, and specific, agendas underlying Neoliteralism.

I. Neoliteralism is Catholic: Catholic Christianity is emphasized because it is older and has more adherents than Protestantism. The reason is simple, St. Peter was specifically chosen to be the leader by Joshua (Jesus) (NOTE: the author of this essay is a practicing Roman/Ukrainian Catholic scholar.)
II. Neoliteralism is Judaic: Athens, Greco-Roman Philosophy, and Hellenism are ignored in favor of Jerusalem, Mysticism, and Judaism. The reason is simple, Joshua (Jesus) was and is a Jew.
III. Neoliteralism is Iconoclastic: Extreme anti-Christian sentiments and assumptions found in the visual arts proves their inherently Pagan and demonic tendencies. The reason is simple, God prohibited the graven image as one of the Ten Commandments
IV. Neoliteralism is Scientific: Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is losing ground due to scientific dissent among experts. Natural law is concurrent with biological behavior of other mammalian species.
V. Neoliteralism is Evangelical: The continued popularity of the Bible, of Christianity, and their combined historical influence clearly indicates supernatural forces that cannot be explained scientifically. The probability of Christianity’s success and the Bible’s best-selling status are statistically impossible. Judeo-Christian theology is a statistically significant reality.
VI. Neoliteralism is Judeo-Christian: Numerous sayings and parables found in the Gospels have exact parallels in the Talmud, the Apocrypha, and in modern Orthodox Judaism.

VII. Neoliteralism is Catholic, Judaic, Iconoclastic, Scientific, Evangelical, and Judeo-Christian.

Honesty should not condemn a new idea, theory, or paradigm. In short, these particular aspects of Neoliteralism cannot, and should not, disqualify it from being taken seriously. No type of Theology can ever be objective due to the pre-existing preferences of their creator or inventor. Most importantly, the above statements of subjectivity represent a key component in Neoliteralism. How so? By admitting the simple, unspoken truth of Theology and Biblical Studies. Rather than remain in denial, Neoliteralism simply accepts the reality of dualism embedded in the historical differences of Judeo-Christian thought.

Sometimes, like a coin with only two sides, objective study of these differences is impossible to achieve. Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, even nonbelievers and Pagan, are either Catholic or Protestant because, regardless of their personal faith, they will always prefer one over another. This understanding is also true concerning the traditional Christian stereotypes which have, at times, erupted into violent opposition. Historically speaking, the Glorious Revolution of England and the Iconoclasm Rebellion of the Byzantine Empire are perfect examples of ideas armed with swords. Everyone, including every theologian is, in the end, either a Judaizer or a Hellenizer, an Iconophil or an Iconoclast, an Artist or a Scientist, who is Private or Evangelical about being Christian or Judeo-Christian. To summarize, Neoliteralism is brutally honest about its intentions of being barbarically simple about Theology and Biblical Studies. Complexity and sophistication are both acceptable, but there must be balance instead of a one-sided journey into obscurity and obsolescence.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition..

The Judeo-Christian, Part I. Moses, a Scientific Genius 3,000 Years ahead of His time

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

Part I. Moses, a Scientific Genius 3,000 Years ahead of His time

For many of today’s intellectuals, modern science, most especially Darwinism, has led them to conclude that the Judeo-Christian tradition is not only an out-dated concept, but a primitive superstition which may even prove to be incompatible with modern, secular society. What nearly everyone seems to have overlooked is the sheer ancient scientific genius that can be clearly seen in the first chapter of Genesis. In just a few short verses, this particular text mentions the Big Bang, the stellar evolution of the universe, the general geophysics of Earth formation, and the exact sequence of biological evolution as seen on this planet. In other words, secular intellectuals must admit that the Genesis account of Creation, what they usually dismiss as mythological, is closer to the modern scientific understanding of the natural world than any other rival Creation legend. As one scientifically-minded Judeo-Christian believer puts it:

The ancient Bible (including Genesis 1) was written, around 3,300 years ago, as it is understood today. Only in the past two hundred years has science started to be capable of recognizing the (apparently) correct scientific sequence of those events. And they have turned out to be REMARKABLY similar.

