Category Archives: Eastern Orthodox Christianity

The Jewish, Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Bibles

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Judeo-Christian Bible – Tanakh, the Bible of Judaism

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And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

The Facts about the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible
– The Jewish Bible is commonly known as the Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ”ךְ‎, pronounced also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach). It is a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible consisting of 24 separate books. The Tanakh has also been known as the Masoretic Text or the Miqra.
– The name ‘Miqra’ (מקרא), meaning ‘that which is read’, is a traditional alternative Hebrew term for the Tanakh.
– The word ‘Tanakh’ is, in fact, an acronym created from the first few Hebrew letters of the Masoretic Text’s three traditional subdivisions: The Torah (‘Teaching’, also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi’im (‘Prophets’) and Ketuvim (‘Writings’). When the Hebrew letters for Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim are combined together they become the word TaNaKh, thus the name Tanakh stands for the whole Jewish Bible.
– Thus, the offiical Bible of Judaism, the Tanakh, has 3 distinct sections which can be seen as follows:

The Tanakh (Ta = Torah, Na = Nevi’im, Kh = Ketuvim)
Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)

– The exact number of 24 books is mentioned in Midrash Koheleth 12:12.
– The 2st century book called ‘Against Apion’, by th Jewish historian Josephus lists only 22 sacred books of the Jewish Bible. In response to this discrepancy (22 versus 24 books), some scholars and researchers ‘have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah; as St. Jerome noted in the 4th century AD. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical.’
– According to Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. In stark contrast to Christian Bibles, the Tanakh counts as a single book each Book of Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah and it also considers the Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar) as one book.
– The Tanakh is the Hebrew name for the 24 Books of the Old Testament which, in both English and Hebrew, include the following:

1) Genesis (Bereshith), 2) Exodus (Shemot), 3) Leviticus (Vayikra), 4) Numbers (Bamidbar), 5) Deuteronomy (Devarim), 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets including Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi, 14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)

15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 16) Job (איוב/Iyov), 17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 18) Ruth (רות/Rut), 19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 21) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– What has usually been called ‘The Book of Twelve Prophets’, a singular text situated as the 13th book in the Tanakh, includes all of the following Christian books: Book of Hosea, Book of Joel, Book of Amos, Book of Obadiah, Book of Jonah, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Zephaniah, Book of Haggai, Book of Zechariah, and Book of Malachi

The Law (Torah)
1) Genesis (Bereshith)
2) Exodus (Shemot)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim)

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar/תרי עשר)

The Writings (Ketuvim)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– Judaism believes that the books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were relayed with an accompanying oral tradition passed on by each generation, called the Oral Torah.
– According to the Talmud, most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the ‘Men of the Great Assembly’ by 450 BCE, and have since remained unchanged. Modern scholars tend to assume that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BC and 200 AD
– The tradition of dividing the Tanakh into 3 sections is well-documented all the way back to the Second Temple period. Even so, the word ‘Tanakh’ a three-part acronym representing Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim, wasn’t used back then, Instead the Bible of Judaism was called Mikra, meaning ‘reading’ or ‘that which is read’ in Hebrew. As one source notes: ‘Mikra continues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Jewish scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew both are used interchangeably.’
– According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a), most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei K’nesset HaGedolah), a task completed in 450 BCE. The Bible of Judaism has remained unchanged since that date.
– Other scholars state that the ‘evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE. A popular position is that the Torah was canonized circa 400 BCE, the Prophets circa 200 BCE, and the Writings circa 100 CE, perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia. This position, however, is increasingly criticised by modern scholars.’
– A few scholars believe that the entire Jewish canon of the Bible was, in fact, decided upon after the Maccabees defeated the Greeks and regained their religious independence sometime during the subsequent Hasmonean royal dyasty in 140-37 BC.
– Formal finalization of the canon has often been ascribed to Rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. One researcher Heinrich Graetz has concluded that the 24 Books of the Tanakh were officially canonized ‘at a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew), some time in the period 70-90 CE.’
– Even so, there are still different Rabbinical texts dating from later on which ‘seem to indicate that certain books were disputed as accepted canon (such as Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Esther, called the Antilegomena), but it may not necessarily be the case.’ The Talmud, which was written soon after the destruction of the Second Temple, still disagrees with these various writings strongly implying ‘that the books themselves were already accepted canon, but may have been misunderstood on philosophical or ecclesiastical grounds. The Talmud eliminates this misunderstanding.’
– The Hebrew text was originally written with just consonants, having very few, if any applied vowel letters. This made it extremely difficult to learn or to actually study and read. Then, in the early part of the Middle Ages, a group of scholars known as the Masoretes created a single system of pronunciation and vocatization, making the entire text far easier to learn and read.  During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization.
– The major force behind the Masoretes was a man named Aaron ben Moses ben Asher who helped to establish the Tiberias school of reading and pronouncing the Tanakh. Because of its mysterious origins, some Orthodox Jews ‘believe the pronunciation and cantillation derive from the revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses.’ In short, the ability to understand the multi-layered meaning of Scriptures is heavily dependent on this system. One sources put it bluntly: ‘The combination of a text (מקרא mikra), pronunciation (ניקוד niqqud) and cantillation (טעמים te`amim) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text.’

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The Facts about Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
– The 1st section of the Tanank called the Law, or ‘Teaching’ (תּוֹרָה/Torah) consists of 5 books, commonly referred to as the ‘Five Books of Moses’ or Pentateuch. Printed copies of the Torah are often called Chamisha Chumshei Torah or simply, a Chumash.
– In Hebrew language, the five books of the Torah are identified using the first prominent word which has been written at the beginning of each book. Thus, the actual names of the Torah books has nothing, or little, to do with the book’s entire contents. This is quite different from the English names for them which originate from the Greek words originally given to the books in the Septuagint. These Greek words attempted to describe or summarize the book’s contents.
– According to Rabbinic tradition the five books of the Torah were all written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy which describe his death. The past 200-300 years of modern research has changed this assumption so that now ‘the majority of scholars agree that the Pentateuch does not have a single author, and that its composition took place over centuries.’
– In short, the Torah consists of the following five books:

The Law (Torah)
1. Bereshith – Genesis (Bereshith)
2. Shemot – Exodus (Shemot)
3. Vayikra – Leviticus  (Vayikra)
4. Bamidbar – Numbers   (Bamidbar)
5. Devarim – Deuteronomy (Devarim)

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The Facts about Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
– The 2nd section of the Tanakh, called the Prophets (Nevi’im) has 8 books. They include: 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets named Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi
– This section covers the time period from the beginning of the Israelite settling of the Holy Lands (Israel) up until the time of the destruction of the First Temple, the Temple of Solomon, and the subsequent Babylonian captivity. This era is known as the ‘period of prophecy’
– The Prophets section are also sometimes divided into two parts called the Earlier Prophets and Later Prophets.
– The Prophets contain 8 Books according to Judaism. These same Books total 21 in the Christian Old Testament. The reason why is because Samuel I and II are counted as one book, as is Kings I and II. The single Book of the Twelve Prophets, known as the minor prophets, becomes 12 separate Christian Books of hte Old Testament.
– The Prophets (Nevi’im), which are the 6th through 13th Books in the Tanakh, can be listed as follows:

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
2) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)

Contents of the Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)
I. Hosea (הושע/Hoshea)
II. Joel (יואל/Yo’el)
III. Amos (עמוס/Amos)
IV. Obadiah (עובדיה/Ovadyah)
V. Jonah (יונה/Yonah)
VI. Micah (מיכה/Mikhah)
VII. Nahum (נחום/Nakhum)
VIII. Habakkuk (חבקוק/Havakuk)
IX. Zephaniah (צפניה/Ts’phanyah)
X. Haggai (חגי/Khagai)
XI. Zechariah (זכריה/Z’kharyah)
XII. Malachi (מלאכי/Mal’akhi)

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The Facts about Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim), the third and final section of the Tanakh, which consists of 11 books, is also known as the ‘Hagiographa’, a Greek word,
– The 4th through 8th Book, in the third section of the Tanakh called the Writings, are traditionally knows as the Five Scrolls (Megillot). They are as follows: I. Song of Songs, II. Ruth, III. Lamentations, IV. Ecclesiastes, V. Esther
– Sometimes the Writings (Ketuvim) are divided in the following manner: I. The Books of Truth (Psalms, Proverbs, Job), II. The Books of Widsom (Job, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs) III. The Books of Poetry (Psalms, Lamentations, Song of Songs), and IV. The Books of History (Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles I/II)
– Because of differences in organization, these 11 Jewish books of the Writings (Ketuvim) equal 13 Books of the Christian Old Testament. This is because in Judaism, Chronicles I and II, along with Ezra and Nehemiah, are counted as one book each.
– The 3 Books of Truth are also known in Hebrew as Sifrei Emet (ספרי אמת, literally “Books of Truth”)
– The exact ordering and names of the Writings, both in Hebrew and English, can be seen as follows: 1) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
2) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 3) Job (איוב/Iyov), 4) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 5) Ruth (רות/Rut), 6) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 7) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 8) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 9) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 10) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 11) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim) which are the 14th throuth 21st Books in the Tanakh can also be divided into 3 distinct sections, they can be listed in the following manner:

The Books of Truth (Sifrei Emet)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)

The Five Scrolls (Megilot)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)

The Rest of the Writings
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

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Some Additional Facts about the Tanakh
– Like the Christian Bible, the original Jewish Bible had no chapters or verses. They eventually adopted the same basic system used by Christianity, but even today, ‘chapter divisions and verse numbers have no significance in the Jewish tradition. Nevertheless, they are noted in all modern editions of the Tanakh so that verses may be located and cited.’
– Some Tanakhs even note the ‘division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into parts I and II is also indicated on each page of those books in order to prevent confusion.’
– The inclusion of numbered chapters, and then later verses, in the Jewish Bible ‘began in the late Middle Ages in Spain, partially in the context of forced clerical debates which took place against a background of harsh persecution and of the Spanish Inquisition (the debates required a common system for citing biblical texts).’
– Because of this ugly history of conflict with Christianity, Judaism does not rely so heavily upon the numbered chapter and verse format. Indeed, as one source notes: ‘From the standpoint of the Jewish textual tradition, the chapter divisions are not only a foreign feature with no basis in the mesorah, but are also open to severe criticism of three kinds:..Nevertheless, because they proved useful for citations, they are often included in most Hebrew editions of the biblical books.’
– In older versions of the Jewish Bible, the Christian-based chapter and verse numbers were featured very prominently on each page. In the past fifty years or so, things have changed and there is now a ‘major trend towards minimizing the impact and prominence of the chapter and verse numbers on the printed page. Most editions accomplish this by removing them from the text itself and relegating them to the margins of the page.’
– The only significant difference in the numbering system between Jewish and Chrisian Bibles occurs in 1 Chronicles. Other than that the numbered chapter and verse system typically coinicides between the two religions.
– For the most part, there are two main approaches to the study, analysis, and interpretation of the Tanakh. The traditional approach is to assume that the Bible has a Divine, supernatural, origin. The modern approach is to assume exactly the opposite, namely that the Tanakh is nothing more than the writings of man.
– Because more than a few professionals and professors of what is called Biblical Studies do not have any religious faith, their commentary and conclusions are often different from that of believers. As one source states: ‘Biblical criticism seems to contradict commitment to the idea that the Bible was written by prophets inspired by God. Indeed, this practice, when applied to the Torah, is generally considered heresy by the entire Orthodox Jewish community. As such, much modern day Bible commentary written by non-Orthodox authors is considered treif (forbidden) by rabbis teaching in Orthodox yeshivas.’
– Even so, numerous Rabbinical experts from the past such as Abraham Ign Ezra, Gersonides, and Maimonides still managed to use the same techniques of modern Biblical scholarship including in-depth historical and scientific analysis of the Bible. There is a crucial difference, however, between these classical Rabbis and modern experts. Put bluntly, the Rabbis from centuries past truly believed that ‘God revealed the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai.’ Many of the modern scholars do not.
– In the modern world of today, the two non-Orthodox branches of Judaism, called Conservative and Reform Judaism now tend to ‘accept the validity of both traditional and secular approaches to Bible studies.’

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A Brief Publishing History of the Tanakh
– The first ever printed Hebrew Chumash simply had Biblical text with Rashi on the page, and since then many editions have appeared.
– The first Masoretic Mikraot Gedolot was printed in 1524-1525 in Venice, edited by Daniel Bomberg. The Soncino edition was printed in 1527 in Venice. Many editions of Mikraot Gedolot have been made since then.
– Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica appeared in 1906 and was reprinted in 1913.
– The Leningrad Codex, an ancient version of the Tanakh still intact, was originally edite under Paul E. Kahle as the Biblia Hebraica (BHK) and was published in Stuttgart in 1937.
– The Leningrad codex was also used for Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) in 1977 and will continue to be used for Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ). The Leningrad Codex lists a different order for the books of the Ketuvim and has ‘also served as the basis for two important Jewish editions of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh).’
– Aharon Dotan’s Edition is viewed as the official Tanakh of the Israeli military which includes which was reprinted with ‘a concise commentary’. It has been updated recently as the ‘Codex Leningradensis’.
– The Koren Tanakh (Bible) Edition (1962) is considered the first edition in alomst 500 years that was ‘designed, edited, printed, and bound by Jews.’
– The Aleppo Codex Edition (1977) has been called  the ‘first edition to include a reconstruction of the letters, vowels, and cantillation marks in the missing parts of the Aleppo Codex.’
– Jerusalem Crown: The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Edition (2000) has been written and edited ‘according to the method of Mordechai Breuer under the supervision of Yosef Ofer’, two prominent Hebrew Bible scholars.

