Category Archives: Judaism

Judeo/Christian Quotables – Magic of the Seal of Solomon

 

In Arab sources the hexagram, along with other geometrical ornaments, was widely used under the designation “seal of Solomon,” a term which was also taken over by many Jewish groups. This name connects the hexagram with early Christian, possibly Judeo-Christian magic, such as the Greek magical work The Testament of Solomon.

 

Magen David, Gershom Scholem, JewishVirtualLibrary.org

Press of Solomon

Press of Solomon (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LINK–> http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0013_0_12997.html)

 

 

 

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An Ode to Judeo-Christian Western Civilization | Conservative News, Views & Books

An Ode to Judeo-Christian Western Civilization | Conservative News, Views & Books.

Patiently Answering a Misled and Confused Protestant Christian’s Accusations with Logic and Historical Facts

The Roman Catholic Mass is a Satanic mockery of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for the sins of the world!

– Kevin Lucier, a MISLED AND CONFUSED Protestant writer and publisher at Glorybound.net

Adam Weishaupt, a Catholic Jesuit priest [created] the Illuminati in 1776 as a front group for the Jesuits, and in reorganizing the Freemasons. They used the Jewish Talmud, a book of Jewish traditions and antichrist principles, to gain control.

– Kevin Lucier, a MISLED AND CONFUSED Protestant writer and publisher at Glorybound.net

What follows below is an exchange of writings between myself, Judas Maccabaeus (Jason Nicholas Corning, a Catholic from Wenatchee, WA) and Kevin Lucier, a certain Protestant Christian writer and owner of an outrageously hateful website called Glorybound.net. For the purposes of simplicity, Mr. Kevin Lucier’s online writings are designated by the words ‘MISLED AND CONFUSED’ while the written response of Judas Maccabaeus is termed ‘A CONCERNED CATHOLIC BELIEVER’. Here are two essential portions of this ongoing exchange:

THE MISLED AND CONFUSED: The Roman Catholic Mass is a Satanic mockery of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for the sins of the world!
A CONCERNED CATHOLIC BELIEVER: The Roman Catholic Mass is literally based upon the practices and rituals of the Temple of Jerusalem during the time of Jesus as well as long before. The chants, recitations, and songs found in the first part of the Catholic Mass (called the Liturgy of the Word) are extremely similar if not sometimes identical to the daily religious practices of the Jews at the Temple of Jerusalem. The bread and wine offerings of the Temple are now what Catholics call the Liturgy of the Eucharist. Also, the bread and wine of Communion symbolize the body and blood of the daily lamb sacrifice at the Temple of Jerusalem- a Hebrew practice which dates back as far in history as Abel, the son of Adam and Eve (~ 3770 BC)

THE MISLED AND CONFUSED: Adam Weishaupt, a Catholic Jesuit priest [created] the Illuminati in 1776 as a front group for the Jesuits, and in reorganizing the Freemasons. They used the Jewish Talmud, a book of Jewish traditions and antichrist principles, to gain control.
A CONCERNED CATHOLIC BELIEVER: It is a historical fact that Adam Weishaupt was never ordained as a Catholic Priest, let alone a Jesuit Priest. Founded in 1776, Adam Weishaupt’s organization achieved a short lifespan of popular support but was basically extinct by the end of the year 1785, or as Trevor W. McKeown notes ‘In March and August 1785…the Order (Illuminati) began to decline, so that by the end of the eighteenth century it had ceased to exist.’ (A Bavarian Illuminati primer, by Trevor W. McKeown). There is absolutely no historical evidence that the Illuminati, or its Founder Adam Weishaupt, knew anything at all about the Jewish Talmud and none of their writings ever mention this ancient Jewish religious text.

JCTradLOGOBEST2012

Relevant Quotes and References

LINK TO THE MENTALLY ILL–> http://www.glorybound.net/endoftime.php

CATHOLIC MASS: The Catholic sacrifice of the Mass is taken from the Jewish rituals and has slight influences brought in from Roman and other Middle Eastern civilizations. However, the Mass is modeled on the Jewish synagogue meetings and the temple sacrifices, hence its division from a strictly didactic format (the first half of Mass) to a form of ritual worship and sacrifice (the latter half).

– Are Catholics Pagans? Religion & Spirituality > Christianity > Catholicism, Answers.com

THE ILLUMINATI: The Order [of the Illuminati] was at first very popular, and enrolled no less than two thousand names upon its registers…. Its Lodges were to be found in France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, and Italy. Knigge Baron Adolph Knigge (1752 – 1796), who was one of its most prominent working members, and the auther of several of its Degrees, was a religious man, and would never have united with it had its object been, as has been charged, to abolish Christianity. But it cannot be denied, that in the process of time abuses had crept into the Institution and that by the influence of unworthy men, the system became corrupted; yet the course accusations of Barruel and Robison are known to be exaggerated, and some of them altogether false…. The Edicts [on June 22, 1784, for its suppression] of the Elector of Bavaria [Duke Karl Theodor] were repeated in March and August, 1785 and the Order began to decline, so that by the end of the eighteenth century it had ceased to exist.

– A Bavarian Illuminati primer, by Trevor W. McKeown

The Seven Hells of Judaism

>***<The Seven Hells of Judaism>***<

Hell has Seven divisions, one beneath the other. They are called Sheol, Abaddon, Beer Shahat, Tit ha-Yawen, Sha’are Mawet, Sha’are Zalmawet, and Gehenna.

– The Legends of the Jews, Louis Ginzberg

The Seven Hells of Judaism
1) Sheol
2) Abaddon
3) Beer Shahat
4) Tit ha-Yawen
5) Sha’are Mawet
6) Sha’are Zalmawet
7) Gehenna
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Joshua b. Levi stated: ‘Gehenna has Seven names and they are: Nether-world, Destruction, Pit, Tumultuous Pit, Miry Clay, Shadow of Death, and the Underworld.’

– Babylonian Talmud, ‘Erubin 19a

The Seven Hells in Judaism according to the Talmud
!) Nether-world
2) Destruction
3) Pit
4) Tumultuous Pit
5) Miry Clay
6) Shadow of Death
7) Underworld

– Babylonian Talmud, ‘Erubin 19a
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>***<The Seven Hells of Judaism>***<

Those who Scream and those who Gather in the Babylonian Talmud

In the Talmud, there are Screamers, there are Gatherers, and there are those do None of the Above…

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What is meant by a Screamer? – Rab Judah replied in the name of Samuel: ‘One who speaks aloud on marital matters.’ In a Baraitha it was taught: ‘By screams was meant a wife whose voice during her [sexual] intercourse in one court can be heard in another court.’

– Babylonian Talmud, Kethuboth 72b

What is meant by one WHO GATHERS? – Rab Judah replied: ‘One who gathers dogs’ excrements’.

– Babylonian Talmud, Kethuboth 77a

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A +1,000 Year-Old Star of David Enscribed with Hebrew Letters

For the LORD God is a Sun and a Shield. The Lord will give grace and glory. No good thing will He withhold from those who walk uprightly.

– Psalm 84:11

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The Star of David displayed just above has been known for many centuries and it comes from the pages of the Leningrad Codex, a Jewish Bible written by Jewish scribes more than 1,000 years ago, sometime around the very early 11th century (1006-1009 A.D.). The document has been called a Codex because it has not been written in scroll form like a Torah, but is a very old example of a high quality, hand-written book instead. This particular Codex has been kept at the archives in the Russian city of St. Petersburg (Leningrad during the USSR) since 1863.