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Seen carefully, the real question that remains unanswered is how the orphan son of a lowly Israelite mother named Moses, who was raised and educated by the Pharaoh’s daughter, ever became so enlightened and informed about how the sun and the stars, along with Earth and all its life-forms ever came into existence. Since the time that Moses was still living in ancient Egypt, around 1,300-1,500 B.C., modern scholars have now determined that, in general, Egyptian civilization never really developed any actual scientific knowledge at all, except their exceptional building skills and clever agricultural know-how. Egyptian hieroglyphics, as deciphered by modern experts, reveal that the society Moses was brought up in was woefully ignorant about the skies above them and the wild-life that surrounded them. In short, ancient Egypt was a polytheistic, superstitious, slave-based kingdom completely ignorant of astrophysics, biological evolution, and nearly any other scientific field of study. On the other hand, the Book of Genesis is either an indication of supreme intelligence or one of the luckiest guesses about the sequence of evolution ever known in the history of the world.

Genesis 1 depicts the unfolding of the Divine energies in the sequence Earth, plants, marine animals, terrestrial animals, and humans – precisely the sequence confirmed by evolution.

– Orthodoxy Today

In stark contrast to the mental nonsense of ancient Egypt, the first chapter of Genesis written by Moses is like that of a well-informed modern scientist deliberately writing a semi-legendary account of Creation and clearly intending it for the common man of Israel to understand. Back then most people were illiterate, completely ignorant, and basically frightened of the unknown, which included the skies above them and the wild animals who lurked at the edges of Egyptian society. Obviously the author set out to write a short, fact-based account of the world’s primordial origins which would both educate and inspire the common people, as well as the readers that came after him, yet remain absolutely valid metaphorically. Seen carefully, the story of Genesis is like an incredibly poetic saga of a wise and merciful sorcerer or wizard who looks deeply into a dark, magic cauldron and then casts His spells through His thunderous words, thus causing the universe to be magically brought in existence.

Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

– Genesis 1:1-2

Even so, this fun and entertaining folk-tale of a seven-day ritual of great power and magic also remains completely embedded with scientific facts, which were probably meant to be taught centuries later when the simple minds of the ancient, gullible listeners were better able to understand them. One must remember that the precise details of the Darwinian theory of evolution can only be grasped by well-educated thinkers fully versed in physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. Remember, not a single one of the ancient Israelites whom Moses was addressing knew anything about the molecular structure of DNA or the mathematical concept of random chance or probability. Not only that, there is also the spiritual issue of man’s special relationship to God, the mysterious entity who hides behind the curtain of material reality. A primitive mind could easily misinterpret the Darwinian model of history and then wrongly assume that their beloved pet dog, cat, or monkey, is just as worthwhile as their fellow human beings who have been blessed by God to rule the animals, not deify them as the ancient Egyptians did. The gods they worshipped were seen as humans with various animal heads placed upon them, an absurd impossibility. This was not the case with the God of Moses and his fellow Israelites, whom they had oppressed and enslaved.

So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them, male and female he created them.

– Genesis 1:27

Genesis clearly reiterates the obvious truth of the real world that the Biblical God’s last, ultimate creation known as men and women must, like good brothers and sisters, look after each other first and foremost, because none of the other animals will ever feed, clothe, or truly love their rulers known as man. They don’t know how. Rather than the violent chaos of Darwinian ‘survival of the fittest’, Genesis depicts a God that, in turn, rules benevolently over mankind. The account written by Moses is also followed by a repeated emphasis that all men must try to obey their Creator’s instinctive commandments against theft, murder, adultery, and lying, concepts that other life-forms clearly don’t and may never comprehend. Modern evolutionary scientists know quite well that mankind is far superior, and completely different, than any other animals, including the apes and gorillas which came long before God endowed Adam with a hand-made immortal soul. These moral and ethical lessons are basically what the Judeo-Christian Creation story is clearly intended to proclaim, not the exact number of eons involved in stellar evolution, or the evolutionary reason behind the horns of goats and sheep..