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the 24 Books of the Tanakh

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books. (Numbers Rabba 14)

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them. He must be meek, and even humble; every act of his life should testify to his worth, and withal if his hearers do not like his preaching he is to desist from it. (Midrash Songs 4)

There is no hard and fast rule as to any part with which books in Holy Writ should open. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Exact Sequence of the Tanakh

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Authors of the Tanakh

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job. Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch. Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth. David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. (Baba Bathra 15a)

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time. (Baba Bathra 15a)
This confirms the opinion of Rab, since Rab Judah has said, ‘Ezra did not leave Babylon to go up to Eretz Yisrael until he had written his own genealogy.’ Who then finished it the Book of Chronicles? – Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. (Baba Bathra 15a)

You say that Joshua wrote his book. But is it not written, And Joshua son of Nun the servant of the Lord died? – It was completed by Eleazar. But it is also written in it, And Eleazar the son of Aaron died?  – Phineas finished it. You say that Samuel wrote the book that bears his name. But is it not written in it, Now Samuel was dead?  – It was completed by Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet. You say that David wrote the Psalms, including work of the ten elders. Why is not Ethan the Ezrahite also reckoned with? – Ethan the Ezrahite is Abraham. The proof is that it is written in the Psalms, Ethan the Ezrahite, and it is written elsewhere, Who hath raised up righteousness from the East. (Baba Bathra 15a)

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Torah (First 5 Books of the Tanakh)

The Torah or knowledge increases, and the intellect becomes keener by proper study, and any difficult matter submitted to scholars will find solution; as a structure will be satisfactorily erected by skilful workmen each contributing his skill.–Mid. Songs 5.

In one sense there is an advantage in failing memory; if man’s memory did not fail, there would be no study of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum. Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum. Vayakhail)

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it. (Tanchum. Devorim)

Torah borrows from righteousness, and righteousness from the Torah; all without charging any interest. Is man, and man only, not to extend a helping hand to his fellow-man without exacting usury for a kind act? (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was to God, when He created the world, what the plan is to an architect when he erects a building. (Genesis Rabba 1)

There is a limit to everything except to the greatness and depth of the Torah. (Genesis Rabba 10)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah is full of holy fire; it was written with a black fire upon a white fire. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The Torah has meekness as its footgear, and the fear of God as its crown. Hence Moses was the proper person through whose hands it should be delivered; he was meek, and with the fear of the Lord he was crowned. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

You cannot expect to occupy yourself with the study of the Torah in the future world and receive the reward for so doing in this world, you are meant to make the Torah your own in this life, and to look for reward in the life to come.(Tanchum, Bereshith)

God consulted the Torah when about to create man, but the Torah was dubious about calling man into existence, for since his days would be so short and his ways so perverted he would require much forbearance. God’s reply was, ‘By thee (Torah) I declare myself as a God merciful, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and in truth.’ (Tanchum, Pekudai)

Ben Azai was in a deep study, and to those who passed him it seemed as if he was sitting in the midst of a flame. They told Rabbi Akiba of it, who went to him and asked him whether he was studying any mystery. ‘Not at all,’ said Ben Azai. ‘I was looking up the Pentateuch, the Prophets and the Hagiographa, and rejoiced over their contents as though I had been one of those who received the Torah at the foot of Sinai when God proclaimed His word in the midst of fire.’ (Midrash Songs 1)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Prophets of the Tanakh

With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, viz. Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo. Once at the assembly of the wise men in Jericho they heard the echo proclaim, ‘There is one amongst you who is well worthy of the Holy Spirit, but alas the present generation is unworthy of it.’ They thought of Hillel the elder. At his death they lamented him with the words, ‘Oh that saintly man, that meek man, that pupil of Ezra.’ (Midrash Song of Songs 8)

All the prophets started with admonitions and ended with words of comfort. Jeremiah alone had no words of comfort to offer.(Midrash Psalms 4)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Psalms

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them. It is like a company of musicians who appear before a king, and are told: ‘Although you are, everyone of you, efficient in your art, yet I wish the one with the sweetest voice to sing before me.’ (Midrash Songs 4)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Job

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses – The proof is that it is written here (in connection with Job), ‘O that my words were now written,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with Moses, ‘For wherein now shall it be known.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– But on that ground I might say that he was contemporary with Isaac, in connection with whom it is written, Who now is he that took venison?  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Or I might say that he was contemporary with Jacob, in connection with whom it is written, If so now  do this? or with Joseph, in connection with whom it is written, ‘Where they are pasturing?’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

– The proof that Job was contemporary with Moses is that] it is written [in continuation of the above words of Job], Would that they were inscribed in a book, and it is Moses who is called ‘inscriber’, as it is written, ‘And he chose the first part for himself, for there was the lawgiver’s’ portion reserved. (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Raba said that Job was in the time of the spies. The proof is that it is written here in connection with Job, ‘There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with the spies, ‘Whether there be wood therein.’ Where is the parallel? In one place it is Uz, in the other EZ? – What Moses said to Israel was this: ‘See if that man is there whose years are as the years of a tree and who shelters his generation like a tree.’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

A certain Rabbi was sitting before R. Samuel b. Nahmani and in the course of his expositions remarked, Job never was and never existed, but is only a typical figure. He replied: To confute such as you the text says, There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name. But, he retorted, if that is so, what of the verse, The poor man had nothing save one poor ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up etc. Is that anything but a parable? So this too is a parable. If so, said the other, why are his name and the name of his town mentioned? (Baba Bathra 15a)

R. Johanan and R. Eleazar both stated that Job was among those who returned from the (Babylonian) Exile, and that his house of study was in Tiberias. An objection [to this view] was raised from the following: ‘The span of Job’s life was from the time that Israel entered Egypt till they left it.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

Job was born when the Jews went down to Egypt; he married Dinah, Jacob’s daughter, and he died when the Israelites left Egypt.(Genesis Rabba 57)

Job probably never existed, and if he did exist, the events recorded concerning him never took place. The whole narrative is intended as a moral lesson.  (Genesis Rabba 57)

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The Bible of Judaism (Tanakh)
1) Genesis (Bereshith) – 1st Book of the Law (Torah)
2) Exodus (Shemot) – 2nd Book of the Law (Torah)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra) – 3rd Book of the Law (Torah)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar) – 4th Book of the Law (Torah)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim) – 5th Book of the Law (Torah)
6) Joshua (Y’hoshua) – 1st Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim) – 2nd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel) – 3rd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim) – 4th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu) – 5th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu) – 6th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel) — 7th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar) – 8th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim) – 1st Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei) – 2nd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov) – 3rd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim) – 4th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut) – 5th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah) – 6th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet) – 7th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther) – 8th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el) – 9th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia) – 10th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim) – 11th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Samuel, St. Jeremiah, and St. Isaiah.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible

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Some Strange and Astonishing Numbers of the Bible
– The King of Bashan was apparently so huge he had a bed measuring 13 and 1/2  feet long long and 6 feet wide. (Deutronomy 3:11)
– Absalom once had 6.5 pounds of actual hair removed during his annual haircut. (2 Samuel 14: 26)
– King Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines, and 12,000 horses. (1 Kings 11:1-3)
– An Army of 185,000 wound up being destroyed in a single night (Isaiah 37:36)
– Rehoboam was a father of 88 children. (2 Chronicles 11:21)
– King Zimri is said to have reigned for only 7 days. (I Kings 16:15)
– Methuselah, a son of Adam, lived to be 969 years old. (Genesis 5:27)
– Noah was 600 years old when he built the ark, and 950 years old when he died. (Genesis 7:6 and Genesis 9:29)
– Adam was 930 years old when he died. (Genesis 5:5)
– One man supposedly had 12 fingers and 12 toes. (2 Samuel 21:20)
– A Biblical army once consisted of 700 left-handed men. (Judges 20:16)

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Strange and Impossible Occurrences in the Bible
– A large group of men actually drank water like dogs. (Judges 7:5)
– A soaking wet sacrifice was then burnt through a supernatural occurrence. (1 Kings 18:17-40)
– A man named Balaam was once directly spoken to by a donkey. (Numbers 22:28-30)
– Women shaved their heads completely before getting married. (Deuteronomy 21:11-13)
– The once sun stood still for an entire day. (Joshua 10:13)
– One man increased his overall lifettime by 15 years simply with prayer. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– The sun is purported to have gone backward, from west to east. (Isaiah 38:8)
– A prostitute named Rachab truly was an actual ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:5)
– The Prophet Elijah once outran a chariot. (1 Kings 18:41-46)
– An axe head made of iron ended up floating on top of the water. (2 Kings 6:1-6)
– A desperate woman eventually boiled and ate her son  (2 Kings 6:29)
– The wicked Jezebel eventually had her body eaten by dogs. (2 Kings 9:30-36)
– Jacob once used a stone for a pillow. (Genesis 28:1)
– A baby named Zarah once had scarlet thread tied around her hand before birth. (Genesis 38:28-30)
– The Prophet Isaiah allegedly walked around naked for three years. (Isaiah 20:2-3)
– The Bible is described as being cut with a pen knife. (Jeremiah 36:20-2)
– John the Baptist supposedly ate only locusts and honey for food. (Mathew 3:4)
– A woman personally killed a man by driving a nail through his head. (Judges 4:17-21)
– Moses once caused a victory on the battlefield simply because he stretched out his hand (Exodus 17:11)
– The life of Hezekaih was increased by 15 years because he prayed. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– Seven women once wanted and sought after the same man.  (Isaiah 4:1)
– Obviously dead, dry bones were then miraculously brought to life. (Ezekiel 37)
– God is described as having had a wash pot (Psalms 60:6-8)
– An ancient bottle of milk is also described. (Judges 4:19)
– Someone is reputed to have been the first left-handed man in history. (Judges 3:15)
– There are 2 men in the Bible who never died but were instead caught up into Heaven are Enoch, from Genesis, and Elisjah: 1) Enoch, who walked with God and was no more (Genesis 5:22-24), and 2) Elijah, who was caught up by a whirlwind into heaven (II Kings 2:11).
– In ancient Israel, men closed a deal by exchanging sandals. (Ruth 4:7)
– Once when Ezekiel was just sitting in his house alone, a gigantic hand suddenly picked him up by the hair of his head and took him somewhere between heaven and earth. (Ezekiel 8:3)

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The Biblical Roots of Odd and Original Phrases
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

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+ The Biblical Origins of 10 Specific Phrases +

1) Spare the rod, spoil the child-

He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.

– Proverbs 13:24

2) By the sweat of your brow-

To Adam he said, Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. … By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

– Genesis 3:17,19

3) It is better to give than to receive-

In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’

– Acts. 20:35

4) A leopard cannot change its spots-

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil

– Jeremiah 13:23

5) Money is the root of all evil-

For the love of money is a root of all sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.

– Timothy 6:10

6) Nothing new under the sun-

That which has been is that which will be, And that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun.

– Ecclesiastes 1:9

7) Let him who is without sin cast the first stone-

But when they persisted in asking Him, Jesus straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.’

– John 8:7

8) A Fly in the ointment-

Dead flies make a perfumer’s oil stink, so a little foolishness is weightier than wisdom and honor.

– Ecclesiastes 10:1

9) The Salt of the earth-

You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

– Matthew 5:13

10) Being Used as a Scapegoat-

The goat on which the lot for the scapegoat fell shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat.

– Leviticus 16:10

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Elijah.

Bible – The New Testament Basics

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The New Testament Basics +

The English Bible – a book which if everything else in our language should perish, would alone suffice to show the whole extent of its beauty and power.

– Julia Crawford

The Basic Aspects of the New Testament
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters totalling 27 different texts in all.
– The 4 Gospels are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
– The Four Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel is considered to be the only exception.
– In chronological order, the 27 Books of Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. Nearly 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The New Testament is mainly about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph, the Nazarene. Therefore the vast majority of the New Testament takes places from O BC to 33 AD, starting out with His birth in Bethlehem and ending with His crucifixion, death, and burial in Jerusalem 33 years later.
– Various passages which speak of Jesus Christ as God include John 1:1, John 20:28, Romans 9:5, Philippians 2:11, and Colossians 1:16.
– Other passages which speak of Jesus Christ as Man can be listed as follows: John 1:14, Luke 2:7, Luke 2:40, Luke 8:23, John 4:6 and Hebrews 4:15.
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek, nearly 800 of which were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years. Interestingly, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day.
– The heroic saga known as ‘Iliad’, by Homer, still considered the most renowned book of ancient Greece, has 643 copies of manuscripts to prove itself the authentic writings of Homer. Even so, there are still 764 disputed lines of text which have yet to be determined as authentic. In comparison there are only 40 lines in all the New Testament manuscripts which remain subject to dispute.
– The supporting literature and commentary on the New Testament also provides a strong foundation of reliability as to its origins. If one tried to rewrite the entire text, even without having an actual copy of the New Testament, literally all of it, except eleven verses, ‘can be reconstructed from the writings of the early church fathers in the second and third centuries.’