Why would they call an ancient Jewish Bible by the name ‘Leningrad’? Well, even though the city once called Leningrad (1918-1991)was renamed St. Petersburg after the demise of Communism, the National Library of Russia requested that the name for this text remain ‘Leningrad’ simply because they already had another document named after St. Petersburg. The somewhat ironic ‘Communist’ designation it has received does not stop this particular +1,000 year-old Jewish Bible from getting the attention it truly deserves. As one particular Jewish source notes:

The Leningrad Codex is one of the most important Hebrew documents extant, with ramifications and influence that is immeasurable. It is…one of the sources for biblical tradition, for the study of Hebrew Scriptures, and for providing an accurate text for the reading and writing of the Torah and the other books of the Bible. The Leningrad Codex is the oldest complete manuscript of the Tanakh, the 39 books of the Bible. Written in Cairo on parchment in the year 1009

– The Oldest Tanakh, by Curt Leviant, Jewish Virtual Library, jewishvirtuallibrary.org

As can be seen just above, this one particular page of the Leningrad Codex provides some fairly irrefutable proof that the Star of David and its significance was already common knowledge among the leading Biblical authorities of Judaism long before the period (1400-1800 A.D.) which most ‘scholars’ believe was the time when Judaism slowly ‘decided’ to adopt the six-pointed Star of David as their own symbol. The significance of the Star of David being included in such an important text of Judaism has yet to be completely understood by most historical authorities. This particular picture (shown below) happens to be what experts call the ‘Carpet Page’. As can be seen, the Star itself has been partially drawn using words and phrase in the Hebrew alphabet.

The Babylonian Talmud warns: ‘Beware of the Snake Mother!’

The Babylonian Talmud warns: 'Beward of the Snake Mother!'

The Serpent breeds and casts her young upon the inhabitants of the town.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Kethuboth 49b

The Judeo/Christian Tradition’s Parrots of Paganism

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The Archangels of the Four Corners
1) Michael in the South
2) Raphael in the East
3) Gabriel in the West
4) Uriel in the North

Roman, Greek, British, and Egyptian Paganism
1) Helios, Apollo, Gwydion, Anubis
2) Jupiter, Zeus, Lugh, Osiris
3) Diana, Artemis, Arianrhod, Isis
4) Hecate, Persephone, Rhiannon, Nephtys

Beware of the Unsaddled Elephant! – A Warning from the Babylonian Talmud

The Elephants are of good omen if saddled, or bad omen if not saddled.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth 57a

 

Elephant with Saddle

All kinds of beasts are a good sign in a dream, except the Elephant, the Monkey and Ape. But a has not the Master said: ‘If one sees an Elephant in a dream, a miracle will happen for him’? There is no contradiction in this, for if the Elephant is saddled, it is a good omen, and a bad omen if it is not saddled.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth 57b

Pigging out on Jewish Midrash…

Left foot forward, says the swine.

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When the Pig pauses from his gluttony and lies down to rest he stretches out his foot to show his cloven hoof, and pretends that he belongs to the clean kind of animals. – Jewish Midrash, Genesis Rabba 65

A Talmudic Proverb about a Dog, a Cat, and a Mouse

Rabbi Eleazar was asked by his disciples: ‘Why does a Dog know its owner while a Cat does not?’ He answered them: ‘If he who eats something of that from which a Mouse has eaten loses his memory, how much more so the animal which eats the Mouse itself!’

– The Babylonian Talmud, Horayoth 13a

A Book of Genesis Timeline according to Judaism

 

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the Cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

– Zechariah 10:3-4

The following timeline describes the people and events as recorded in the Book of Genesis as understood by Judaism. It was compiled utilizing information taken from three different Jewish websites: the Jewish Virtual Library.org, Being Jewish.com, and Akhlah.com. All three of these websites were in basic agreement as to the dates, but some included specific events that others did not. Thus, this timeline is a summation of all three put together into one comprehensive list. All dates have been translated from the Hebrew calendar into what is now called BCE- Before the Common Era. To be specific, this particular timeline starts at 3760 BCE and ends at 1452 BCE. It begins with the creation of Adam and ends with the death of Joseph.
NOTE: All dates are tentative and come from ‘Before the Common Era’ usually designated as B.C.E. or BCE.
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Judaism – Timeline for the Book of Genesis

3760 — The LORD God creates Adam and Eve
3630 — Birth of Seth
3525 — Birth of Enosh
3435 — Birth of Kenan
3365 — Birth of Mahalalel
3300 — Birth of Jared
3138 — Birth of Enoch
3074 — Birth of Methuselah
2886 — Birth of Lamech
2831 — Death of Adam, the first man
2773 — Ascension of Enoch into Heaven
2718 — Death of Seth
2704 — Birth of Noah
2204 — Vision of Noah. Noah begins construction on the Ark
2202 — Birth of Shem, first-born son of Noah
2109 — Death of Lamech
2104 — Death of Methuselah
2102 — The Great Flood begins
1882 — Birth of Terah
1813 — Birth of Abraham
1802 — Birth of Sarah
1765 — Attempted building of the Tower of Babel
1755 — Death of Noah
1743 — God’s Covenant with Abraham begins
1737 — Abraham leaves Haran with Sarah and Lot and migrates to Bethel in Canaan
1736 — Abraham flees to Egypt due to famine, Melchizedek blesses Abraham
1726 — Birth of Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar
1713 — Birth of Isaac, Circumcision of the House of Abraham, Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
1677 — Near Sacrifice of Isaac, Death of Sarah, wife of Abraham
1672 — Issac marries Rebecca
1653 — Birth of Jacob and Esau
1638 — Death of Abraham
1602 — Death of Shem
1590 — Isaac blesses Jacob, instead of his brother Esau
1589 — Death of Ishmael
1580 — Jacob begins working for his uncle Laban
1569 — Jacob marries Leah and Rachel
1565 — Birth of Levi, son of Jacob
1564 — Birth of Judah, son of Jacob
1562 — Birth of Joseph, son of Jacob
1560 — Jacob and family return to Canaan, Jacob is renamed Israel, Jacob and Esau reconcile
1546 — Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers
1533 — Death of Isaac, Death of Rachel, wife of Jacob
1532 — Joseph becomes Viceroy of Egypt
1524 — Seven Years of Famine begins
1523 — Jacob and family join Joseph and settle in Egypt
1516 — Seven Years of Famine ends
1505 — Death of Jacob
1452 — Death of Joseph
SOURCE(S):
1) Timeline of Jewish History, Jewish Virtual Library
2) Jewish Timeline, Akhlah.com
3) Jewish History Timeline Chart, BeingJewish.com
May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus

When Actual ‘Evil’ Ruled the the World….

He will show no regard for the gods of his fathers or for the desire of women, nor will he show regard for any other god; for he will magnify himself above them all.

– Book of Daniel 11:37

[Roman Emperor] Caligula  was especially paranoid of Jews, having many killed for no reason, and he had statues of himself placed in all synagogues. He even attempted to place a statue of himself as Zeus in the Holy of Holies in the Temple in Jerusalem. (37-41 AD)

– Gaius Caesar (Caligula), The Roman World, AncientWorlds.net

It is believed by most scholars that [Roman Emperor] Nero is the Great Beast whose number is Six hundred and Sixty Six referred to in the last Biblical book The Apocalypse. (54-68 AD)

– Top Ten Worst Roman Emperors, by Jamie Frater, Listverse.com
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Sex- is a Latin prefix meaning “Six”
Thus: The measuring instrument called a Sextant got its name because its shape forms one-Sixth of a whole circle. A group of Six musicians is called a Sextet. Six babies delivered in one birth are Sextuplets

– Six (Number), Wikipedia

The word Sex probably comes from Middle English, meaning ‘section’ or ‘divide’. In Latin the word Sex means the number ‘Six’.