Evolution contradicts a literalistic interpretation of Genesis. However, according to Roman Catholicism and most contemporary Protestant Churches, biblical literalism in the creation account is not mandatory. Christians have considered allegorical interpretations of Genesis since long before the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Put bluntly, modern man knows quite well that most of the stars and planets which came into being originated billions of years ago, while biological life slowly developed over the course of hundreds of millions of years. However, primitive man had absolutely no clue how any thing had been created. Most were too busy working hard to survive and feed their families to ever really question the material world that surrounded. Thus, to cater to all the ancient Israelites, Moses probably chose to keep the Creation account short and simple for the sake of his primitive audience, most of whom could not even count up to ten. However, the factual and scientific sequence of Earth’s formation and the evolution of life on this planet can still be clearly seen in his Creation ‘story’.

Theistic evolutionists argue that it is inappropriate to use Genesis as a scientific text, since it was written in a pre-scientific age and originally intended for religious instruction; as such, seemingly chronological aspects of the creation accounts should be thought of in terms of a literary framework.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

What does emerge from the Genesis text is a concise understanding concerning the sequence of events leading up to the present solar system (Astrophysics) along with an implied knowledge that carefully classifies life-forms into scientifically-based categories like plants or animals, birds or insects, fish or mammals, and even carnivores and herbivores (Zoology). Not only that, but the seven-day period of Creation shows an absolutely unmistakable background knowledge of the correct sequence of Darwinian evolution (Biology). Remember, this account was written more than 3,000 years ago in a culture that sincerely worshipped the sun (a hot ball of gas) and moon (a freezing cold desert rock) as supernatural gods who ruled over them.

There are very few instances where the Bible and science stand face-to-face regarding established facts. The most prominent of these is the story of Creation in Genesis.

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Once again, Moses shows a highly advanced, basically unheard of, theological outlook (Universal Monotheism) which clearly believes the one, true God created all material reality from nothing at all, except his own Divine will-power (Judeo-Christian-Islam). Where did Moses ever learn these incredibly complex and scientifically-based doctrines, thousands of years before anyone else even came close to understanding them? There is no way he was taught these things from the ancient Egyptians who were basically ignorant, primitive Pagans who left behind no scholarly or scientific writings, with the sole exception of absurd, nonsensical legends concerning many different gods, such as the Egyptian book of the dead.

The story in Genesis 1 of the Bible, about the beginning of everything, is fully compatible with modern science. It actually even PROVES that modern science is on the right track! And modern science has CONFIRMED that Genesis presents the proper sequence of events!

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Today’s arrogant skeptics and agnostic, or even atheist, scientists love to point a finger at the God-fearing Christians who insist the world was created by God in just seven days. Historically speaking, the most literate Judeo-Christian believers of the past never truly believed in the seven day mega-miracle of Genesis. In reality, both Christians, and the Jews before them, have nearly always understood that the seven day time period was allegorical, like a child’s educational story, and that the real world actually took much longer to form. As one source describes:

Evolution contradicts a literalistic interpretation of Genesis. However, according to Roman Catholicism and most contemporary Protestant Churches, biblical literalism in the creation account is not mandatory. Christians have considered allegorical interpretations of Genesis since long before the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Although some Pagan Creation myths are quite poetic and meaningful, the fact remains that not a single ancient Creation story ever truly addresses the material world’s origins in a scientific manner, with the sole exception of the Book of Genesis. Nearly every one of them is an obvious fairy tale composed of non-existent monsters, heroes and villains, while some of them also include grotesque imagery and even blatant sexual perversion as an integral part of biological life’s creation. Indeed, they all seem to be fictional and childish renditions of numerous rival ‘gods’ who fight and smite each other like criminals on the loose, occasionally looking down upon mankind as worthless inferiors solely created for their amusement, and who were destined to be ruled by them due to their ‘Divine’ right of authority. This is far different than Genesis which depicts a singular, all-powerful, all-knowing, peaceful God surrounded by His Angels who wait silently and obediently for their Creator to complete His authentic creation of the material universe. Instead of laughing or mocking mankind, the God of Genesis blesses them and their fellow life-forms, the fish and the birds, thus making a concise distinction between life (living beings like plants, animals, and man) and death (inanimate objects like air, water, fire, and earth).