The Basic Use of Names in the New Testament
– Jesus had many names including Immanuel, Alpha and Omega, Bright and Morning Star, Good Shepherd, I Am, King of Kings, Lamb of God, Master, Prince of Life, Root of Jesse. Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace (Revelation 1:11, 22:16, 19:16, John 10:14, 8:58, 1:29, 38, 15:1, Acts 3:15, Isaiah 11:10, 9:6).
– The names of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, as described in the Book of Revelation, are called Conquest, Slaughter, Famine, and Death.
– The names of the ‘Three Wise Men’ are known as Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar as these names were detailed in an early 6th century Greek manuscript.
– The various gifts of the ‘Three Wise Men’ were as follows: Melchoir (means king of light) offered Gold; Gaspar (means the white one) offered Frankincense (Frankincense is a gum resin used as a base for incense); and Balthazar (means lord of treasures) offered Myrrh (Myrrh is a gum resin, was valued as a perfume and unguent used in embalming).
– Although it is written nowhere to be found in the New Testament, the two robbers crucified next to Jesus were named Dismas and Gestas.

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What can I do with respect to the next world without my Bible?

– John Bacon

The Basic Timeline of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins writing his 13 Letters
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing his 13 Letters
90 A.D. – John writes the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3 Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

NOTE: The 13 Letter of Paul are Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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+ The Basic Gospels, Books, and Letters of the New Testament+

The Traditional Names of the 4 New Testament Gospels
1) The Gospel According to St. Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to St. Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to St. John

The Traditional Names of the 2 New Testament Books
1) The Book of Acts of the Apostles, 2) The Book of Revelation of St. John

The Traditional Names of the 21 New Testament Letters
1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) Letter to Titus, 13) Letter to Philemon, 14) Letter to the Hebrews, 15) Letter of James, 16) 1st Letter of Peter, 17) 2nd Letter of Peter, 18) 1st Letter of John, 19) 2nd Letter of John, 20) 3rd Letter of John, 12) the Letter to Jude.

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+ The Basic Authorship of the New Testament +

The English Bible has been a greater influence in the course of English literature than all other forces put together. It is impossible to read standard authors intelligently without knowing something about the Bible, for they all assume familiarity with it on the point of their readers…….to any young man or woman, eaten with ambition to become a writer, I shall advise first of all, KNOW THE BIBLE.

– William Lyon Phelps, Prof. of English Literature at Yale University

The Basic Facts about the Authors of the New Testament
– The 27 Books of the New Testament were all written by only  8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude
– These 8 individual New Testament authors, along with the names of the various 27 books they are responsible for writing, can be seen as follows: 1) Matthew = Gospel of Matthew,  2) Mark = Gospel of Mark, 3)  Luke = Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts,  4) John = Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation, 5) James = Letter of James, 6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 7) St. Jude = Letter of Jude, 8) St. Paul = Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
– Some of the traditional names given to the 8 New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)
– John, Paul, and Luke are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters). The can be represented in the following manner:

The 3 Primary Authors of the New Testament (20 Books)
1) John (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters): Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
2) Paul (13 Letters): Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
3) Luke (2 Books): Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

– Only two, out of the eight New Testament authors, namely St. Peter and St. Matthew, were ever considered to be actual Apostles, a group of Twelve men previously chosen by Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph (Rabbi Jesus, the Nazarene) to carry on in His name and to serve as the chosen leaders of His growing religious movement.The other six authors were seen instead as Disciples, a name given to a much larger, constantly expanding, circle of followers and associates who had chosen Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) as their LORD and Savior.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

I Thoroughly believe in a University education for both men and women, but I believe a knowledge of the Bible without a college education is more valuable that a college education without the Bible.

– William Lyon Phelps

The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

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Jesus loves me – this I know, For the Bible tells me so.

– Anna Bartlett Warner

The Basic Organization of the New Testament
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– In chronological order, the New Testament of the Christian Bible, including all Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Bibles, consists of the following 27 different Books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The Book of Acts, usually seen as a Historical book, was written by Luke, the same author who wrote the Gospel of Luke.
– The Book of Revelation, written by St. John of Patmos, is a terrifying series of prophetic visions as personally experienced by St. John, the author. Because of this, the Book is categorized as Apocalyptic. This book has also been called the Apocalypse of John.
– Most scholars, including the Roman Catholic Church itself, believe that the prophecy of the Beast, and anti-Chrsit, has already been fulfilled many centuries ago. Thus, the actual identity of the infamous Beast, whose number is 666, was non other than Caesar Nero, the Emperor of Rome.
– The 4 Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel of John is considered to be the only exception to the other three.
– Luke, one of the Gospel authors was also a medical doctor. (Colossians 4:14)
– The 21 Letters, can be further divided into two basic groups, commonly known as the 13 Pauline Letters, and the 7 General, or Catholic, Letters. The last letter, Letter to the Hebrews, is the only New Testament Book with an unknown author.
– Overall, these 21 Letters, as they are written in the New Testament, include the following: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon, 14) Hebrews, 15) James, 16) 1 Peter, 17) 2 Peter, 18) 1 John, 19) 2 John, 20) 3 John, 21) Jude.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon,
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, the General Epistles, or Catholic Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude

The Basic Organization of the New Testament Letters
– As described previously, they 21 Letters of the New Testament have always been categorized into two main groups called the 13 Letters of Paul and 7 Catholic Letters of the New Testament.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, Catholic Epistles, or the General Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude
– In brief, the Seven Catholic Letters (General Epistles) of the New Testament are as follows: 1) James, 2) I Peter, 3) II Peter, 4), I John, 5) II John, 6) III John, and 7) Jude
– The 2 letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– The General epistles, or Catholic Epistles, are individual books of the New Testament in the form of letters.
– Traditional full length names and titles of these letters are: the Epistle of James, First Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle of Peter, First Epistle of John, Second Epistle of John, Third Epistle of John, Epistle of James, Epistle of Jude
– These Letters have been called ‘general’ because for the most part, their intended audience seems to be Christians in general rather than individual persons or congregations as is the case with the Pauline epistles.
– 2nd John and 3rd John are included as General Epistles despite the fact they are addressed to the ‘elect lady’, thought by many scholars to be the Church itself, and to ‘Gaius’, about whom there has been much speculation but little in the way of conclusive proof as to his actual identity.
– Even today, some scholars continue to question the actual authorship of these works. Some believe 2 Peter to be a pseudepigraphal work.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years
– The Letter to the Hebrews has been deemed the work of an unknown author since the very beginning of Christianity. More than one Church Father declared that only God would ever know the actual identity of the author who wrote Hebrews. Even so, numerous theories and conjectures as to who really wrote it have been circulating throughout the Church for many centuries. Some believers have contended that St. Paul is the real author. A careful reading of the text, however, reveals that ‘the grammar and use of certain key Pauline terms is markedly different from the whole body of his identified (written) work.’ In other words, there is substantial linguistic evidence that someone else besides St. Paul wrote the Letter to the Hebrews.
– Considering the fact that quite a few Old Testament books were also wtitten by unknown authors, one could rightfully say that occasional anonymity is actually a key aspect of the overall Biblical (Judeo-Christian) tradition. In other words, it may well be considered an authenticlly Hebrew tradition to include anonymous sacred writings into Scriptures. As one source puts it bluntly, ‘Most of the writings in the Old Testaments are authored by anonymous Israelites, and in many cases it is not known whether they were compiled by individuals or groups.’ Thus, the anonymous nature of the Letter to the Hebrews is nothing new to the the Bible or to the religions of Judaism and Christianity
– The Syrian Orthodox Peshitta, ‘excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch).’ Even today, the educational program for this particular Eastern Christian Sect: ‘presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.’
– The Third Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.

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0 A.D. – The Birth of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)
33 A.D. – The Death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)

The Basic Dates, Books, and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

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The Basic Chronological List of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament

1) The Gospel of Matthew was probably written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D. or later

2) The Gospel of Mark was probably written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D. or later

3) The Gospel of Luke was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D. or later

4) The Gospel of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

5) The Book of Acts was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D. or later

6) The Letter to the Romans was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.or later

9) The Letter to the Galatians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

10) The Letter to the Ephesians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

11) The Letter to the Philippians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

12) The Letter to the Colossians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was probably  written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

17) The Letter to Titus was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

18) The Letter to Philemon was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

19) The Letter to the Hebrews was probably written by an unknown author in the year 65 A,D. or later

20) The Letter of James was probably written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D. or later

21) The 1st Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

23) The 1st Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

25) The 3rd Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

26) The Letter of Jude was probably written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D. or later

27) The Book of Revelation was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Jude

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity +

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim

A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b

– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’

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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah): This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:

Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)
1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)
6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)
14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles

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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

The Bible of Christianity
– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi
– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament

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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

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The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi

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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible

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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible
Authors: over 40 individuals
Translations: over 1,200 languages
Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible
Chapters:1,189
Verses: 31,071
Words: 783,137
Letters: 3,566,480
Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)
Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)
Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)
Shortest Book: 3 John
Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)
Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’
Middle Books: Micah and Nahum
Middle Chapter: Psalm 117
Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8
The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times
The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible

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Facts and Figures of the Bible
~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.
~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.
~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’
~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).
~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’
~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.
~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.
~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years.  Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

+ The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397),  Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)
~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte

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Numbers and Statistics of the Bible
~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.
~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.
~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.
~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.
~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages
~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)
~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35
~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35
~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters
~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions
~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.
~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454
~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535
~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee

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Versions and Translations of the Bible
~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.
~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.
~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.
~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.
~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).
~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible
~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.
~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies
~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.
~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.
~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).
~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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History and Language of the Bible
~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.
~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.
~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.
~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.
~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.
~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.
~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.
~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of  procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.
~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.
~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.
~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.
~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.
~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’
~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.
~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.
~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.
~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.
~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa

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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible

~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.
~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.
~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.
~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.

~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)
~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.
~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.
~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.
~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.
~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.
~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.
~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.
~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.
~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.
~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.
~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.
~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.
~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. –
– The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The  4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter.

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In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

A Reference Guide to the Books, the Authors, and the Dates of the Old Testament

The Protestant Old Testament (39 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Esther, 18) Job, 19) Psalms, 20) Proverbs, 21) Ecclesiastes, 22) Song of Songs, 23) Isaiah, 24) Jeremiah, 25) Lamentations, 26) Ezekiel, 27) Daniel, 28) Hosea, 29) Joel, 30) Amos, 31) Obadiah, 32) Jonah, 33) Micah, 34) Nahum, 35) Habakkuk, 36) Zephaniah, 37) Haggai, 38) Zechariah, 39) Malachi

The Catholic Old Testament (46 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Tobit, 18) Judith, 19) Esther, 20) 1 Maccabees, 21) 2 Maccabees, 22) Job, 23) Psalms, 24) Proverbs, 25) Ecclesiastes, 26) Song of Songs, 27) Wisdom, 28) Sirach, 29) Isaiah, 30) Jeremiah, 31) Lamentations, 32) Baruch, 33) Ezekiel, 34) Daniel, 35) Hosea, 36) Joel, 37) Amos, 38) Obadiah, 39) Jonah, 40) Micah, 41) Nahum, 42) Habakkuk, 43) Zephaniah, 44) Haggai, 45) Zechariah, 46) Malachi

Basic Statistics of the Old Testament
The Number of Protestant Books = 39
The Number of Catholic Books = 46
The Number of Eastern Orthodox Books = 51
The Middle book = Book of Proverbs
The Largest Book = Book of Psalms
The Smallest Book = Book of Obadiah
The Oldest Book = Book of Job (~1,000 B.C.)
The Newest Book = Book of Malachi (400 BC)
The Chapters = 929
The Middle chapter = Job 20
The Longest chapter = Psalms 119
The Verses = 23,114
The Middle verses = 2 Chronicles 20:17,18
The Shortest verse = 1 Chronicles 1:25
The Longest verse = Esther 8:9
The Words = 602,585
The Letters = 2,278,100