– What is the difference between sex and gender, by Christian Nordqvist, MedicalNewsToday.com

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A Brief Sexual Summary of Three Roman Emperors

TIBERIUS (14-37 AD): While he lived on Capri, he had a huge villa built for him, Villa Jovis, the Villa of Jove (Jupiter), in which he indulged his pedophilia. He swam naked with and raped infants, toddlers and young boys…Even in his late seventies, sex with young children was one of his favorite pastimes.  (Top Ten Worst Roman Emperors, by Jamie Frater, Listverse.com)

NERO (54-68 AD): Caligula’s nephew was an emperor at 16-years-old and lost his virginity to his mum…His most famous move though, was marrying his two homosexual lovers. The first, Sporus, he castrated, and married with all the usual ceremonies, including a dowry and a bridal veil. While Sporus was his wife, the second, Pythagoras, was his husband and on their wedding night Nero was heard to ‘imitate the cries and lamentations of a maiden being deflowered.’ (The A to Z of Sexual History Roman Emperors, by Cameron King, Vice.com)

ELAGABALUS (218-222 AD): Elagabalus took the throne at the ripe old age of 14, and immediately indulged his most sordid, depraved fantasies and desires. He was a man, yes, but wanted dearly to be a woman, and offered gargantuan sums of money to the physician who could turn him into one for real. Until then, he enjoyed cross-dressing, and whored himself out to common men in whorehouses throughout Rome, wearing female disguises and facial makeup….He had hundreds, perhaps thousands, of affairs with men and women while he was married to a Vestal virgin, which was a serious outrage among Romans. (Top Ten Worst Roman Emperors, by Jamie Frater, Listverse.com)

A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism


Six hundred and Thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty-five negative precepts, corresponding to the number of solar days in the year, and two hundred and forty-eight positive precepts, corresponding to the number of parts to a man’s body.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 23b


For most observers, 613 seems like such a strange, even random, number for anyone, let alone an entire world religion, to have held in such high regard for so long. Yet, ask any devout Jew of today how many Commandments their religion has and their answer would be no different from the Rabbis who ran the elite Jewish academies over 1,500 years previously. Back then, and as it still is now, the religion of Judaism believed in 613 Commandments and the preponderance of historical evidence seems to suggest this exact number has some extremely old roots, One could even contend the Jewish tradition of numbering their religious commandments at exactly 613 is, by any standard, a truly ancient practice that has stood the test of time, even unto this very day.

Thus are we introduced to 613, the magic number of Torah scholarship and Jewish living. Its source is the Babylonian Talmud; its importance is echoed in a vast body of scholarly literature spanning a millennium; its potential as an aid to studying and remembering Torah deserves our careful analysis.

– ‘Origin’ of 613 Commandments, by Rabbi Mendel Weinbach

The greatest proof of this particular number’s authenticity can be found in the pages of the Babylonian Talmud (Compiled 200-500 A,D.) where the 613 Commandments is mentioned at least six different times in five separate volumes of this comprehensive Jewish collection of religious doctrine (Makkoth 23b, Yebamoth 47b and 62a, Nedarim 25a, Shabbath 87a, Shebu’oth 29a). Thus, it must said the numerical tradition of precisely 613 Judaic laws, and no more or less than this, has to be at least 1,500 years old, if not far older. That’s quite a long time for a number, especially a rather large, number like 613 to have remained the same, especially when it comes to the law, which been subject to change since the dawn of civilization. Yet for Judaism, these laws are said to have come from God Himself and there seems to be little reason not to believe them.

NOTE: The following 613 Commandments of Judaism come from Sefer Hamitzvot (Book of Commandments), written by the great Jewish sage Maimonides (12th century). They are divided into 14 Books and further subdivided by different subjects. With that said, here are the 613 Commandments of Judaism, as they have been understood for many centuries:
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BOOK ONE: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE

Fundamentals of Torah:

1. To know there is a God (Ex. 20:2)

2. Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him (Ex. 20:3)

3. To know that He is one (Deut. 6:4)

4. To love Him (Deut. 6:5)

5. To fear Him (Deut. 10:20)

6. To sanctify His Name (Lev. 22:32)

7. Not to profane His Name (Lev. 22:32)

8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name (Deut. 12:4)

9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name (Deut. 18:15)

10. Not to test the prophet unduly (Deut. 6:16)

Laws of Character

11. To emulate His ways     (Deut. 28:9)

12. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20)

13. To love Jews (Lev. 19:18)

14. To love converts (Deut. 10:19)

15. Not to hate fellow Jews (Lev. 19:17)

16. To reprove (Lev. 19:17)

17. Not to embarrass others (Lev. 19:17)

18. Not to oppress the weak (Ex. 21:22)

19. Not to speak derogatorily of others (Lev. 19:16)

20. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)

21. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)

Laws of Torah Study

22. To learn Torah (Deut. 6:7)

23. To honor those who teach and know Torah (Lev. 19:32)

Laws of Idolatry and Paganism

24. Not to inquire into idolatry (Lev. 19:4)

25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see (Num. 15:39)

26. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27)

27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped (Ex. 20:5)

28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God (Ex. 20:5)

29. Not to make an idol for yourself (Ex. 20:4)

30. Not to make an idol for others (Lev. 19:4)

31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes (Ex. 20:20)

32. Not to turn a city to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)

33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship (Deut. 13:17)

34. Not to rebuild it as a city (Deut. 13:17)

35. Not to derive benefit from it (Deut. 13:18)

36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship (Deut. 13:12)

37. Not to love the missionary )Deut. 13:9)

38. Not to cease hating the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

39. Not to save the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

40. Not to say anything in his defense (Deut. 13:9)

41. Not to refrain from incriminating him (Deut. 13:9)

42. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry (Deut. 13:14)

43. Not to listen to a false prophet (Deut. 13:4)

44. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God (Deut. 18:20)

45. Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet (Deut. 18:22)

46. Not to swear in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13)

47. Not to perform ov (medium) (Lev. 19:31)

48. Not to perform yidoni (magical seer) (Lev. 19:31)

49. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)

50. Not to erect a column in a public place of worship (Deut. 16:22)

51. Not to bow down on smooth stone (Lev. 26:1)

52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard (Deut. 16:21)

53. To destroy idols and their accessories (Deut. 12:2)

54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories 9Deut. 7:26)

55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols (Deut. 7:250

56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters (Deut. 7:2)

57. Not to show favor to them (Deut. 7:2)

58. Not to let them dwell in our land (Ex. 23:330

59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing (Lev. 20:23)

60. Not to be superstitious (Lev. 19:26)

61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. (Deut. 18:10)

62. Not to engage in astrology (Lev. 19:26)

63. Not to mutter incantations (Deut. 18:11)

64. Not to attempt to contact the dead (Deut. 18:11)

65. Not to consult the ov (Deut. 18:11)

66. Not to consult the yidoni (Deut. 18:11)

67. Not to perform acts of magic (Deut. 18:10)

68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head (Lev. 19:270

69. Men must not shave their beards with a razor 9Lev. 19:27)

70. Men must not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

71. Women must not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

72. Not to tattoo the skin (Lev. 19:28)

73. Not to tear the skin in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

74. Not to make a bald spot in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

Laws of Repentance

75. To repent and confess wrongdoings (Num. 5:7)

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BOOK TWO: THE BOOK OF LOVE OF GOD