With this approach toward evolution, scriptural creation stories are typically interpreted as being allegorical in nature. Both Jews and Christians have considered the idea of the creation history as an allegory (instead of a historical description) long before the development of Darwin’s theory. An example in Christianity would be the earlier writings by St. Augustine (4th century)…Three noted Jewish examples are that of the writings of Philo of Alexandria (1st century), Maimonides (12th century) and Gersonides (13th century).

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Much unlike the rival Greco-Roman religion, which was eventually toppled by Christianity, the Hebrew God in Genesis does not bless the sun (Apollo), the moon (Diane), the planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter) at all. Tellingly, He only blesses the biological life-forms He has created. His blessing also includes a totally accurate prediction that mankind is destined to fill the earth with many different descendants and are intended to rule the lesser animals responsibly and wisely, just as He rules over man, His last and most God-like creation. What follows is a comparison between the Genesis Creation story and modern scientific fact which clearly shows the unbelievable, nearly miraculous, similarities between the two accounts:

RELIGION: In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.(Genesis 1:1-2)
SCIENCE: Modern Physics state that, before the Big Bang, reality was nothing than a singular point of darkness which had near infinite density and mass that eventually exploded, thus creating the known universe.

RELIGION: And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning- the first day.(Genesis 1:3-5)
SCIENCE: Modern Astrophysics now claim that the material universe started with a massive explosion of light and heat that filled the entire universe. (God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light). Over time, the light and energy subsided and either collapsed into stars or planets (God saw that the light was good) which continued to moved outwards in all directions (He separated the light from the darkness) and away from the initial Big Bang’s location. This continued expansion created more and more dark space (darkness), nearly void of all energy, in between all the steadily increasing number of stars and planets (light). Planets began to revolve around larger stars called suns which then rotated upon their axis, thus causing periodic intervals of light (God called the light ‘day’) and darkness (the darkness he called ‘night’).

RELIGION: God said, ‘Let there be a vault between the waters to separate the waters below from the waters above.’ So God made the vault and separated the waters under the vault from the waters above it. And it was so. God called the vault ‘sky.’ And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day. (Genesis 1:6-8)
SCIENCE: Modern Meteorology and Geophysics contends that when Earth first began to form, a large amount of water was repeatedly lost into outer space (waters above the vault) as steam was constantly being spewed upward from the hot, unstable lava flows on the planet’s surface (separated the waters under the vault from the water above it). This process (separated the waters) continued until a viable atmosphere (a vault), which could retain all the water vapor rising upwards, eventually formed and became the blue sky (God called the vault ‘sky’). Then, because of all the steam being released from the depths of the earth (waters below) by volcanoes, a thick layer of clouds (waters above) finally covered the whole planet. This process occurred repeatedly over the course of hundreds of millions of years (separated the waters under the vault from the waters above it). Finally, all the water once released upwards as steam then finally became trapped underground indefinitely (waters below). This additional water (waters below) has remained there as volcanic activity has slowly subsided. Nonetheless, oceans (water under the vault) have continued to condensate and rise upward to form clouds (water above it) which then fall down again via the rain and snow called precipitation.

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.’ And it was so. God called the dry ground ‘land’, and the gathered waters he called ‘seas.’ And God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:9-10)
SCIENCE: Modern Geology states that, at first, earth became a seething mass of lava (water) that began cooling into solid rock (dry ground). In time, the steam from tons upon tons of water trapped below ground caused torrential rains (gathered waters) which covered the earth (dry ground) with oceans. Because of all the initial violent volcanic activity on Earth’s surface, there was no permanent sea level or stable land mass to sustain life. Then a single mega-continent formed slowly, but permanently (the dry ground ‘land’) which was then completely surrounded by a gigantic single body of water (water…gathered to one place).

RELIGION: Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.’ And it was so. The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning- the third day. (Genesis 1:11-13)
SCIENCE: Modern Evolutionary Biology claims that, even though simple single-cell life-forms, may have first formed underwater, the first multi-cellular complex life-forms to appear on earth were plants and trees (Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds’). Only during the past 2,000 years has man has confirmed scientifically that every distinct species of plants can only reproduce themselves. (The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds). Before then, the vast majority of people gathered fruit, nuts, berries, etc, from the wild because they never figured out how to keep their seeds, plant them (plants bearing seed according to their kinds), and grow enough crops to avoid starvation. Even in ancient Egypt, the most advanced civilization on earth at the time, most, if not all, of the Egyptians and enslaved Israelites, never knew that the seeds found in fruit must be buried in order to reproduce themselves. The cultivation of fruit and nuts, called orcharding (trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds) happens to be a fairly recent, post-Moses, discovery (And God saw that it was good).