The Books, Authors, and Dates of the Old Testament
1. The Book of Genesis was written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
2. The Book of Exodus was written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
3. The Book of Leviticus was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
4. The Book of Numbers was written by the Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
5. The Book of Deuteronomy was written by Moses in 1,400 B.C.
6. The Book of Joshua was written by Joshua in the year 1,350 B.C.
7. The Book of Judges was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
8. The Book of Ruth was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
9. The 1st Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
10. The 2nd Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
11. The 1st Book of Kings was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
12. The 2nd Book of Kingswas written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
15. The Book of Ezra was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
16. The Book of Nehemiah was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author in the year 400 B.C.
18. The Book of Job was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
19. The Book of Psalms was written by King David in the year 1,000 B.C.
20. The Book of Proverbs was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
22. The Song of Solomon was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C,
23. The Book of Isaiah was written by the Prophet Isaiah in the year 700 B.C.
24. The Book of Jeremiah was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
25. The Book of Lamentations was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
26. The Book of Ezekiel was written by the Prophet Ezekiel in the year 550 B.C.
27. The Book of Daniel was written by the Prophet Daniel  in the year 550 B.C.
28. The Book of Hosea, was written by the Prophet Hosea in the year 750 B.C.
29. The Book of Joel, by was written by the Prophet Joel in the year 850 B.C.
30. The Book of Amos was written by the Prophet Amos in the year 750 B.C.
31. The Book of Obadiah was written by the Prophet Obadiah in the year 600 B.C.,
32. The Book of Jonah was written by the Prophet Jonah in the year 700 B.C.
33. The Book of Micah was written by the Prophet  Micah in the year 700 B.C.
34. The Book of Nahum was written by the Prophet Nahum in the year 700 B.C.
35. The Book of Habakkuk was written by the Prophet  Habakkuk in the year 600 B.C.
36. The Book of Zephaniah was written by the Prophet  Zephaniah in the year 650 B.C.
37. The Book of Haggai was written by the Prophet Haggai in the year 520 B.C.
38. The Book of Zechariah was written by the Prophet Zechariah in the year 500 B.C.
39. The Book of Malachi was written by the Prophet Malachi in the year 430 B.C.
40. The Book of Tobit was written by Tobit in the year 200 B.C.
41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author in the year 150 B.C.
42. The Book of Wisdom was written by Solomon in the year 100 B.C.
43. The Book of Sirach was written by Jesus ben Sirach in the year 200 B.C.
44. The Book of Baruch was written by Baruch in the year 150 B.C.
45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.
46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

Official Church Lists of The Old Testament Books

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach], twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

– Council of Carthage III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

The whole canon of the Scriptures, however, in which we say that consideration is to be applied, is contained in these books: the five of Moses…and one book of Joshua (Son of) Nave, one of Judges; one little book which is called Ruth…then the four of Kingdoms, and the two of Paralipomenon…(T)here are also others too, of a different order…such as Job and Tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of Maccabees, and the two of Esdras…Then there are the Prophets, in which there is one book of the Psalms of David, and three of Solomon…But as to those two books, one of which is entitled Wisdom and the other of which is entitled Ecclesiasticus and which are called of Solomon’ because of a certain similarity to his books, it is held most certainly that they were written by Jesus Sirach. They must, however, be accounted among the prophetic books, because of the authority which is deservedly accredited to them.

– Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397)

A brief addition shows what books really are received in the canon. These are the things of which you desired to be informed verbally: of Moses, five books, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, of Deuteronomy, and Joshua, of Judges, one book, of Kings, four books, and also Ruth, of the Prophets, sixteen books, of Solomon, five books, the Psalms. Likewise of the histories, Job, one book, of Tobit, one book, Esther, one, Judith, one, of the Maccabees, two, of Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books.

– Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408)

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books . . . Let this be sent to our brother and fellow bishop, [Pope] Boniface, and to the other bishops of those parts, that they may confirm this canon, of these are the things which we have received from our fathers to be read in church.

– The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419)
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The Traditional Names of the Books of the Old Testament
The 39 Traditional Names of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Traditional Names of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
– John 1:1

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Books of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Books of the Bible
– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.
– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.
– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).
– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.
– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.
The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 ohn instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets
– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.
– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses
– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.
– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.
– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

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Chapters of the Bible

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible
– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.
– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.
– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.
– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses
– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.
– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.
– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.
– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.
– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.
– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!
– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.
– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.
– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

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Verses of the Bible

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

Brief Facts about the Verses of the Bible
– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.
– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.
– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.
– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.
– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.
– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.
– Joshua 7:24, 1Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.
– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.
– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.
– According to populr opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \
– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.
– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.
– The middle verse of theOld Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.
– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words

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Words of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible
– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains pproximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.
– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible
– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)
– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’
– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible
Bath = about 9 gallons
Bekah = ¼ of an ounce
Cab = 2 quarts
Cubit = about 18 inches
Day’s journey = 20-25 miles
Ephah = about 1 bushel
Farthing = ¼ cent
Fathom = 6 feet
Finger = ¾ of an inc
Firkin = 9 gallons
Furlong = fraction of a mile
Gerah  = .4 ounces
Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches
Hin = 6 quarts
Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry
Log = 1 pint
Mite = of a cent
Omer = 7 pints
Pound = about $16 in money
Reed = about 11 feet
Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile
Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver
Span = about 9 inches
Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

Word Repetition in the Bible
– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times
– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times
– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.
– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.
– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.
– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times
– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.
– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible
– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).
– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.
– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.
– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)
– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)
– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)
– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.
– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)
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Names of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible
– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.
– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spellingand pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.
– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

Male Name Repetition in the Bible
– David: mentioned 1118 times
– Moses: mentioned 740 times
– Aaron: mentioned 339 times
– Saul: mentioned 338 times
– Abraham: mentioned 306 times
– Solomon: mentioned 295 times
– Jacob: mentioned 270 times
– Joseph: mentioned 208 times
– Joshua: mentioned 197 times
– Paul: mentioned 185 times
– Peter: mentioned 166 times
– Joab: mentioned 137 times
– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times
– Samuel: mentioned 135 times
– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

Female Name Repetition in the Bible
– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times
– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times
– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times
– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times
– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times
– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times
– Abigail: 15 times
– Miriam: 15 times
– Mary Magdalene: 14 times
– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times
– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters
– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)
– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)
– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)
– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)
– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)
– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)
– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)
– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)
– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)
– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)
– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)
– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)
– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)
– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)
– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)
– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)
– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)
– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)
– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)
– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)
– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his own daughter (Judges 11:30)
– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)
1. Hosea
2. Joel
3. Amos
4. Obadiah
5. Jonah
6. Micah
7. Nahum
8. Habakkuk
9. Zephaniah
10. Haggai
11. Zecariah
12. Malachi

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colosians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Bible – The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim



A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b



– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’



Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism

– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah):
This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:



Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)

1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)

6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)

14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles



Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism

With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

Facts about the Bible of Christianity

– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi



– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism-Christianity-Bible-Judaism

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity


 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1


– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

 

HolyBible-HolyBible-HolyBible-HolyBible-HolyBible-HolyBible-HolyBible

The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

Facts about the Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Canons
– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon
= 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament



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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah
was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras
was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –



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– The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1
st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi



The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi



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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)



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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.



The Four Circles of Judeo-Christian WItchkraft = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire



The Four Corners
of Judeo-Christian Magick = Earth, Air, Water, and Fire

Christianity – The Romanovs, a Family of Saints

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Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the age.

– Matthew 28:19-20

– The Tradition of Christianity –

In Praise and Memory of the the Romanovs, a Family of New Saints

This post is in honor and memory of the Romanov family who were murdered by the Bolsheviks on July 17, 1918. They have recently been canonized as Saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and as Passion-bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church. This new family of Saints includes St. Nicholas II, his wife St. Alexandra, along with their four daughters St. Olga, St. Tatiana, St. Maria, St. Anastasia, and their only son St. Alexei. Their new feast day is on July 17.

There is no justice among men.

– Saint Nicholas II

The Legendary Russian Princess Anastasia

Sometimes common sense gets lost in the various attempts by professional, accomplished historians to write and publish the premier text on certain key 20th century events, such as the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Indeed, even Karl Marx himself, who was baptized and raised a Protestant Lutheran, predicted that a Communist Revolution in the Russian Empire would never be successful and that the most likely candidate for a ‘Worker’s Paradise’ was, in fact, Germany, his own native country. Regardless of the numerous, carefully detailed explanations offered by the academics, the ingredients of this real-life story still read like a fictional tragedy straight out of Kafka or Tolstoy. Consider the cast of characters:

MARX: a failed, bitter, angry Communist intellectual and journalist originating from a recently converted dynastic family of Rabbis, who courted and married a beautiful, blonde German girl of noble blood, but then managed to publish almost nothing, except a small book called ‘The Communist Manifesto’ written mostly by his friend and life-time ‘Piggy bank’ Frederick Engels.
RASPUTIN: a dirty, lecherous Russian peasant with strange, occult powers that appeared to miraculously heal the Czarevich Alexei of his terminal illness, historically known as the Mad Monk.
LENIN: a stern, politically fanatical, Russian intellectual from a upper-class background with a completely shaven head and a well-trimmed goatee who was sent back to Russia from a defeated Germany on a mysterious black train fully prepared to instigate a Revolution against the Czar.
TROTSKY: a naive, ambitious, internationalist, anti-religious son of a hard-working Jewish farmer from the Ukrainian Shetl, originally named Lev Bronstein.
STALIN: a Georgian Socialist Revolutionary expelled from Orthodox Seminary for spreading Marxism, historically known as Uncle Joe, or even the ‘Gorgeous Georgian’.

Czar Nicholas II, with his wife, Alexandra, on the Left and his only Son, the Czarevich Alexei, on the Right

These days the general understanding of the Romanovs, especially that of Nicholas II, is that he was both a brutal Jew-hating dictator and an inept ruler who was destined to lose control of the Russian Empire. In reality, he was deeply Christian man far more concerned with his wife, his chidren and his religious faith, than with the diabolical schemes of Protestant German intellectuals. All things considered, the Romanovs were just as much the pawns of history as any other common family. Needless to say, the greatest tragedy about the Bolshevik Revolution that seems to get lost in the historical milieu is the fate of the Russian people, who went from being ruled by a classical autocracy to a fanatical, anti-Christian (and anti-Jewish) dictatorship who violently persecuted and oppressed their own people most of all. The now indisputable historical facts speak for themselves:

The Saint Romanov Family- Nicholas II, Alexandra, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei

Soviet Persecution and Imprisonment Facts
– In 1917, there were only 28,600 total prisoners within the Russian Empire, which was the largest prison population ever known in the history of Orthodox Christian, Imperial Russia.
– After the Communists murdered the Romanovs and took over the government, the prison population slowly exploded into the hundreds of thousands. By 1927, a mere 10 years after the Bolshevik Revolution, there were over 300,000 Soviet prisoners, tens times more than Czarist Russia ever had.
– Then, between the years 1929 and 1934, the prisoner population increased by twenty-three times, placing the total prison population in the millions.
– In comparison to Czarist Russia, 14 million Soviet prisoners passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, while an additional 6 to 7 million were forcibly exiled to remote regions of the USSR.
– A 1993 study reveals that a total of 1,053,829 prisoners died in the Gulag between 1934 to 1953.
– In reality, Czarist Russia imprisoned very few of their imperial subjects, while the Communists arrested, convicted, and sentenced millions of innocent people to a life of brutal enslavement and inevitable death.

 

Soviet Anti-Jewish Facts
– In the summer of 1919, nearly all Jewish properties, including synagogues, were seized by the Soviet authorities. Numerous Rabbis and other religious leaders were threatened with violent persecution.
– In the mid-1930s, Stalin had any remaining Jewish leaders arrested and executed, while nearly all the Yiddish religious schools were forcibly shut down.
– By the late 1940s, the Communist party had abolished any and all Jewish religious organizations, leaving only a few, token synagogues still open and kept under strict surveillance by the KGB.

Soviet Anti-Christian Facts
– Within five years after Lenin and the Bolsheviks had seized power, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and 1,200 priests had been executed by the Soviet authorities.
– Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the vast majority of the Russian Orthodox Clergy, along with many of its most devout believers had been shot dead or sent to the Gulag.
– Between the years 1927 and 1949, the number of Russian Orthodox Churches dropped from 29,584 to less than 500.
– From 1917 to 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. 95,000 of these priests were eventually put to death by the Soviet authorities.

Czar Nicholas II with his four young daughters and only son

By tradition, individual believers who have been officially canonized by the Church are considered by the living Christian authorities to be in the Kingdom of Heaven. Those observers that continue to believe the Romanovs were arrogant, elitist tyrants, who looked down upon the Russian people, do not know their history and should take the time to look up the many historically accurate summaries of the Romanovs who happen to be some of the newest Orthodox Christian Saints in Heaven.

I have a secret conviction that I am destined for a terrible trial, that I shall not receive my reward on this earth.