Laws of Reading the Shema

76. To say the Shema twice daily (Deut. 6:7)

Laws of Prayer and Kohanic Blessings

77. To serve the Almighty with prayer daily (Ex. 23:25)

78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily (Num. 6:23)

Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza and Sefer Torah

79. To wear tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)

80. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)

81. To put a mezuzah on each door post (Deut. 6:9)

82. Each male must write a Sefer Torah (Deut. 31:19)

83. The king must have a separate Sefer Torah for himself (Deut. 17:18)

Laws of Tzitzit

84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments (Num. 15:38)

Laws of Blessings

85. To bless the Almighty after eating (Deut. 8:10)

Laws of Circumcision

86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth (Lev. 12:3)

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BOOK THREE: THE BOOK OF SEASONS

Laws of the Sabbath

87. To rest on the seventh day (Ex. 23:12)

88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day (Ex. 20:10)

89. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3)

90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat (Ex. 16:29)

91. To sanctify the day with Kiddush and Havdallah (Ex. 20:8)

Laws of Eruvin (Rabbinical)

Laws of Yom Kippur Rest

92. To rest from prohibited labor (Lev. 23:32)

93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32)

94. To afflict yourself on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29)

95. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29)

Laws of Festival Rest

96. To rest on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:7)

97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

100. To rest on Shavuot     (Lev. 23:21)

101. Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot (Lev. 23:21)

102. To rest on Rosh Hashana  (Lev. 23:24)

103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashana (Lev. 23:25)

104. To rest on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

105. Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

106. To rest on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

Laws of Chometz and Matzah

108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)

109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan (Ex. 12:15)

110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 13:3)

111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 12:20)

112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 13:7)

113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 12:19)

114. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)

115. To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night (Ex. 13:8)

Laws of Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav

116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashana) (Num. 29:1)

117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)

118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days (Lev. 23:40)

Laws of Shekalim

119. Each man must give a half shekel annually (Ex. 30:13)

Laws of Sanctification of Months

120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins (Ex. 12:2)

Laws of Fasts

121. To afflict and cry out before God in times of catastrophe (Num. 10:9)

Laws of Megillah and Chanukah (Rabbinical)

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BOOK FOUR: THE BOOK OF WOMEN

Laws of Marriage

122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin (Deut. 22:13)

123. Not to have relations with women not thus married (Deut. 23:18)

124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife (Ex. 21:10)

125. To have children with one’s wife (Gen 1:28)

Laws of Divorce

126. To issue a divorce by means of a “get” document (Deut. 24:1)

127. A man must not remarry his wife after she has married someone else (Deut. 24:4)

Laws of Yivum and Chalitzah (Levirate Marriage)

128. To do yibum (marry childless brother’s widow) (Deut. 25:5)

129. To do chalitzah (freeing a widow from yibum) (Deut. 25:9)

130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (Deut. 25:5)

Laws of Women

131. The court must fine one who seduces a maiden (Ex. 22:15-16)

132. The rapist must marry the maiden (if she chooses) (Deut. 22:29)

133. He is not allowed to divorce her (Deut. 22:29)

134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife (Deut. 22:19)

135. He must not divorce her (Deut. 22:19)

Laws of Sotah (Suspect Wife)

136. To fulfill the laws of the Sotah (Num. 5:30)

137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

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BOOK FIVE: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS

Laws of Forbidden Relations

139. Not to have relations with your mother (Lev. 18:7)

140. Not to have relations with your father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)

141. Not to have relations with your sister (Lev. 18:9)

142. Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:110

143. Not to have relations with your son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)

144. Not to have relations with your daughter (Lev. 18:10)

145. Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:100

146. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter (Lev. 18:17)

147. Not to have relations with a woman and her son’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

148. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

149. Not to have relations with your father’s sister (Lev. 18:12)

150. Not to have relations with your mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)

151. Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:14)

152. Not to have relations with your son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)

153. Not to have relations with your brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)

154. Not to have relations with your wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)

155. A man must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

156. A woman must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

157. Not to have homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22)

158. Not to have homosexual relations with your father (Lev. 18:7)

159. Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)

160. Not to have relations with a married woman (Lev. 18:20)

161. Not to have relations with a menstrually impure woman (Lev. 18:19)

162. Not to marry non-Jews (Deut. 7:3)

163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:4)

164. Don’t keep a third generation Egyptian convert from marrying into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:8-9)

165. Not to refrain from marrying a third generation Edomite convert (Deut. 23:8-9)

166. Not to let a mamzer marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:3)

167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:2)

168. Not to castrate any male (including animals) (Lev. 22:24)

169. The High Priest must not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)

170. The High Priest must not have relations with a widow even outside of marriage (Lev. 21:15)

171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden (Lev. 21:13)

172. A Kohen must not marry a divorcee (Lev. 21:7)

173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who had forbidden relations) (Lev. 21:7)

174. A priest must not marry a chalalah (party to or product of 169-172) (Lev. 21:7)

175. Not to make pleasurable contact with any forbidden woman (Lev. 18:6)

Laws of Forbidden Foods

176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:2)

177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Deut. 14:11)

178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:9)

179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:21)

180. Not to eat non-kosher animals (Lev. 11:4)

181. Not to eat non-kosher fowl (Lev. 11:13)

182. Not to eat non-kosher fish (Lev. 11:11)

183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects (Deut. 14:19)

184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land (Lev. 11:41)

185. Not to eat non-kosher maggots (Lev. 11:44)

186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground  (Lev. 11:42)

187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish (Lev. 11:43)

188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter (Deut. 14:21)

189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)

190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded (Ex. 22:30)

191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature (Deut 12:23)

192. Not to eat blood (Lev. 3:17)

193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals (Lev. 3:17)

194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh (Gen. 32:33)

195. Not to eat meat and milk cooked together (Ex. 23:19)

196. Not to cook meat and milk together (Ex. 34:26)

197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years (Lev. 19:23)

201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

202. Not to eat untithed fruits (Lev. 22:15)

203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols (Deut. 32:38)

Laws of Slaughtering

204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it (Deut. 12:21)

205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day (Lev. 22:28

206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth (Lev. 17:13)

207. Not to take the mother bird from her children (Deut. 22:6)

208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest (Deut. 22:7)

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BOOK SIX: THE BOOK OF OATHS

Laws of Oaths

209. Not to swear falsely in God’s Name (Lev. 19:12)

210. Not to take God’s Name in vain (Ex. 20:7)

211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you (Lev. 19:11)

212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim (Lev. 19:11)

213. To swear in God’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court (Deut. 10:20)

Laws of Vows

214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed (Deut. 23:24)

215. Not to break oaths or vows (Num. 30:3)

216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah (Num. 30:3)

Laws of The Nazir

217. The Nazir must let his hair grow (Num. 6:5)

218.  He must not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)

219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar (Num. 6:3)

220. He must not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)

221. He must not eat raisins (Num. 6:3)

222. He must not eat grape seeds (Num. 6:4)

223. He must not eat grape skins (Num. 6:4)

224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpse ((Num. 6:6)

225. He must not come into contact with the dead (Num. 6:7)

226. He must shave after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite period (Num. 6:9)

Laws of Estimated Values and Vows

227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah (Lev. 27:2)

228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals(Lev. 27:12-13)

229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses (Lev. 27:14)

230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields (Lev. 27:16)

231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) (Lev. 27:28

232. Not to sell the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

233. Not to redeem the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

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BOOK SEVEN: THE BOOK OF SEEDS