Isn’t that interesting? Composed around 3,300 years ago, Genesis had told us that plants came before any animals, and now science has proved why that was true, because of the animals’ need for oxygen that the plants first created. Science is not confronting Genesis, but supporting it!

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.’ And it was so. God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day. (Genesis 1:14-19)
SCIENCE: Modern Geophysics theorized that plant life on earth may have first appeared under a constant blanket of clouds that continued to obscure the stars and moon for millions of years, with the sun barely visible behind the dirty, ash-filled cloud cover. Indeed, this may well have been the case throughout the age of the dinosaurs and early mammals. For millions of years, primitive man had absolutely no sense of time or any idea about how to keep track of it. (God made two great lights-the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness). Besides for Mesopotamia (Abraham’s native civilization) Ancient Egypt was the only human society in the entire world (except East Asia) that had ever mapped the stars and actually realized their repetitive positions on a yearly schedule which corresponded to annual growing seasons for crops. Even so, only a miniscule number of elite magicians and ‘priests’ within Egypt had ever actually learned how to do this (God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years’). Most of man looked up and saw the lights as supernatural monsters or immortal gods ruling over them, not just inanimate, non-living lights that neither thought nor moved on their own (And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night’).

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.’ So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them and said, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.’ And there was evening, and there was morning- the fifth day. (Genesis 1:20-23)
SCIENCE: Modern Biology is fairly confident that animal life first came into being in the oceans underwater. Dinosaurs came next and are said to be the early ancestors of all of today’s bird species (God blessed them and said, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth’). Fish and Dinosaurs filled the entire planet long before the appearance of any mammal. Some of the ocean’s animal life-forms were absolutely huge, even larger than any land-based dinosaur (So God created the great creatures of the sea) and existed long before them as well.

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:24-25)
SCIENCE: Modern Zoology categorizes animals, all of whom bleed red blood, into distinct subgroups such herbivores (livestock), carnivores (wild animals) both of which are mammals, while distinguishing the birds and reptiles (creatures that move along the ground) as animals who are not, in fact, mammals (God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so). Evolutionary Biology is quite confident that warm-blooded mammals were the last type of animal to appear on earth long after plants, fish, and birds, or dinosaurs (God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds). While some rare individuals within ancient societies may have vaguely understood the modern theory of species, the vast majority had little idea that, for the most part, there are distinct species of animals that can only reproduce themselves through members of the exact same species. This includes very similar, nearly identical, types of species. Hawks cannot breed with eagles, cheetahs cannot breed with leopards, elk cannot breed with deer, and crocodiles with alligators (God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds). Moses, the author of Genesis, shows an incredible knowledge about scientifically-verifiable animal speciation, literally thousands of years before modern Zoology confirmed this reality (And God saw that it was good).

RELIGION: Then God said, ‘Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.’ So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.’ (Genesis 1:26-29)
SCIENCE: Modern biology is confident in their proclamation that man, the species called Homo Sapiens, was the last species to have ‘evolved’ on planet earth, long after every other life-form (So God created mankind in His own image, in the image of God He created them; male and female He created them). While nearly every member of primitive society knew about the existence of many types of animals, the vast majority feared them, sometimes for good reason, and had absolutely no idea that within centuries man would have domesticated vast flocks, herds, and different breeds of many types of animals (God blessed them and said to them…’Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground’). At the same time, none of them would have ever imagined the accuracy of God’s ancient recommendation (or prediction) to increase in population and colonize every corner of the earth, eventually establishing huge cities on every single continent and among every major culture in the world today. (God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it). Man is unique is not knowing or identifying different individuals by smell (like an animal), but by looking at their facial features (our likeness) thus explaining the vast diversity of facial features found in every man, woman, and child (God said, ‘Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness). Molecular Biology has also discovered that male sperm contain exactly 50% male sperm (xy DNA) and 50% female sperm (xx DNA) (In the image of God he created them, male and female He created them).