– Saint Nicholas II



Saint Nicholas II, a Saint of Orthodox Christianity

As numerous documented eyewitnesses have stated, Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra did anything but spoil their children and were adamant that all of them become as well-educated and intelligent as possible. Except for the expensive outfits worn only on public occasions, they had very few personal possessions that they could call their own. Priceless gifts and diplomatic offerings were taken away and kept as additions to the Imperial collection, which was originally meant as an everlasting heritage for all of Russia. From the beginning, Nicholas II and his wife insisted their children see themselves as having been born with special burdens which included numerous God-given responsibilities and duties they had to live up to and not as superior individuals born to rule over the unruly masses. The loving relationships the children formed with the common peasants, who made up an integral part of the Imperial staff, proves this to be the case.

The Romanov Children: Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei

Perhaps an atoning sacrifice is necessary for the salvation of Russia. I shall be that sacrifice. May the will of God be done!

– Saint Nicholas II

Czar Nicholas’s Signature

For many reasons, the canonization of the Romanovs means that, even if the Russian Orthodox Church doesn’t canonize every victim of Soviet persecution, those who aren’t so well-known will still have an entire family of Heavenly advocates that already know first-hand what it was like to be murdered by a tyrannical regime founded upon principles violently hostile to the Judeo-Christian tradition. Likewise, if the Romanov children are anything like they were before their execution, they would probably tell you that their personal Sainthood matters far less than the well-being of every single nameless, faceless victim of the International Communist Empire who never cared for anyone at all.

A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is (just) a statistic.

– Stalin

A lie told often enough becomes the truth.

– Lenin

Orthodox Christian Saint  Nicholas II, his wife Saint Alexandra, their four daughters Saint Olga, Saint Tatiana, Saint Maria, Saint Anastasia, and their only Saint Alexei

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus. God Save the Queen!

The New Testament – A Comprehensive Summary

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 

– John 1:1

Understanding the Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.

Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)

XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. – XXVII. –

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament

45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

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The Formal Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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– The New Testament in Brief –

A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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This shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, says the LORD. I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

– Jeremiah 31:33

– A Summary of the Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament –

For the most part, the 27 different Books of the Christian New Testament have remained exactly the same since the earliest centuries of Christianity. However, because of the lack of proper Church documentation during these times, most Biblical scholars and historians have tended to rely upon the written proclamations o the later Church Councils, most especially the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. which was convened by the order of Emperor Constantine I, who later became the first Roman Emperor to ever convert to Christianity.

For many scholars and historians, surviving documents dating from the 4th century Christian Councils of Nicea (325 A.D.) and Carthage (397 A.D.) represent the first actual official statements concerning the Biblical Canon of the Christian faith, including the exact contents of both the Old and New Testament. In reality, the New Testament Canon of 27 different books had already been fully established within the early Church, and among most believers,  long before it ever became ‘official’ under the reign of Constantine, who assisted in the first official State recognition of Christianity and the Church. Before then, the Christian faith had undergone a series of persecutions which then slowly transformed into acceptance and eventual recognition

In terms of history, the reign of Emperor Constantine I represented a clear and decisive victory for the religion of Christianity. After centuries of state-sponsored oppression and animosity, the Christian Church finally achieved official recognition and legal status according to the Imperial laws of Rome. Most of this was due to Constantine I and his benevolent influence. In time, this inevitably led to a declaration calling for a general meeting of all the Christian bishops found throughout the Roman Empire. that was clearly intended to be ‘the first ecumenical conference of the early Christian Church.’ This initial push to better organize the Christian religion throughout the Empire culminated in the year 325 A.D. with what is now called the First Council of Nicea. One of the Council”s main achievements, which had historical ramifications for centuries to come, involved the creation of ‘the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed.’

A Summary of the Council of Nicea (325 AD)  and the Synod of Carthage (397 AD)
Historically speaking, this same Council at Nicea also decided upon the final version of the Holy Bible including the total number of Books which were to be accepted as Scripture. In reality, the Church had already made their up their minds about the precise content of the Christian Bible. The Council of Nicea simply made things official. Even so, another general conference of Church leaders took place in 397 A.D. called the Synod of Carthage. One of their official Church decrees was deliberately intended as ‘an effort to protect the scriptures from various heresies and offshoot religious movements’. Thus, in order to prevent Scriptures from any future danger, the Council of Carthage held a special meeting on the 28th of August (397) where “the current 27 books of the New Testament were formally and finally confirmed and ‘canonized'” The Council of Carthage’s official list of accepted Biblical books, comprised of both the the Old and New Testament, reads as follows:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Josue, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kingdoms, 2 books of Paralipomenon, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaias, Jeremias, Daniel, Ezechiel, Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Machabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John.

– The Council of Carthage (397 A.D.)

Thus, it can be stated with all authority that the 27 different New Testament books, as they are still being used today, has been the only officially recognized text of Christianity for over 1,600 years. In other words, the every single Christian denomination since that time has remained in fundamental agreement over Scriptures, regardless of the any traditional Protestant/Catholic/Orthodox animosity. Put bluntly the New Testament, considered the fundamental sacred text of the religion of Christianity, has remained the same since the very beginning of the Church. Likewise, the Eastern Orthodox Church officially accepted the same 27 New Testament books in the year 367 A.D. and listed them in ‘the 39th Paschal Letter of Athanasius’.

Thus, the official names and  actual sequence of the 27 different books of the New Testament has been a key aspect of official Christian doctrine since the very beginning. Even so, the precise dates and actual authors of the various texts continue to remain a controversial issue even today, nearly 2,000 years later, and have yet to be settled to any great extent among a number of relevant scholars and experts in the field. Because of the strong, on-going differences in opinion about who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament and when they were actually written, the following list of authors and dates should not be seen as any final statement or ultimate conclusion. Even so, the general Church consensus has, for several centuries now, tended to believe that the entire 27 books of the Christianity’s New Testament were written by eight specific men. They include:

The 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) St. Matthew
2) St. Mark
3) St. Luke
4) St. John
5) St. Paul
6) St. Peter
7) St. Jude
8) St. James

There is compelling evidence that this ‘8 men’ theory is, in fact, true. Nevertheless, certain compelling questions remain about  even though the simplicity of such a claim has caused numerous Biblical scholars to reject it as too simplistic of an explanation. To be fair to the skeptics and naysayers, there still remain serious discrepancies in some of the basic orthodox assumption about who really wrote at least some of the 27 official New Testament books of Christianity. Thus, the following list should be seen as a summary of what most Biblical scholars have concluded over the many centuries since the Councils of Nicea and Carthage finalized the New Testament Canon of the early Christian Church. So, even though debate still rages on about the precise dates and actual authors, the list below can still help to establish a general picture of who really wrote the 27 books of the New Testament along with the dates when they were written. As history has shown, the fierce debate about these particular issues have always been a crucial part of the Judeo-Christian tradition and will continue to be as time goes by.

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A List of the Authors and Dates of the New Testament

1. The Gospel of Matthew: by St. Matthew (55-90 A.D.)
2. The Gospel of Mark: by St. Mark, also known as John Mark (50-90 A.D.)
3. The Gospel of Luke: by St. Luke (60-90 A.D.)
4. The Gospel of John: by St. John, John the Elder (70-90 A.D.)
5. The Book of Acts: by St. Luke (65-90 A.D.)
6. The Letter to the Romans: by St. Paul (58 A.D.)
7. 1st Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
8. 2nd Letter to the Corinthians: by St. Paul (55 A.D.)
9. Letter to the Galatians: by St. Paul (54 A.D.)
10. Letter to the Ephesians: by St. Paul (50-92 A.D.)
11. Letter to the Philippians: by St. Paul (50-65 A.D.)
12. Letter to the Colossians: by St. Paul (50-63 A.D.)
13. 1st Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
14. 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
15. 1st Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
16. 2nd Letter to Timothy: by St. Paul (50-90 A.D.)
17. Letter to Titus: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
18. Letter to Philemon: by St. Paul (50-70 A.D.)
19. Letter to the Hebrews: unknown, possibly by St. Paul, or Luke, Barnabas, or Apollo (60-90 A.D.)
20. Letter of James: by St. James (45-132 A.D.)
21. 1st Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-96 A,D,)
22. 2nd Letter of Peter: by St. Peter (60-150 A.D.)
23. 1st Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
24. 2nd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
25. 3rd Letter of John: by St. John, John the Elder (90-110 A.D.)
26. Letter of Jude: by St. Jude (60-100 A.D.)
27. Book of Revelation: by St. John, John Mark, John the Elder (81-96 A.D.)

As stated previously, this list was never intended to be seen as the absolute authority on the subject of New Testament authors and dates. Instead, it was meant to provide a basic frame of reference for those who are relatively new to the subject. One should remember that the precise identity of any Biblical author has never been deemed that important to the overall understanding of Scriptures. This is why the continued mystery about who actually wrote the New Testament Letter to the Hebrews does not detract from the God-fearing words which have been left behind. More than one Old Testament book has also been written by yet another nameless, faceless source who is destined to remain anonymous, perhaps forever. Listed below are some of the more important aspects concerning the 27 books of the New Testament. They include the following:

Eight Key Aspects of the Judeo-Christian New Testament
I- In the 21st century, the New Testament is still considered to have exactly 27 Books. This has been the clear consensus among every known sect of Christianity since the earliest days of the Church.
II- In terms of exact numbers, the New Testament is a set of 27 separate books composed of around 7,959 verses made up of approximately 181,253 different words.
III- The oldest book of the New Testament is probably the book of James, written as early as 45 A.D. On the other hand, the Book of Revelation represents the youngest book of the New Testament, written about 95 A.D.
IV- Nearly the entire New Testament (90% or more) was written in Greek, although some scholars claim that at least ‘some may have been first written in Aramaic.’
V- The specific 27 books still found in today’s New Testament were officially canonized sometime around the year 375 A.D. After that, these same writings were then deemed by the leaders of the Church to be a distinctive part of what has been called the Word of God.
VI- From 367 A.D. onward, the Church’s final list of books for the New Testament clearly included the same 27 books that can be seen and studied using today’s Scriptures and are accepted by both modern Protestants and Catholic forms of Christianity. Even so, the highly apocalyptic Book of Revelation continued to be debated and disputed within the early Church hierarchy until almost 600 CE.
VII- Interestingly enough, the New Testament Canon decided to retain only four Gospels, out of some fifty other Gospels which were available throughout the first few centuries of Christianity.
VIII- Due to the inherent nature of Christianity, the Bible has inevitably become some of ‘the most disseminated books in the world,’ at least according to the New American Bible (Research Group). Some of the major factors underlying this global occurrence include: ‘St. Paul’s extensive evangelization to the Gentiles, the legalization of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire in 313, and the Bible’s first printing with movable type in 1455.’ Now, mainly due to the computer revolution which has occurred in the last decade or so, the continued promotion and inevitable ‘dissemination’ of the Bible appears to be the most likely outcome for the many decades which lie ahead.

In conclusion it must be stated that the Judeo-Christian Bible has proven itself to be a powerful source of inspiration which can affect others in a vast number of ways. This includes the more intelligent types of inspiration such as scholastic endeavor. academic excellence, and intellectual perfection. Thus, it should not come as much of a surprise to the many secular intellectuals of today to find highly intelligent men and women who still get very excited about the endless intellectual possibilities they have discovered through their continued study and renewed interest in Judeo-Christian Scriptures. One fairly enthusiastic source boldly claims that ‘the Holy Bible is the most influential and most popular book in history, it is first of all a religious book but also it is a work of literature, it is a work of history, it contains religious and secular laws, advice, poetry…It has been studied for thousands of years and yet much still remains to be known.’

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Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, 5th century Bible scholar

The Official Statistics of the New Testament
Number of books: 27
Chapters: 260
Verses: 7,957
Words: 180,552
Letters: 838,380
Middle book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle chapters: Romans 8, 9
Middle verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest book: 3 John
Shortest verse: John 11:35
Longest verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest chapter: Luke 1
Largest book: Luke

A Few Assorted New Testament Facts
– The New Testament has 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Epistles
– The 4 Gospels are: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
– The 2 Books are: Acts and Revelation
– The 21 Epistles are: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude. III. The Book of Revelation
– In chronological order, the Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The Peshitta edition of the New Testament excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official list followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church…presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta.
– The 3rd Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.
– The New Testament has different orders in the Slavonic, Ethiopian, Syriac and Armenian traditions. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia also imitate the local Orthodox order for the New Testament.
– Four New Testament works were questioned or ‘spoken against’ by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran authorities done so since that time. Traditional German ‘Luther Bibles’ are still printed with the New Testament in this changed ‘Luther Bible’ order.
– Many Evangelical Christian groups do not accept the theory that the Christian Bible was not known until various local and Ecumenical Councils, which they deem to be ‘Roman-dominated’, made their official declarations.
– The Evangelical Christians of today tend to believe that the New Testament supports that Paul (2 Timothy 4:11-13), Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16), and ultimately John (Revelation 22:18-19) finalized the canon of the New Testament.
– Some Christian researchers have taken careful note that Peter, John, and Paul wrote 20 (or 21) of the 27-books of the New Testament and personally knew all the other New Testament writers. The Books not attributed to these three men include: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, James, and Jude. The authorship of Hebrews has long been disputed.)
– The New Testament includes the following statistics: Middle Book = 2 Thessalonians, Middle Chapter = Romans 8,9, Middle Verse = Acts 27:17, Largest Book = Luke, Smallest Book = 3 John, Longest Chapter = Luke 1, Shortest Verse = John 11:35
– The Book of Hebrews is the only anonymous letter in the New Testament, which is why it was placed at the end of Paul’s letters by the collectors of the Canon. The King James Version attributes this letter to Paul, but later versions don’t, as Paul doesn’t identify himself and there are other differences to his writings elsewhere.
– The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, with only 294 words in 14 verses. 2 John has 1 less verse but still has 4 more words.
– The four Gospels, according to tradition, were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and john (the four evangelists); the Acts of the Apostles was probably written by the evangelist Luke, while most of the Letters or Epistles were written by Paul.
– There is one book of prophecy and it is Revelation, written by the apostle John
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is quite dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek still in existence today. Of these copies, nearly 800 of them were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years.
– Interestingly enough, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day. Here is a comparison chart:

CHRISTIANITY
The New Testament: 5,300 manuscripts remain, 800 of them dating from before 1,000 A.D.