Laws of Mixed Species

234. Not to plant diverse seeds together (Lev. 19:19)

235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

236. Not to crossbreed animals (Lev. 19:19)

237. Not to work different animals together (Deut. 22:10)

238. Not to wear sha’atnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen (Deut. 22:11)

Laws of Gifts to the Poor

239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor (Lev. 19:10)

240. Not to reap that corner (Lev. 19:9)

241. To leave gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

242. Not to gather the gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

243. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

245. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field (Deut. 24:19)

248. Not to retrieve them (Deut. 24:19)

249. To separate the tithe for the poor (Deut. 14:28)

250. To give charity (Deut. 15:8)

251. Not to withhold charity from the poor (Deut. 15:7)

252. To set aside Trumah Gedolah (tithe for the Kohen) (Deut. 18:4)

253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe (Num. 18:26)

254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order (Ex. 22:28)

255. A non-Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Trumah (Ex. 12:48)

258. An impure Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:4)

259. A chalalah must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:12)

Laws of Ma’aser

260. To set aside Ma’aser each planting year and give it to a Levite (Num. 18:24)

Laws of The Second Tithe and Fourth Year Produce

261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma’aser Sheni) (Deut. 14:22)

262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment (Deut. 26:14)

263. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni while impure (Deut. 26:14)

264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma’aser Sheni (Deut. 26:14)

265. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

266. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

267. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma’aser Sheni (Lev. 19:24)

269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year (Deut. 26:13)

Laws of First Fruits and other Kohanic Gifts

270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple (Ex. 23:19)

271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation (Deut. 26:5)

273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen (Num. 15:20)

274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals to a Kohen (Deut. 18:3)

275. To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen (Deut. 18:4)

276. To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen (Num. 18:15)

277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen (Ex. 13:13)

278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it (Ex. 13:13)

Laws of The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth (Ex. 34:21)

280. Not to work the land during the seventh year (Lev. 25:4)

281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year (Lev. 25:4)

282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner (Lev. 25:5)

283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way (Lev. 25:5)

284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year (Ex. 23:11)

285. To release all loans during the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)

286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower (Deut. 15:2)

287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss (Deut. 15:9)

288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years (Lev. 25:8)

289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:10)

290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves (Lev. 25:9)

291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties (Lev. 25:24)

295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely (Lev. 25:23)

296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities (Lev. 25:29)

297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in (Deut. 18:1)

298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war (Deut. 18:1)

299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields (Num. 35:2)

300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and after the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:34)

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BOOK EIGHT: THE BOOK OF SERVICE

Laws of The Temple

301. To build a Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)

302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal (Ex. 20:22)

303. Not to climb steps to the altar (Ex. 20:23)

304. To show reverence to the Temple (Lev. 19:30)

305. To guard the Temple area (Num. 18:2)

306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded (Num. 18:5)

Laws of Temple Vessels and Employees

307. To prepare the anointing oil (Ex. 30:31)

308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

309. Not to anoint with anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

310. Not to reproduce the incense formula (Ex. 30:37)

311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense (Ex. 30:9)

312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders (Num. 7:9)

313. Not to remove the staves from the ark (Ex. 25:15)

314. The Levites must work in the Temple (Num. 18:23)

315. No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite (Num. 18:3)

316. To dedicate the Kohen for service (Lev. 21:8)

317. The kohanic work shifts must be equal during holidays (Deut. 18:6-8)

318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service (Ex. 28:2)

319. Not to tear the priestly garments (Ex. 28:32)

320. The breastplate must not be loosened from the Efode (Ex. 28:28)

Laws of Entering the Temple

321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated (Lev. 10:9)

322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with long hair (Lev. 10:6)

323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes (Lev. 10:6)

324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately (Lev. 16:2)

325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service (Lev. 10:7)

326. To send the impure from the Temple (Num. 5:2)

327. Impure people must not enter the Temple (Num. 5:3)

328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area (Deut. 23:11)

329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple (Lev. 22:2)

330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service (Lev. 22:7)

331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service (Ex. 30:19)

332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar (Lev. 21:23)

333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve (Lev.21:17)

334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve (Lev. 21:17

335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve (Num. 18:4)

Laws of Restrictions Concerning Sacrifices

336. To offer only unblemished animals (Lev. 22:21)

337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar (Lev. 22:20)

338. Not to slaughter it (Lev. 22:22)

339. Not to sprinkle its blood (Lev. 22:24)

340. Not to burn its fat (Lev. 22:22)

341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal (Deut. 17:1)

342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews (Lev. 22:25)

343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals (Lev. 22:21)

344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified (Deut. 12:15)

345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)

346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog (Deut. 23:19)

347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar (Lev. 2:11)

348. To salt all sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

Laws of Sacrificial Procedure

350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 1:3)

351. Not to eat its meat (Deut. 12:17)

352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering (Lev. 6:18)

353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering (Lev. 6:23

354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering (Lev. 5:8)

355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering (Lev. 7:1)

356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple (Ex. 29:33)

357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard (Deut. 12:17)

358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat (Ex. 29:33)

359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering (Lev. 7:11)

360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood (Deut. 12:17)

361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 2:1)

362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 5:11)

363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 3:11)

364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest (Lev. 6:16)

365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread (Lev. 6:10)

366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings (Lev. 6:9)

367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival (Deut. 12:5-6)

368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow (Deut. 23:22)

369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple (Deut. 12:11)

370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple (Deut. 12:26)

371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard (Lev. 17:4)

372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard (Deut. 12:13)

Laws of Constant and Additional Offerings

373. To offer two lambs every day (Num. 28:3)

374. To light a fire on the altar every day (Lev. 6:6)

375. Not to extinguish this fire (Lev. 6:6)

376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day (Lev. 6:3)

377. To burn incense every day (Ex 30:7)

378. To light the Menorah every day (Ex. 27:21)

379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day (Lev. 6:13)

380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat (Num 28:9)

381. To make the show bread (Ex. 25:30)

382. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Num. 28:11)

383. To bring additional offerings on Passover (Num. 28:19)

384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (Lev. 23:10)

385. Each man must count the Omer – seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought     (Lev. 23:15)

386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot (Num. 28:26)

387. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice (Lev. 23:17)

388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana (Num. 29:2)

389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur (Num. 29:8)

390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot (Num. 29:13)

391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret (Num. 29:35)

Laws of Disqualified Offerings

392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished (Deut. 14.3)

393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions (Lev. 7:18)

394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them (Lev. 22:30)

395. Not to eat from that which was left over (Lev. 19:8)

396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure (Lev. 7:19)

397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices (Lev. 7:20)

398. To burn the leftover sacrifices (Lev. 7:17)

399. To burn all impure sacrifices (Lev. 7:19)

Laws of Yom Kippur Service

400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshat Acharei Mot (Lev. 16:3)

Laws of Misusing Sanctified Property

401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice (Lev. 5:16)

402. Not to work consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

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BOOK NINE: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES

Laws of Pascal Sacrifice

404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time (Ex. 12:6)

405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven (Ex. 23:18)

406. Not to leave the fat overnight (Ex. 23:18)

407. To slaughter the second paschal lamb (Num. 9:11)

408. To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the 15th of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)

409. To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar (Num.9:11)

410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled (Ex. 12:9)

411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group (Ex. 12:46)

412. An apostate must not eat from it (Ex.12:43)

413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it (Ex. 12:45)

414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it (Ex. 12:48

415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering (Ex. 12:46)