Modern scientists need to stop being so instinctively anti-religion and open their minds to the poetic genius that Moses and his Book of Genesis can bring to today’s world once their arrogant ridicule and denial of the Judeo-Christian tradition comes to an end. The ‘primitive’ scientific accuracy metaphorically hidden in the Genesis Creation legend remains completely unexplainable, even now, yet can be clearly seen in black and white for all to see.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian.

The Good News Talmud, Part VI.

If sincere converts to Judaism enter Heaven, Antoninus will be at the head of them.

The Talmud, Leviticus Rabba 3

For those Jews and Christians who are familiar with the Maccabees, the following story may well be an old one. However, for those readers not acquainted with the story of the Maccabees, one should take note that both the Catholic and Orthodox Churches recognize several Jewish participants involved in the Maccabee Revolt to be Christian Saints residing in Christian Heaven. One of these Saints is know as Saint Antonin (or Anton, Antoninus, Antonio, etc.), one of the Seven ‘Holy Maccabee’ Sons of St. Solomonia (Hannah, Mirriam). Anyway, I just recently discovered this quote in the Talmud and it made me realize that the ancient Jews must have taken Greek names from some of the more famous Greek Gentiles who openly and publicly converted from Paganism to Judaism thousands of years ago and long before Christianity became an option. With that in mind, the Good News Talmud, Part VI. is dedicated to Saint Antoninus, a Jew so devout he willingly chose and endured hideous torture and death rather than eat even a single bite of pork- truly a Maccabee (and Judeo-Christian) hero forevermore.

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The Good News Talmud, Part VI.

TALMUD: Let no man be deterred from repenting by knowing the great depth of his sin. Let him bear in mind that he does not come to a stranger but to his Heavenly Father. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture and go after the one which is lost until he finds it? When he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!’ I tell you that in the same way, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance. (Luke 15:4-7)

TALMUD: The Tablets of the commandments were called Tablets of Stones, because the punishment for violating the commandments was death by stoning. (Exodus Rabba 41)
GOSPEL: Jesus went to the Mount of Olives….The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery, and having set her in the center of the court, they said to Him, ‘Teacher, this woman has been caught in adultery, in the very act. Now in the Law, Moses commanded us to stone such women; what then do You say?’ They were saying this, testing Him, so that they might have grounds for accusing Him. But Jesus stooped down and with His finger wrote on the ground…straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her.’…When they heard it, they began to go out one by one, beginning with the older ones, and He was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the center of the court. Straightening up, Jesus said to her, “Woman, where are they? Did no one condemn you?’ She said, ‘No one, LORD.’ And Jesus said, ‘I do not condemn you, either. Go and from now on sin no more.’ (John 8:1-11)

TALMUD: Let no man be deterred from repenting by knowing the great depth of his sin. Let him bear in mind that he does not come to a stranger but to his Heavenly Father. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: For the Son of Man has come to save that which was lost. What do you think? If any man has a hundred sheep, and one of them has gone astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountains and go and search for the one that is straying? If it turns out that he finds it, truly I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine which have not gone astray. So it is not the will of your Father who is in Heaven that one of these little ones perish. (Matthew 18:11-14)

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The Talmud in Classical Format

TALMUD: The Torah was to God, when He created the world, what the plan is to an architect when he erects a building. (Genesis Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house. Yet it did not fall, because it had its foundation on the rock. But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell with a great crash. (Matthew 7:24-28)

TALMUD: The proverb says, ‘If you give out your money in usury you will lose what you gain as well as your original capital.’ (Leviticus Rabba 3)
GOSPEL: For to everyone who has, more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but from the one who does not have, even what he does have shall be taken away. (Matthew 25:29)

TALMUD: Once a man, twice a child. – Genesis Rabba 42
GOSPEL: Jesus replied, “Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again.’ ‘How can someone be born when they are old?” Nicodemus asked. ‘Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother’s womb to be born!’ (John 3:3-4)