PAGANISM
The Gallic Wars, by Julius Caesar: 10 manuscripts remain, with the earliest one dating to 1,000 years after the original autograph
History, by Pliny the Younger: 7 manuscripts written 750 years after the original
History, by Thucydides: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
History, by Herodotus: 8 manuscripts written 1,300 years after the original
Sophocles: 193 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original
Euripides: 9 manuscripts written 1,500 years after the original
Aristotle: 49 manuscripts written 1,400 years after the original

– In sum, there are still 5,300 Christian manuscripts Vs. 284 total Pagan manuscripts existing today. Yet still, the doubts and the skepticism is completely focused on the New Testament, rather than the Pagan alternative references to history and historical truth.
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XXVII. A Simple List of the 27 Titles, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament

+ The 27 Books, Authors, and Dates of the New Testament +

1) The Gospel of Matthew was written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D.
2) The Gospel of Mark was written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D.
3) The Gospel of Luke was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D.
4) The Gospel of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
5) The Book of Acts was written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D.
6) The Letter to the Romans was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
9) The Letter to the Galatians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
10) The Letter to the Ephesians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
11) The Letter to the Philippians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
12) The Letter to the Colossians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
17) The Letter to Titus was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
18) The Letter to Philemon was written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.
19) The Letter to the Hebrews was written by an unknown author in the year 65 A.D.
20) The Letter of James was written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D.
21) The 1st Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D.
23) The 1st Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
25) The 3rd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.
26) The Letter of Jude was written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D.
27) The Book of Revelation was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

 

 

Defining the word ‘Judeo-Christian’
Before any serious discussion or analysis of the Judeo-Christian tradition can actually take place, one must first define the terms being utilized. The specific English word, ‘Judeo-Christian’ has only been in use since around the year 1899. Here are just a few definitions as can be found on-line today: 

 

 

 

The Judeo-Christian, Part VIII. The Basic Facts of Freemasonry


Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13


Part VIII. The Basic Facts of Freemasonry

Freemasonry goes farther and attacks Catholicism openly.

– Catholic Encyclopedia

In general, the Judeo-Christian Tradition has little time, or patience, for the endless number of absurd conspiracy theories that are, for the most part, a display of intellectual ignorance and misunderstanding. Nevertheless, it must be stated with all sincerity that, ever since the French Revolution in 1789,  Freemasonry has repeatedly proven itself to be an anti-Judeo-Christian organization with blatantly Pagan rituals and religious doctrines. It is quite probable that they also remain staunchly opposed to the continued spread of the age-old Biblical faiths which include both traditional Judaism and Christianity. The Roman Catholic Church, most especially its most learned and accomplished academic leaders, such as the Pope and his professional staff, have known this for literally centuries. Unfortunately, their historically accurate research findings have been almost completely ignored by the modern world, even though many of the Church theologians who were opposed to Freemasonry had advanced degrees from prominent universities and were some of the most intelligent religious scholars of their day. Here is just a partial sampling of official Christian documents, including a list of 17 different official Roman Catholic Church proclamations condemning Freemasonry since 1738. They are as follows:

I. Clement XII, Constitution “In Eminenti”, 28 April, 1738
II. Benedict XIV, “Providas”, 18 May, 1751
III. Pius VII, “Ecclesiam”, 13 September, 1821
IV. Leo XII, “Quo graviora”, 13 March, 1825
V. Pius VIII, Encyclical “Traditi”, 21 May, 1829
VI. Gregory XVI, “Mirari”, 15 August, 1832
VII. Pius IX, Encyclical “Qui pluribus”, 9 November, 1846
VIII. Pius IX, Allocution “Quibus quantisque malis”, 20 April, 1849
IX. Pius IX, Encyclical “Quanta cura”, 8 December, 1864
X. Pius IX, Allocution “Multiplices inter”, 25 September, 1865
XI. Pius IX, Constitution “Apostolicæ Sedis”, 12 October, 1869
XII. Pius IX, Encyclical “Etsi multa”, 21 November, 1873
XIII. Leo XIII, Encyclical “Humanum genus”, 20 April, 1884
XIV. Leo XIII, “Præclara”, 20 June, 1894
XV. Leo XIII, “Annum ingressi”, 18 March, 1902
XVI. Leo XIII, Encyclical “Etsí nos”, 15 February, 1882
XVII. Leo XIII, “Ab Apostolici”, 15 October, 1890


It seems most unfortunate that a great many of today’s Christian believers have little, to no, idea what the historical facts are about Freemasonry. Here are just a few of them, taken directly from the Catholic Encyclopedia, a long-standing, premier scholarly text of reference for the Roman Catholic Church:

Issue
Passage from Catholic Encyclopedia

The Corruption and Nepotism of Freemasonry
It is a fact attested by experienced men of all countries that, wherever Masonry is influential, non-Masons have to suffer in their interests from the systematical preferment which Masons give each other in appointment to offices and employment…which is detrimental alike to civic equality and to public interests. In Masonic books and magazines unlawful and treacherous acts, performed in rendering this mutual assistance, are recommended and praised as a glory of Freemasonry.
 

Freemasonry Caused the French Revolution

Freemasonry in the eighteenth century, as a powerful ally of infidelity, prepared the French Revolution. The alliance of Freemasonry with philosophy was publicly sealed by the solemn initiation of Voltaire, the chief of these philosophers…Prior to the Revolution various conspiratory societies arose in connection with Freemasonry from which they borrowed its forms and methods; Illuminati, clubs of Jacobins, etc. A relatively large number of the leading revolutionists were members of Masonic lodges, trained by lodge life for their political career. Even the program of the Revolution expressed in the “rights of man” was…drawn from Masonic principles, and its device: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” is the very device of Freemasonry

Freemasonry’s Plan for Christianity
To destroy radically by open persecution of the Church or by a hypocritical fraudulent system of separation between State and Church, all social influence of the Church and of religion, insidiously called “clericalism”, and, as far as possible, to destroy the Church and all true, (i.e., superhuman) religion.
 

Freemasonry’s Plan for Children

To laicize, or secularize…all public and private life and, above all, popular instruction and education….(including) anti-Catholic and even anti-Christian, atheistic, positivistic, or agnostic sectarianism in the garb of unsectarianism. Freedom of thought and conscience of the children has to be developed systematically in the child at school and protected, as far as possible, against all disturbing influences, not only of the Church and priests, but also of the children’s own parents, if necessary, even by means of moral and physical compulsion.

Freemasonry’s Anti-Christian Statements
In similar discussions, containing in almost every word a hidden or open attack on Christianity, the truly Masonic magazines and books of all countries abound. Past Grand Deacon J.C. Parkinson, an illustrious English Mason, frankly avows: “The two systems of Romanism and Freemasonry are not only incompatible, but they are radically opposed to each other” and American Masons say: “We won’t make a man a Freemason, until we know that he isn’t a Catholic.”

Freemasonry’s Inherent Danger to Society
(Even if) some Masonic associations pursued for themselves no purposes contrary to religion and to public order, they would be nevertheless contrary to public order, because by their very existence as secret societies based on the Masonic principles, they encourage and promote the foundation of other really dangerous secret societies and render difficult, if not impossible, efficacious action of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against them.

Freemasonry’s Danger to Christianity
Pope Pius IX characterizes Freemasonry as an insidious, fraudulent and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to society; and condemns anew “this Masonic and other similar societies, which differing only in appearance coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against the Church or lawful authority”…The ultimate purpose of Freemasonry is ‘the overthrow of the whole religious, political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the establishment of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its principles and laws on pure Naturalism.’ 

 


Freemasonry’s False Claims of Persecution
(Roman Catholic) Papal edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of erroneous and unjust charges. The excommunication was interpreted as an “imprecation” that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition…The pope and the bishops, therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ’s flock, cannot but condemn Freemasonry.


The fact of the matter is that Roman Catholicism continues to be the leading organization of Christianity with by far the greatest number of adherents world-wide. Fortunately, 21st century Evangelical Protestant America appears to finally be waking up from their metaphysical slumber, realizing that their fellow Christian neighbors who are also Freemasons may be at least slightly hypocritical concerning their membership in the Craft (Slang for Freemasonry). Indeed, a growing number of Protestant Christian Churches have publicly expressed their opposition to Freemasonry, calling it a blatantly Pagan organization that may well continue to grow more and more hostile to Christianity as the years and decades go by. Here is a short list of Protestant Churches that have spoken out against Freemasonry within the past 50 years.

Salvation Army International
Greek Orthodox
Lutheran Church
Methodist Church
Presbyterian Church
Mennonite Church
Nazarene Church
Church of Christ
Pentecostal Church
Brethren Assemblies Church
Church of England
Free Church of Scotland
British Methodist Church
Baptist Church of Scotland
Baptist Church of New Zealand
Baptist Church of Ireland


Does the Judeo-Christian tradition stand in any danger of collapse or eventual defeat by Freemasonry? The answer is probably not, but the soul of every man (and woman) is considered equally important, just as the continued allure and temptation of joining Freemasonry may pose a danger to the 2,000 year-old Judeo-Christian method of spiritual redemption after death. God-fearing believers need to remember that this system was founded upon principles of justice that see everyone as being worthy enough to be saved and, after proper penance, to eventually be allowed into Paradise to meet face-to-face with the one, true God, the LORD God of Israel.

The Church
The Official Christian Doctrine
Presbyterian Church of America, 1988 No one shall be received into membership into a (Presbyterian) church who is a member of a Masonic organization….in light of the clear statement of incompatibility of Freemasonry with Biblical Christianity.
Orthodox Presbyterian Church The evidence presented concerning the religion of Masonry permits but one conclusion… that Masonry is a religious institution and as such is definitely anti-Christian… membership in the Masonic fraternity is inconsistent with Christianity.
Christian Reformed Church of America, 1974 Membership in the lodge and in the church of Jesus Christ involves a double commitment which our Lord himself does not tolerate. Those in the church who affiliate with the Lodge must be shown the error of their way, and if they refuse to repent must be placed under the censure of the Church.
Church of Scotland, 1965 In our view total obedience to Christ precludes joining…the Masonic movement which seems to demand a wholehearted allegiance to itself, and at the same time refuses to divulge all that is involved in that allegiance… The initiate is required to commit himself to Masonry in a way that a Christian only should commit himself to Christ. 

 

Free Church of Scotland In the minds of the committee, according to their interpretations of the IScriptures, membership of Freemasonry… is inconsistent with a profession of the Christian faith.
Baptist Church of Scotland (Great Britain and Ireland), 1987 The clear conclusion we have reached from our inquiry is that there is an inherent incompatibility between Freemasonry and the Christian faith.
Anglican Church of England, 1987 There are a number of very fundamental reasons to question the compatibility of Freemasonry with Christianity.
Russian Orthodox Church The Church does not worship the god that is worshipped in Masonic temples… Masonry is a spiritual disease and is a rival of the Church…It declares that it is not a religion and yet claims to be religious… Since Masonry rejects the divinity of Jesus Christ and places Him on an equal level with founders of other religions, every Christian should stop and realise the implications of Masonry to his Christian faith.
Methodist Church of England, 1985 There is a great danger that the Christian who becomes a Freemason will find himself compromising his Christian beliefs or his allegiance to Christ, perhaps without realising what he is doing.
Lutheran Church, 1958 Masonry is guilty of idolatry. Its worship and prayers are idol worship. The Masons may not with their hands…but they created one with their own mind and reason out of purely human thoughts and ideas. The latter is an idol no less than the former.
Roman Catholic Church, 1985 The principles and basic rituals of Masonry embody a naturalistic religion, active participation in which is incompatible with Christian faith and practice. Those who knowingly embrace such principles are committing serious sin… In depth research on the ritual and on the Masonic mentality makes it clear that it is impossible to belong to the Catholic Church and to Freemasonry at the same time.