416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering (Num. 9:12)

417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning (Ex. 12:10)

418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning (Num. 9:12)

419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th (Deut. 16:4)

Laws of Pilgrim Offerings

420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot (Deut. 16:16)

421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Ex. 23:14)

422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Deut. 16:14)

423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings (Deut. 16:16)

424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites (Deut. 12:19)

425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)

Laws of First Born Animals

426. To set aside the firstborn animals (Ex. 13:12)

427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

428. Not to redeem the firstborn (Num. 18:17)

429. Separate the tithe from animals (Lev. 27:32)

430. Not to redeem the tithe (Lev. 27:33)

Laws of Offerings for Unintentional Transgressions

431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression (Lev. 4:27)

432. Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt (Lev. 5:17-18)

433. Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained (Lev. 5:25)

434. Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) (Lev. 5:7-11)

435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error  (Lev. 4:13)

Laws of Lacking Atonement

436. A woman who had a running issue must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:28-29)

437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 12:6)

438. A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:13-14)

439. A metzora must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh (Lev. 14:10)

Laws of Substitution of Sacrifices

440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)

441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration (Lev. 27:10)

442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another (Lev. 27:26)

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BOOK TEN: THE BOOK OF PURITY

Laws of Impurity of Human Dead

443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead (Num. 19:14)

Laws of The Red Heifer

444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Num. 19:2)

445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water (Num. 19:21)

Laws of Impurity through Tzara’at

446. Rule the laws of human tzara’at as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 13:12)

447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity (Deut. 24:8)

448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair (Lev. 13:33)

449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips (Lev. 13:45)

450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora (Lev. 14:2)

451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification (Lev. 14:9)

452. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of clothing (Lev. 13:47)

453. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of houses (Lev. 13:34)

Laws of Impurity of Reclining and Sitting

454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity (Lev. 15:19)

455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth (Lev. 12:2)

456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running issue (Lev. 15:25)

457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue (Lev. 15:3)

Laws of Other Sources of Impurity

458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast (Lev. 11:39)

459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (Lev. 11:29)

460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (Lev. 15:16)

Laws of Impurity of Food

461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods (Lev. 11:34)

Laws of Vessels (Rabbinical)

Laws of Mikveh

462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikveh to become pure (Lev. 15:16)

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BOOK ELEVEN: THE BOOK OF DAMAGES

Laws of Property Damage

463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox (Ex. 21:28)

464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating (Ex. 22:4)

465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit (Ex. 21:33)

466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire (Ex. 22:5)

Laws of Theft

467. Not to steal money stealthily (Lev. 19:11)

468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief (Ex. 21:37)

469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate (Lev. 19:36)

470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights (Lev. 19:35)

471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use (Deut. 25:13)

472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property (Deut. 19:14)

473. Not to kidnap (Ex. 20:13)

Laws of Robbery and Lost Objects

474. Not to rob openly (Lev. 19:13)

475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt (Lev. 19:13)

476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession (Ex. 20:14)

477. Not to desire another’s possession (Deut. 5:18)

478. Return the robbed object or its value (Lev. 5:23)

479. Not to ignore a lost object (Deut. 22:3)

480. Return the lost object (Deut. 22:1)

481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another’s property (Ex. 21:18)

Laws of Murder and Preservation of Life

482. Not to murder (Ex. 20:13)

483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer (Num. 35:31)

484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge (Num. 35:25)

485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge  (Num. 35:32)

486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial (Num. 35:12)

487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:11)

488. Not to pity the pursuer (Num. 35:12)

489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)

490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access (Deut. 19:3)

491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder (Deut. 21:4)

492. Not to work nor plant that river valley (Deut. 21:4)

493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property (Deut. 22:8)

494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs (Deut. 22:8)

495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) (Lev. 19:14)

496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it (Ex. 23:5)

497. Help others load their beast (Deut. 22:4)

498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) (Deut. 22:4)

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BOOK TWELVE: THE BOOK OF ACQUISITION

Laws of Sales

499. Buy and sell according to Torah law (Lev. 25:14)

500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article (Lev. 25:14)

501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words (Lev. 25:17)

502. Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily (Ex. 22:20)

503. Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words (Ex. 22:20)

Laws of Acquisitions and Gifts (Rabbinical)
Laws of Neighbors (Rabbinical)
Laws of Agents and Partners (Rabbinical)

Laws of Slaves

504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws (Ex. 21:2)

505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold (Lev. 25:42)

506. Not to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:43)

507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:53)

508. Not to have him do menial slave labor (Lev. 25;39)

509. Give him gifts when he goes free (Deut. 15:14)

510. Not to send him away empty-handed (Deut. 15:13)

511. Redeem Jewish maidservants (Ex. 21:8)

512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

513. The master must not sell his maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs (Lev. 25:46)

515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to Israel (Deut. 23:16)

516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge (Deut. 23:16)

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BOOK THIRTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGEMENTS

Laws of Hiring

517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard (Ex. 22:9)

518. Pay wages on the day they were earned (Deut. 24:15)

519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time (Lev. 19:13)

520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works (Deut. 23:25)

521. The worker must not eat while on hired time (Deut. 23:26)

522. The worker must not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)

523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing (Deut. 25:4)

Laws of Borrowing and Depositing

524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower (Ex. 22:13)

525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard (Ex. 22:6)

Laws of Creditor and Debtor

526. Lend to the poor and destitute (Ex. 22:24)

527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don’t have it (Ex. 22:24)

528. Press the idolater for payment (Deut. 15:3)

529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral (Deut. 24:10)

530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed (Deut. 24:13)

531. Not to delay its return when needed (Deut. 24:12)

532. Not to demand collateral from a widow (Deut. 24:17)

533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food (Deut. 24:6)

534. Not to lend with interest (Lev.25:37)

535. Not to borrow with interest (Deut. 23:20)

536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note (Ex. 22:24)

537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest (Deut. 23:21)

Laws of Plaintiff and Defendant

538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier (Ex. 22:8)

Laws of Inheritance

539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance (Num. 27:8)

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BOOK FOURTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGES

Laws of Sanhedrin and Punishments

540. Appoint judges (Deut. 16:18)

541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure (Deut. 1:17)

542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement (Ex. 23:2)

543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required (Ex. 23:2)

544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases (Deut. 23:2)

545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning (Deut. 22:24)

546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning (Lev. 20:14)

547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword (Ex. 21:20)

548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation (Lev. 20:10)

549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry (Deut. 21:22)

550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed (Deut.21:23)

551. Not to delay burial overnight (Deut. 21:23)

552. The court must not let the sorcerer live (Ex. 22:17)

553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer (Ex. 25:2)

554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes (Deut. 25:3)

555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence (Ex. 23:7)

556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime (Deut. 22:26)

557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial (Deut. 19:13)

558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor (Ex. 23;6)

561. A judge must not pervert justice (Lev. 19:15)

562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan (Deut. 24:17)

563. Judge righteously (Lev. 19:15)

564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment (Deut. 1:17)

565. Judges must not accept bribes (Ex. 23:8)

566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present (Ex. 23:1)

567. Not to curse judges (Ex. 22:27)

568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin (Ex. 22:27)

569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew (Lev. 19:14)

Laws of Evidence

570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court (Lev. 5:1)

571. Carefully interrogate the witness  (Deut. 13:15)

572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes (Deut. 19:17)

573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness (Deut. 19:15)