TALMUD: The pure of heart are God’s friends. (Genesis Rabba 41)
GOSPEL: Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. (Matthew 5:8)

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Guide to a Page of Talmud

TALMUD: Artaban sent Rabbi Judah Hanasa as a present a pearl of great value, and when be asked the Rabbi a present of equal value in return, the sage sent him a parchment (Ephesian letters). Artaban thought it unworthy, since his own gift was of such priceless value. Rabbi Judah replied that not only was his present precious above all the possessions of both, but it had immeasurable advantage over the valuable pearl, as care must be taken of the pearl, whilst his amulet would take care of its possessor. (Genesis Rabba 35)
GOSPEL: Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. (Matthew 7:6)

TALMUD: The human tongue is not free, like some other members of the human body, but is confined in the mouth, and moreover is constantly in moisture: yet how many burns can it cause with its sharp edge and its fire. How much worse then would it have been, were that dangerous member of the human body possessed of more facilities. (Leviticus Rabba 16)
GOSPEL: Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment, and whosoever shall say to his brother, `worthless one,’ shall be in danger of the council, but whosoever shall say, `Thou fool,’ shall be in danger of hell-fire. (Matthew 5:22)

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TALMUD: Rabbi Tanchuma, son of R. Cheya, laid it down as a maxim that it is man’s duty, when he becomes aware of any one having come down in the world, to consider the best means of helping him as quickly as possible. He himself would never purchase anything for his household without, at the same time, providing an equal quantity for the poor. (Leviticus Rabba 34)
GOSPEL: And He sat down opposite the treasury, and began observing how the people were putting money into the treasury, and many rich people were putting in large sums. A poor widow came and put in two small copper coins, which amount to a cent. Calling His disciples to Him, He said to them, ‘Truly I say to you, this poor widow put in more than all the contributors to the treasury for they all put in out of their surplus, but she, out of her poverty, put in all she owned, all she had to live on.’ (Mark 12:41-44)

TALMUD: When the poor stand at your door, remember that their Maker stands at their right hand (Psalms 109), and consider it a high privilege for you to help them. (Leviticus Rabba 34)
GOSPEL: There was a rich man who was dressed in purple and fine linen and lived in luxury every day. At his gate lay a beggar named Lazarus, covered with sores and longing to eat what fell from the rich man’s table. Even the dogs came and licked his sores. The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried. In Hades, where he was in torment, he looked up and saw Abraham far away, with Lazarus by his side. So he called to him, ‘Father Abraham, have pity on me and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in agony in this fire.’ But Abraham replied, ‘Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, while Lazarus received bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in agony. And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been set in place, so that those who want to go from here to you cannot, nor can anyone cross over from there to us.’ (Luke 16:19-26)

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The Simpsons learn Talmud with Krusty the Klown’s Father

TALMUD: Broken things are not admired, but God is pleased with a broken spirit and contrite heart. (Leviticus Rabba 7)
GOSPEL: Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I (too) am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light. (Matthew 11:28-30)

TALMUD: All contention amongst the Israelites ceased when they stood at the foot of Sinai to receive the commandments, and owing to the peace and harmony that existed then amongst them they were fit and qualified to receive God’s behests. (Leviticus Rabba 9)
GOSPEL: James and John, the two sons of Zebedee, came up to Jesus, saying, ‘Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask of You.’ And He said to them, ‘What do you want Me to do for you?’ They said to Him, “Grant that we may sit, one on Your right and one on Your left, in Your glory.’ But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?’ They said to Him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, ‘The cup that I drink you shall drink; and you shall be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized. But to sit on My right or on My left, this is not Mine to give; but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.’ Hearing this, the ten began to feel indignant with James and John. Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, ‘You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant. and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.’ (Mark 10: 35-45)

TALMUD: Once a man, twice a child. – Genesis Rabba 42
GOSPEL: At that time the disciples came to Jesus and said, ‘Who then is greatest in the kingdom of heaven?’ And He called a child to Himself and set him before them, and said, “Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of Heaven. Whoever then humbles himself as this child, he is the greatest in the kingdom of Heaven. And whoever receives one such child in My name receives Me, but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depths of the sea.’ (Matthew 18:1-6)

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