May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition


A New Family of Eastern Saints


The Romanovs, a Family of Saints

This post is in honor and memory of the Romanov family who were murdered by the Bolsheviks on July 17, 1918. They have been canonized as Saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and as Passion-bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church. This new family of Saints includes St. Nicholas II, his wife St. Alexandra, along with their four daughters St. Olga, St. Tatiana, St. Maria, St. Anastasia, and their only son St. Alexei. Their new feast day is on July 17.


Sometimes common sense gets lost in the attempts by professional, accomplished historians to write and publish the premier text on certain key 20th century events, such as the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Indeed, even Karl Marx himself, who was baptized and raised a Protestant Lutheran, predicted that a Communist Revolution in the Russian Empire would never be successful and that the most likely candidate was, in fact, Germany, his own native country. Regardless of the numerous, carefully detailed explanations offered by the academics, the ingredients of this real-life story still read like a fictional tragedy straight out of Kafka or Tolstoy. Consider the cast of characters:

MARX: a failed, bitter, angry Communist intellectual and journalist from a recently converted dynastic family of Rabbis, who courted and married a beautiful, blonde German girl of noble blood, but then managed to publish almost nothing, except a small book called ‘The Communist Manifesto’ written mostly by his friend and life-time patron Frederick Engels.
RASPUTIN: a dirty, lecherous Russian peasant with strange, occult powers that appeared to miraculously heal the Czarevich Alexei of his terminal illness, historically known as the Mad Monk.
LENIN: a stern, politically fanatical, Russian intellectual from a upper-class background with a completely shaven head and a well-trimmed goatee who was sent back to Russia from a defeated Germany on a mysterious black train to instigate a Revolution against the Czar.
TROTSKY: a naive, ambitious, internationalist, anti-religious son of a hard-working Jewish farmer from the Ukrainian Shetl, originally named Lev Bronstein.
STALIN: a Georgian Socialist Revolutionary expelled from Orthodox Seminary for spreading Marxism, historically known as Uncle Joe, or the Gorgeous Georgian.
I have a secret conviction that I am destined for a terrible trial, that I shall not receive my reward on this earth. – Saint Nicholas II

These days the general understanding of the Romanovs, especially that of Nicholas II, is that he was both a brutal Jew-hating dictator and an inept ruler who was destined to lose control of the Russian Empire. In reality, he was deeply Christian man far more concerned with his wife, his chidren and his religious faith, than with the diabolical schemes of Protestant German intellectuals. All things considered, the Romanovs were just as much the pawns of history as any other common family. Needless to say, the greatest tragedy about the Bolshevik Revolution that seems to get lost in the historical milieu is the fate of the Russian people, who went from being ruled by a classical autocracy to a fanatical, anti-Christian (and anti-Jewish) dictatorship who violently persecuted and oppressed their own people most of all. The now undisputable historical facts speak for themselves:

Soviet Persecution and Imprisonment Facts
– In 1917, there were only 28,600 total prisoners within the Russian Empire, which was the largest prison population ever known in the history of Orthodox Christian, Imperial Russia.
– After the Communists murdered the Romanovs and took over the government, the prison population slowly exploded into the hundreds of thousands. By 1927, a mere 10 years after the Bolshevik Revolution, there were over 300,000 Soviet prisoners, ten times more than Czarist Russia ever had.
– Then, between the years 1929 and 1934 the prisoner population increased by twenty-three times, placing the total prison population in the millions.
– In comparison to Czarist Russia, 14 million Soviet prisoners passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, while an additional 6 to 7 million were forcibly exiled to remote regions of the USSR.
– A 1993 study reveals that a total of 1,053,829 prisoners died in the Gulag between 1934 to 1953.
– In reality, Czarist Russia imprisoned very few of their imperial subjects, while the Communists arrested, convicted, and sentenced millions of innocent people to a life of brutal enslavement and inevitable death.

Soviet Anti-Jewish Facts

– In the summer of 1919, nearly all Jewish properties, including synagogues, were seized by the Soviet authorities. Numerous Rabbis and other religious leaders were threatened with violent persecution.
– In the mid-1930s, Stalin had any remaining Jewish leaders arrested and executed, while the Yiddish schools were forcibly shut down.
– By the late 1940s, the Communist party had abolished any and all Jewish organizations, while only a few synagogues were left open and kept under strict surveillance by the KGB.

Soviet Anti-Christian Facts

– Within five years after Lenin and the Bolsheviks had seized power, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and 1,200 priests had been executed by the Soviet authorities.
– Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the vast majority of the Russian Orthodox Clergy, along with many of its most devout believers had been shot dead or sent to the Gulag.
– Between the years 1927 and 1949, the number of Russian Orthodox Churches dropped from 29,584 to less than 500.
– From 1917 to 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. 95,000 of these priests were eventually put to death by the Soviet authorities.

By tradition, individuals believers that have been officially canonized by the Church are considered by the living Christian authorities to be in the Kingdom of Heaven. Those observers who believe that the Romanov family were arrogant, elitist tyrants who looked down on the Russian people do not know their history and should take the time to look up the many historically accurate summaries of the Romanovs who are now some of the newest Orthodox Christian Saints in Heaven.
Perhaps an atoning sacrifice is necessary for the salvation of Russia. I shall be that sacrifice. May the will of God be done! – Saint Nicholas II



Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra did anything but spoil their children, and were adamant that all of them become as well-educated and intelligent as possible. Except for the expensive outfits worn only on public occasions, they had very few personal possessions that they could call their own. Priceless gifts and diplomatic offerings were taken away and kept as additions to the Imperial collection, which was originally meant as an everlasting heritage for all of Russia. From the beginning, Nicholas II and his wife insisted their children see themselves as having been born with special burdens which included numerous God-given responsibilities and duties they had to live up to and not as superior individuals born to rule over the unruly masses. The loving relationships they formed with the common peasants who were an integral part of the Imperial staff proves this to be the case.

For many reasons, the canonization of the Romanovs means that, even if the Russian Orthodox Church doesn’t canonize every victim of Soviet persecution, those who aren’t so well-known will still have an entire family of Heavenly advocates who already know first-hand what it was like to be murdered by a tyrannical regime based upon principles violently hostile to the Judeo-Christian tradition. Likewise, if the Romanov children are anything like they were before their execution, they would probably tell you that their personal Sainthood matters far less than the well-being of every single nameless, faceless victim of the International Communist Empire who never cared for them at all.

A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic.

– Stalin

A lie told often enough becomes the truth.

– Lenin

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus. God Save the Queen!

Even More Romanov Ikons

The Number Seven of Maccabee Christianity

The Seven Mysteries of Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)

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The Number Seven & God the Father

The Seven Days of Creation
I. God creates Light and separates the Light from the Darkness (Genesis 1:1-5)
II. God separates the Waters Above from the Waters Below and creates Heaven (Genesis 1:6-8)
III. God creates the Land, the Seas, and all the Plants (Genesis 1:9-13
IV. God creates the Sun (Day), the Moon (Night), and the Stars. (Genesis 1:14-19)
V. God creates all the Fish and the Birds (Genesis 1:20-23)
VI. God creates all the Animals, Insects, and then Mankind. (Genesis 1:24:31)
VII. God Rests (Genesis 2:1-4)

The Seven Noahide Laws
I. You will not commit idolatry.
II. You will not murder.
III. You will not steal.
IV. You will not commit sexual perversion.
V. You will not commit blasphemy.
VI. You will not eat the flesh of a living animal.
VII. You will establish courts to enforce these laws.

The Seven Colors of the Rainbow

I. Red
II. Orange
III. Yellow
IV. Green
V, Blue
VI. Indigo
VII. Purple

The Seven Archangels of God
I. Uriel
II. Raphael
III. Raguel
IV. Michael
V. Saraqael
VI. Gabriel
VII. Remiel (Book of Enoch 20:1-8)

The Seven Duties of the Archangels
I. Uriel: Rules over the world and over Tartarus.
II. Raphael: Rules over the souls of men.
III. Raguel: Takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries.
IV. Michael: Rules over the best part of mankind and over chaos.
V. Saraqael: Rules over the ghost, who sin in the spirit.
VI. Gabriel: Rules over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim.
VII. Remiel: Rules over those who rise from the Dead. (Book of Enoch 20:1-8)

The Seven Evils God Hates
I. The haughty eyes
II. The lying tongue
III. The hands that shed innocent blood
IV. The heart that devises wicked plans
V. The feet that run rapidly to evil
VI. The false witness who utters lies
VII. The one who spreads strife among brothers. (Proverbs 6:16-19)

The Seven Holy Maccabee Martyrs
I. St. Abim
II. St. Antonius
III. St. Guriah
IV. St. Eleazar
V. St. Eusebon
VI. St. Alimus
VII. St. Marcellus

Their Mother: St. Solomonia
Their Teacher: St. Eleazar

The Seven Catholic Books of the Bible
I. Sirach
II. Tobit
III. Wisdom
IV. Judith
V. First Maccabees
VI. Second Maccabees
VII. Baruch


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Seven & God’s Only Son, Joshua (Jesus)

The Seven Sacraments of Maccabee Christianity
I. Baptism
II. Communion
III. Confession
IV. Confirmation
V. Matrimony
VI. Ordination
VII. Anointing

The Seven Sacraments of Maccabee Christianity


The Seven Essential Beliefs of the Apostles’ Creed

I. God, the Father
II. Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ), His only Son
III. The Holy Ghost
IV. The Holy Catholic Church
V. The Communion of Saints
VI. The forgiveness of sins,
VII. The resurrection of the body and life everlasting.

The Seven Catholic Letters of the Bible
I. James
II. Jude
III. First Peter
IV. Second Peter
V. First John
VI. Second John
VII. Third John

The Seven Joys of St. Mary
I. The Annunciation of Joshua
II. The Nativity of Joshua
III. The Gifts of the Three Wise Men
IV. The Resurrection of Joshua
V. The Ascension of Joshua
VI. The Pentecost, or Descent, of the Holy Ghost
VII. The Heavenly Coronation of Mary

The Seven Sorrows of St. Mary

I. The Prophecy about Joshua
II. The Exile of Joshua
III. The Disappearance of Joshua
IV. The Cross-bearing of Joshua
V. The Crucifixion of Joshua
VI. The Dead Body of Joshua
VII. The Burial of Joshua

The Seven Joys of St. Joseph

I. The Message of the Angel (Matthew 1:20)
II. Jesus’ Birth itself (Luke 2:7)
III. The Holy Name of Jesus (Matthew 1:25)
IV. Simeon’s prophecy that many would rise (Luke 2:34)
V. The Overthrow of Idols (Isaiah 19:1)
VI. Life with Mary and Jesus (Luke 2:39)
VII. The Finding of Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:46)

The Seven Sorrows of St. Joseph
I. The Doubt of Saint Joseph (Matthew 1:19)
II. The Poverty of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:7)
III. The Circumcision (Luke 2:21)
IV. Simeon’s Prophecy that many would be lost (Luke 2:34)
V. The Flight into Egypt (Matthew 2:13-14)
VI. The Return from Egypt (Matthew 2:22)
VII. The Loss of the Child Jesus (Luke 2:45)

The Seven Material Deeds of Mercy
I. Feed the Hungry
II. Quench the Thirsty.
III. Clothe the Naked.
IV. Shelter the Homeless
V. Visit the Imprisoned
VI. Comfort the Sick
VII. Bury the Dead

The Seven Spiritual Deeds of Mercy

I. Instruct Ignorance
II. Counsel Doubt
III. Rebuke Sinners
IV. Endure Others Patiently
V. Forgive Others Willingly
VI. Comfort Affliction
VII. Pray for the the Living and the Dead

The Seven Churches of Revelation

I. Ephesus
II. Smyrna
III. Pergamum
IV. Thyatira
V. Sardis
VI. Philadelphia
VII. Laodicea

The Seven Last Words of Christ
I. Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. (Luke 23:34)
II. Amen I say to you: ‘This day you shall be with me in Paradise.’ (Luke 23:43)
III. Woman, behold your son. . . .Behold your mother. (John 19:26-27)
IV. Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani? (My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken me?) (Matthew 27:46)
V. I thirst. (John 19:28)
VI. It is consummated. (John 19:30)
VII. Father, into Your hands I commend my spirit. (Luke 23:46, or Psalm 30:6)


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The Number Seven and the Holy Ghost


The Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost
I Wisdom
II. Understanding
III. Counsel
IV. Courage
V. Knowledge
VI. Devotion
VII. Fear of the LORD

The Seven Manifestations of the Holy Ghost

I. Love
II. Joy
III. Peace
IV. Long-Suffering
V. Gentleness
VI. Goodness
VII. Faith

The Seven Expressions (or Lamps) of the Holy Ghost

I. Grace
II. Life
III. Adoption
IV. Holiness
V. Supplications
VI. Truth
VII. Glory

The Seven Mysteries of the Holy Ghost
I. The Annunciation (Luke 1:35)
II. The Visitation (Luke 1:42)
III. The Baptism (Luke 3:22)
IV. The Wedding (John 2:1-11)
V.. The Crucifixion (John 19:30)
VI. The Resurrection (John 20:19, 22)
VII. The Pentecost (Acts 2:1)