574. Transgressors must not testify (Ex. 23:1)

575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify (Deut. 24:16)

576. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)

577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant (Deut. 19:19)

Laws of Insurgents

578. Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations (Deut. 13:1)

581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part (Deut. 13:1)

582. Not to curse your father and mother (Ex. 21:17)

583. Not to strike your father and mother (Ex. 21:15)

584. Respect your father or mother (Ex. 20:12)

585. Fear your father or mother (Lev. 19:3)

586. Not to be a rebellious son (Deut. 21:18)

Laws of Mourning

587. Mourn for relatives (Lev. 10:19)

588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative (Lev. 21:11)

589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse (Lev. 21:11)

590. A Kohen must not defile himself for anyone except relatives (Lev. 21:1)

Laws of Kings and their Wars

591. Appoint a king from Israel (Deut. 17:15)

592. Not to appoint a convert (Deut. 17:15)

593. The king must not have too many wives (Deut. 17:17)

594. The king must not have too many horses (Deut. 17:16)

595. The king must not have too much silver and gold (Deut. 17:17)

596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:17)

597. Not to let any of them remain alive (Deut. 20:16)

598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people (Deut. 25:17)

600. Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert (Deut. 25:19)

601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt (Deut. 17:16)

602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms (Deut. 20:10)

603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them (Deut. 23:7)

604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege (Deut. 20:19)

605. Prepare latrines outside the camps (Deut. 23:13)

606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with (Deut. 23:14)

607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war (Deut. 20:2)

608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions (Deut. 24:5)

609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military (Deut. 24:5)

610. Not to panic and retreat during battle  (Deut. 20:3)

611. Keep the laws of the captive woman  (Deut. 21:11)

612. Not to sell her into slavery (Deut. 21:14)

613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her (Deut. 21:14)

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NOTE: Some words and phrases cited in the above 613 Commandments were carefully altered and edited by Judas Maccabaeus, the author of this post and publisher of this blog- the Judeo/Christian Tradition. This was done simply to make the English more readable and understandable by the general audience. Even so, the basic meaning of every Commandment that has been edited or re-written remains the same.

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We have been commanded Six hundred and Thirteen commandments: ‘Your people shall be my people’. We are forbidden idolatry: ‘And your God my God’.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 47b

 

The Global Power of Ten Hebrew Letters

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– The Gospel According to Saint John 1:1

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

The Judeo/Christian Ten Commandments

I. You will not worship any other god except the LORD (יהוה)
II. You will not use the name of the LORD in vain.
III. You will not defile the Sabbath day, but keep it holy.
IV. You will not dishonor your father or your mother.
V. You will not kill.
VI. You will not commit adultery.
VII. You will not steal.
VIII. You will not lie.
IX. You will not envy another man’s wife.
X. You will not envy another man’s property.

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

 

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

The Ten Commandments are not multiple choice…

– Anonymous (1900-2000 A.D.)

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

The Religion of Christianity and the Commandments

If you want to enter life, keep the Commandments…You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, honor your father and mother, and love your neighbor as yourself.

– Matthew 19:17-19

You know the Commandments: ‘You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, you shall not defraud, honor your father and mother.’

– Mark 10:18-19

You know the Commandments: ‘You shall not commit adultery, you shall not murder, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, honor your father and mother.’

– Luke 18:19-21

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

י

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

Sometime during the Maccabean period (the second century BC), the letters of the alphabet began to represent numbers, such as the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet began to signify numbers one through ten, as seen in the presentation of the Ten Commandments.

– THE ALPHABET OF BIBLICAL HEBREW, Biblescripture.net

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

The Ten Commandments and the Hebrew Alphabet   

I. א
II. ב
III. ג
IV. ד
V. ה
VI. ז
VII. ו
VIII. ח
IX. ט
X. י

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

– Starting from the top, then down to the bottom, these 10 strange-looking symbols listed above alongside Latin numerals (1 – 10) also happen to be the first 10 letters in the official Hebrew alphabet. This is no mere coincidence.

– When written in English, the words for the first 10 Hebrew letters are spelled as follows- Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Dalet, Hey, Vav, Zayin, Het, Tet, and Yod.

– According to ancient Jewish legend, the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet, called ‘Aleph’, was also chosen by God to be the first letter of the Ten Commandments.due to its humble acceptance of God’s wisdom and authority.

– Rabbi Mendel Torum has claimed that, even though ‘Aleph’, the first letter of the entire Ten Commandments, has a completely silent pronunciation, every Israelite gathered around the foot of Mt. Sinai, clearly heard it anyway because it had been spoken by God Himself.

– In the esoteric discipline called Gematria, which is considered a somewhat more respectable form of Numerology, these 10 letters specifically correspond to the mathematical numbers one (1) through ten (10) and have been arranged in perfect chronological order as can be seen in both Exodus and Deuteronomy.

– Quite a few Rabbis, as well as some other Jewish religious authorities, have pointed out the incredibly powerful influence these 10 letters have exerted upon the entire Hebrew language, including both the written and spoken words of literally every Biblical prophet who came after Moses.

– In the modern era, numerous pieces of specialized Jewish art, jewelry, and other collectibles, will often use this 10-letter version of the Ten Commandments.

– More than a few synagogues, especially in the United States, have decorations which depict the 10-letter form of the Ten Commandments.

– In a ruling entitled ‘Ke’mo Ha-shachar'(Ayin 23), the Orthodox rabbinical authorities banned any display of the Ten Commandment tablets including those which ‘show the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet.’

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

10 Hebrew Letters = 10 Commandments References

A popular image of…the Ten Commandments are represented by the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which in Hebrew usage may be used interchangeably with the numbers 1-10.

– Tablets of Stone, Wikipedia

The relation between position and meaning is easily discerned for the first ten letters since they are linked with fundamental Biblical sequences like the Ten Commandments, the Seven Days of Creation, and the Seven Seals of Revelation.

– The Divine Design of the Hebrew Alphabet (Bible Wheel Book, Ch. 7), Biblewheel.com

Many synagogues continue to have the image of the Ten Commandments prominently displayed, and many Judaica websites that sell Torah covers feature a design with the commandments sewn on, usually represented by the first 10 letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

– Putting the Ten Commandments on display, by Edmon J. Rodman, Jewish Telegraph Agency, Jta.org

An old U.S.Air Force-issued prayer shawl (tallit)…shows the old symbol for military Jewish chaplains (two tablets of the Ten Commandments, using Roman numerals to indicate the commandments), stopped by a six-pointed Star of David. The modern version of the Jewish Chaplain symbol replaces the Roman numerals with the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

– USAF Jewish Chaplain prayer shawl, Wikipedia

אבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטיאבגדהזוחטי

The Tree of the Sephiroth may be considered an invaluable compendium of the secret philosophy which originally was the spirit and soul of Chasidism…The Sephirothic Tree consists of ten globes of luminous splendor arranged in three vertical columns and connected by 22 channels or paths. The ten globes are called the Sephiroth and to them are assigned the numbers 1 to 10. The mediæval Qabbalists also assigned one of the Ten Commandments and a tenth part of the Lord’s Prayer in sequential order to each of the ten Sephiroth.

– The Tree of the Sephiroth,. by Manly P. Hall (1928), Sacred-texts.com

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

Why would Anyone ever Believe President Obama, an Authentic Black American Christian, is a Muslim?

Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo/Christian Tradition.