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The Number Seven, Good and Evil

The Seven Ancient Virtues of God
I. Prudence
II. Justice
III. Temperance
IV. Fortitude
V. Faith
VI. Hope
VII. Love

The Seven Holy Virtues
I. Valour: Pursuit of Courage and Knowledge
II. Generosity: Pursuit of Giving
III. Liberality: Pursuit of Will
IV. Diligence: Pursuit of Ethics
V. Patience: Pursuit of Peace
VI. Kindness: Pursuit of Charity
VII. Humility: Pursuit of Modesty

The Seven Heavenly (Contrary) Virtues

I. Chastity
II. Temperance
III. Charity
IV. Diligence
V. Patience
VI. Kindness
VII. Humility

The Seven Deadly Sins
I. Lust
II. Gluttony
III. Greed
IV. Sloth
V. Wrath
VI. Envy
VII. Pride

The Seven Demons of the Seven Deadly Sins
I. Lucifer = Pride
II. Mammon = Greed
III. Asmodeus = Lust
IV. Leviathan = Envy
V. Beelzebub = Gluttony
VI. Satan/Amon = Wrath
VII. Belphegor = Sloth (Peter Binsfeld, 1589)

The New, Seven Deadly ‘Social’ Sins
I. Human Experimentation
II. Genetic Manipulation
III. Environmental Pollution
IV. Social Injustice
V. Poverty Causation
VI. Excessive Wealth
VII. Drug Abuse

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The Gospels of Seven

Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) Appears to Seven Disciples
Jesus manifested Himself again to (seven of) the disciples at the Sea of Tiberias, and He manifested Himself in this way. Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of His disciples were together. (John 21:1-2)

The Seven Woes of Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) from Matthew 23

I. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You shut the kingdom of heaven in men’s faces. You yourselves do not enter, nor will you let those enter who are trying to. (Matthew 23:13-14)
II. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as you are. (Matthew 23:15)
III. Woe to you, blind guides! You say, ‘If anyone swears by the temple, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind fools! Which is greater: the gold, or the temple that makes the gold sacred? You also say, ‘If anyone swears by the altar, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gift on it, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind men! Which is greater: the gift, or the altar that makes the gift sacred? Therefore, he who swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. And he who swears by the temple swears by it and by the one who dwells in it. And he who swears by heaven swears by God’s throne and by the one who sits on it. (Matthew 23:16-22)
IV. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You give a tenth of your spices-mint, dill and cummin. But you have neglected the more important matters of the law-justice, mercy and faithfulness. You should have practiced the latter, without neglecting the former. You blind guides! You strain out a gnat but swallow a camel. (Matthew 23:23-24)
V. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean. (Matthew 23:25-26)
VI. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside, but on the inside are full of dead men’s bones and everything unclean. In the same way, on the outside you appear to people as righteous but on the inside you are full of hypocrisy and wickedness. (Matthew 23:27-28)
VII. Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You build tombs for the prophets and decorate the graves of the righteous. And you say, ‘If we had lived in the days of our forefathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ So you testify against yourselves that you are the descendants of those who murdered the prophets. Fill up, then, the measure of the sin of your forefathers! (Matthew 23:29-31)

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The Other Sevens

The Seventh Hour Miracle

As he was now going down, his slaves met him, saying that his son was living. So he inquired of them the hour when he began to get better. Then they said to him, ‘Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.’ So the father knew that it was at that hour in which Jesus said to him, ‘Your son lives’ and he himself believed and his whole household. (John 4:51-53)

The Village Seven Miles from Jerusalem
Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen wrappings only and he went away to his home, marveling at what had happened. And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was about seven miles from Jerusalem. And they were talking with each other about all these things which had taken place. (Luke 24:12-14)

The Old Prophetess Married for Seven Years

And there was a prophetess, Anna the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years and had lived with her husband seven years after her marriage, and then as a widow to the age of eighty-four. She never left the temple, serving night and day with fastings and prayers. At that very moment she came up and began giving thanks to God, and continued to speak of Him to all those who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem. (Luke 2:36-38)

Seven, the Number of Forgiveness

Seven Times of Forgiveness
“Be on your guard! If your brother sins, rebuke him; and if he repents, forgive him. And if he sins against you seven times a day, and returns to you seven times, saying, ‘I repent,’ forgive him.” The apostles said to the Lord, ‘Increase our faith!’ (Luke 17:3-5)

Seven-Seven Times of Forgiveness
Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, ‘Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?’ Jesus answered, “I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times.’ (Matthew 18:21-22)

Mary, the Woman with Seven Demons

The Woman Cured of Seven Demons Supports Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)

Soon afterwards, He began going around from one city and village to another, proclaiming and preaching the kingdom of God. The twelve were with Him, and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and sicknesses: Mary who was called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward, and Susanna, and many others who were contributing to their support out of their private means. (Luke 8:1-3)

The Woman Cured of Seven Demons Encounters the Resurrected Joshua (Jesus)

They went out and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had gripped them; and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid. Now after He had risen early on the first day of the week, He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons. She went and reported to those who had been with Him, while they were mourning and weeping. (Mark 16:8-10)

The Miracle of Seven Loaves

Seven Loaves of Bread Feeds Four Thousand with Seven Baskets Left Over
His disciples answered Him, ‘Where will anyone be able to find enough bread here in this desolate place to satisfy these people?’ And He was asking them, ‘How many loaves do you have?’ And they said, ‘Seven.’ And He directed the people to sit down on the ground; and taking the seven loaves, He gave thanks and broke them, and started giving them to His disciples to serve to them, and they served them to the people. They also had a few small fish; and after He had blessed them, He ordered these to be served as well. And they ate and were satisfied; and they picked up seven large baskets full of what was left over of the broken pieces.About four thousand were there; and He sent them away. (Mark 8:4-9)

Joshua (Jesus) Questions the Apostles about the Seven Loaves
‘When I broke the seven loaves for the four thousand, how many large baskets full of broken pieces did you pick up?’ And they said to Him, ‘Seven.’ And He was saying to them, ‘Do you not yet understand?’ (Mark 8:20-21)

Seven Loaves of Bread Feeds Four Thousand Followers (Matthew)

Jesus called His disciples to Him, and said, ‘I feel compassion for the people, because they have remained with Me now three days and have nothing to eat; and I do not want to send them away hungry, for they might faint on the way.’ The disciples said to Him, ‘Where would we get so many loaves in this desolate place to satisfy such a large crowd?’ And Jesus said to them, ‘How many loaves do you have?’ And they said, ‘Seven, and a few small fish.’ And He directed the people to sit down on the ground and He took the seven loaves and the fish; and giving thanks, He broke them and started giving them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the people. And they all ate and were satisfied, and they picked up what was left over of the broken pieces, seven large baskets full. And those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children. (Matthew 15:32-38)

Joshua (Jesus) Questions the Apostles about the Seven Loaves
‘Or the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many large baskets full you picked up?’ (Matthew 16:10)

The Seven Demons of Lust

The Seven Demons of Nocturnal Emissions (Matthew)
Now when the unclean spirit goes out of a man, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and does not find it. Then it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came,’ and when it comes, it finds it unoccupied, swept, and put in order. Then it goes and takes along with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. That is the way it will also be with this evil generation. (Matthew 12:43-45)

The Seven Demons of Nocturnal Emissions (Luke)
When the unclean spirit goes out of a man, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, and not finding any, it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came.’ And when it comes, it finds it swept and put in order.Then it goes and takes along seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first.’ (Luke 11:24-26)

The Question of Seven Husbands

The Wife of Seven Husbands (Mark)
Some Sadducees (who say that there is no resurrection) came to Jesus, and began questioning Him, saying, ‘Teacher, Moses wrote for us that IF A MAN’S BROTHER DIES and leaves behind a wife AND LEAVES NO CHILD, HIS BROTHER SHOULD MARRY THE WIFE AND RAISE UP CHILDREN TO HIS BROTHER. There were seven brothers; and the first took a wife, and died leaving no children. The second one married her, and died leaving behind no children; and the third likewise and so all seven left no children. Last of all the woman died also. In the resurrection, when they rise again, which one’s wife will she be? For all seven had married her.’ Jesus said to them, “Is this not the reason you are mistaken, that you do not understand the Scriptures or the power of God? For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like Angels in Heaven. But regarding the fact that the dead rise again, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the burning bush, how God spoke to him, saying, ‘I AM THE GOD OF ABRAHAM, AND THE GOD OF ISAAC, and the God of Jacob?’ He is not the God of the dead, but of the living; you are greatly mistaken.” (Mark 12:18-27)

The Wife of Seven Husbands (Luke)

Now there came to Him some of the Sadducees (who say that there is no resurrection), and they questioned Him, saying, ‘Teacher, Moses wrote for us that IF A MAN’S BROTHER DIES, having a wife, AND HE IS CHILDLESS, HIS BROTHER SHOULD MARRY THE WIFE AND RAISE UP CHILDREN TO HIS BROTHER. Now there were seven brothers, and the first took a wife and died childless, and the second and the third married her; and in the same way all seven died, leaving no children. Finally the woman died also. In the resurrection therefore, which one’s wife will she be? For all seven had married her.’ Jesus said to them, ‘The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage, for they cannot even die anymore, because they are like angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, in the passage about the burning bush, where he calls the Lord THE GOD OF ABRAHAM, AND THE GOD OF ISAAC, AND THE GOD OF JACOB. Now He is not the God of the dead but of the living; for all live to Him.’ Some of the scribes answered and said, “‘Teacher, You have spoken well.’ (Luke 20:27-39)

The Wife of Seven Husbands (Matthew)
On that day some Sadducees (who say there is no resurrection) came to Jesus and questioned Him, asking, “Teacher, Moses said, ‘IF A MAN DIES HAVING NO CHILDREN, HIS BROTHER AS NEXT OF KIN SHALL MARRY HIS WIFE, AND RAISE UP CHILDREN FOR HIS BROTHER. Now there were seven brothers with us; and the first married and died, and having no children left his wife to his brother; so also the second, and the third, down to the seventh. Last of all, the woman died. In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.’ But Jesus answered and said to them, “You are mistaken, not understanding the Scriptures nor the power of God. For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. But regarding the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God: ‘I AM THE GOD OF ABRAHAM, AND THE GOD OF ISAAC, AND THE GOD OF JACOB’? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.” When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching. (Matthew 22:23-33)

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The Number Seven and the Apocrypha

The LORD God Choose the Number Seven
The LORD…created all His creatures, and divided time, from time he fixed the years, and from the years..the months, and from the months he appointed the days, and of days he appointed seven. (II Enoch 65:3)

The Seven Original and Final Elements of Man
I. Man’s flesh from the Earth
II. His Blood from the Dew
III. His Eyes from the Sun
IV. His Bones from Stone
V. His Intelligence from the swiftness of the angels and from Clouds
VI. His Veins and his Hair from the Grass of the earth
VII. His Soul from the Wind. (II Enoch 30:10)

The Seven Original Elements of Man’s Creation
1. Earth
2. Morning Dew
3. Sun
4. Stone
5. Clouds
6. Grass
7. Wind (II Enoch 30:10)

The Seven Organs and Sensations of Man

I. The flesh for hearing
II. the eyes for sight
III. The soul for smelling,
IV. the veins for touching
V. the blood for taste
VI. the bones for endurance
VII. The intelligence for enjoying (II Enoch 30:11)

The Seven Natures of Man

I. Listening
II. Seeing
III. Smelling
IV. Touching
V. Tasting
VI. Enduring
VII. Enjoying (II Enoch 30:11)

The Seven Elements and Natures of Mankind

On the sixth day I commanded my wisdom to create man from seven consistencies: one, his flesh from the earth; two, his blood from the dew; three, his eyes from the sun; four, his bones from stone; five, his intelligence from the swiftness of the angels and from cloud; six, his veins and his hair from the grass of the earth; seven, his soul from my breath and from the wind. And I gave him seven natures: to the flesh hearing, the eyes for sight, to the soul smell, the veins for touch, the blood for taste, the bones for endurance, to the intelligence sweetness [enjoyment]. (II Enoch 30:10-11)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

Jason Nicholas Korning

The Seven Hills of the Beast (Pagan Rome)

The Seven Churches (and Angels) of Revelation

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A Biblical Understanding of National Flags

 

 

 

The Flag of Israel
God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. – Genesis 1:6-7

The Knights Hospitaller, The Flag of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem
The LORD said unto her, ‘Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.’ And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. And the first came out red, all over like a hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau’s heel; and his name was called Jacob. – Genesis 25:23:26

The Union Jack, The Flag of Great Britain
He carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; and had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel. On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. – Revelation 21:10-14

The Russian Empire, The Flag of Russia
I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the [red] dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled…And I saw a great white throne, and Him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.- Revelation 20

 

 

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