– Barack Obama

NOTE: One must acknowledge that President Obama uses the word Judeo (meaning Judaism) and Christian (meaning Christianity), just as he specifically leaves out the word ‘Muslim’ and/or ‘Islamic’. This doesn’t sound like something a Muslim would ever say or believe.
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In many ways, the election of a black man, Barack Obama, as the most powerful leader in the world indicates that the Judeo/Christian doctrine of universal brotherhood has finally managed to emerge triumphant after a very scary, and completely evil previous century that threatened the very foundations of Christianity. At the same time, a great many of Obama’s public statements have been infused with the inspirational and moral certainty that originates with his faith in Christianity.

QUESTION #1) If Obama was really a Muslim, why would a Jewish journalist ever write an entire essay calling him ‘the first Jewish President’???

Unfortunately, there appears to be a substantial percentage of citizens that truly despise this happy-go lucky, modest, and very normal young American black man. It is true that their diabolical power and influence continues to diminish year after year as more and more black and white Americans fall in love, get married and then have children. Even so, they have still managed to greatly confuse many God-fearing Americans, especially white, Protestant Christians, about Obama’s religious faith and beliefs. This sordid affair all began when Obama, an unknown Senator from Chicago, emerged as victor of the Democratic party primaries and was then chosen as the Democratic candidate for President. Almost immediately, vicious rumors of him being a secret Muslim believer began circulating. As one reporter wrote:

Of the many rumors that have dogged President Barack Obama the most persistent one has been the “question” of his faith….The question is why has this rumor proven to be so tenacious and who is behind its propagation.

Sad as it is, the American media, including some of its most prominent newspapers and television, spent literally months publishing absolutely fictitious news reports and articles about Obama’s possible Muslim faith, broadcasting this vile falsehood to millions upon millions of American viewers and listeners.
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I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

QUESTION #2) If the President was really a Muslim why would he ever point to Judaism as one of his major intellectual influences???
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Most of the reporters and journalist responsible for propagating this white-racist inspired defamation of President Obama have yet to apologize or to even acknowledge their mistake. The President, obviously comfortable in his Christian faith, has responded to these outrageous, and deeply paranoid, beliefs with calm nobility. As one news source summarizes:

The President in his usual Spock-like calm recently addressed the mistaken beliefs (that he is a Muslim)…on “NBC Nightly News” blaming the “confusion” over his religious beliefs on “a network of misinformation that a new media era can get churned out there constantly.”

As it turns out, the original source of this rumor may well have been partially fueled by Republican political operatives (and possibly white racists) who were vehemently opposed to having Obama, a black man, as President of the United States. As one journalist puts it:

Labeling the President a Muslim also shows the racism and xenophobia of the Right. The Right has constantly attempted to make Obama appear to be strange and foreign; they have constantly attempted to make the aura around him appear to be dark and dangerous simply.  They have done this simply because he is Black.  He’s the Antichrist, a Muslim, the “other,”…because he is not White….This is why (there are)…questions about his religion.

QUESTION #3) Would an actual Muslim believer ever pray at the Western Wall????

Indeed, it may well be the ugly specter of white racism behind one of the greatest lies ever told in American politics- that Barack Obama is actually a anti-Christian Muslim believer, and a secret follower of the Prophet Mohammad. Here are the actual statistics from three independent news sources:

+ A Pew Research poll in August (2010) revealed ‘that one in five Americans falsely believe the president is a Muslim, more than thought so last year’.
+ In a poll by Newsweek, 12 percent of voters incorrectly believe he’s Muslim; more than a quarter believe he was raised in a Muslim home.
+ A Time Magazine poll found that 24 percent of Americans believe Obama is a Muslim, rather than a Christian.

QUESTION #4) Would a loyal Islamic follower of the Prophet Mohammad ever celebrate Hanukkah???

Given the highly-advanced, and extremely powerful, nation of today’s America, It is somewhat frightening how many of its adult citizens who vote can continue to believe in a total lie for years after it has been proven wrong beyond any shadow of a doubt. Tragically, this completely incorrect and easily verifiable falsehood continues to haunt a President who is just as Christian as George W. Bush, more Christian than Bill Clinton, and far more Christian than either George F. W. Bush or Ronald Reagan ever were. In fact, Barack Obama’s continued public display of Christian faith, especially his habits of quoting the Bible and frequently referring to Jesus Christ by name, is living proof that he truly is a Christian President. Here are just a few selected quotes form his public speeches:

As somebody who relies heavily on my Christian faith in my job, I understand the passions that religious faith can raise.

– President Barack Obama

(The story of Jesus’ birth) that we are called to love each other as we love ourselves, that we are our brother’s keeper and our sister’s keeper, and our destinies are linked…It’s a message that guides my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama

(We can) see God in other people and do our best to help them find their, you know, their own grace…So that’s what I strive to do…That’s what I pray to do everyday. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama

I found myself drawn – not just to work with the church but to be in the church…It was through this service that I was brought to Christ.

– President Barack Obama, University of Notre Dame, May 17 2010

QUESTION #5) Instead of accusing Obama of being Muslim, how come no one ever suspects him of being a secret Jew???

The fact of the matter is that, regardless of Barack Obama’s politics, some of which are in opposition to traditional Christian doctrines, he is still an authentic, genuine Christian believer who has been properly baptized by an ordained Christian minister and managed to attend Christian Sabbath on a weekly basis for over 20 years before running for President. In reality, Obama’s Christianity is undeniable and, in the end, sincere and factual.
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A Simple Answer to 5 Questions

QUESTION #1) If Obama was really a Muslim, why would a Jewish journalist ever write an entire essay calling him ‘the first Jewish President’???
QUESTION #2) If the President was really a Muslim why would he ever point to Judaism as one of his major intellectual influences???
QUESTION #3) Would an actual Muslim believer ever pray at the Western Wall????
QUESTION #4) Would a loyal Islamic follower of the Prophet Mohammad ever celebrate Hanukkah???
QUESTION #5) Instead of accusing Obama of being Muslim, how come no one ever suspects him of being a secret Jew???

THE ANSWER TO QUESTION #1, #2, #3, #4, and #5) Because literally every single person who calls Obama a Muslim is white, and most likely a racist, yet not completely racist. Thus, they remain too cowardly to say the ‘N’ word (the racist derivative of Negro) out loud or in public and have resorted to deceptively using the ‘M’ word (Muslim, an adherent to Islam) instead- thereby getting away with their ignorant, bigoted, hate-mongering yet again.

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The Forgotten Judeo/Christian Tragedy of Interest

 

The Days of No Interest

The success of ancient Israel, and especially the financial success of the Jewish people, was indeed due to the their own religious laws regarding money, especially when it came to debts and loans. As the Torah clearly indicates, Israel was set up to be a banking nation from its very inception. As Moses predicted:

You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none.

– Deuteronomy 28:12

As the law clearly stated, Israel usually obeyed it and from the time of King David and Solomon onward were renowned throughout the world for their  business and financial skills and success. For a long time after, the financial and monetary system of Israel, then Judea, gave the Jews quite a bit of wealth and power along the way. The following prophecy seemed to be fulfilling itself without any real difficulties.

For the LORD your God will bless you as He has promised you, and you will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow; and you will rule over many nations, but they will not rule over you.

– Deuteronomy 15:6

This commercial success was interrupted by the Babylonian captivity, when Jerusalem was conquered by the Babylonian Empire and its Temple looted for all its gold and silver. Nevertheless, this exile proved temporary and even though the Jews never really regained their political independence again, their financial and commercial freedoms proved to be more than enough to allow for the practice of Judaism and for the prosperity of the Jewish people. One of the keys to their success was a simple rule, one could charge interest to foreigners, but never to their fellow Jews. As the Torah stated:

You may charge interest on what you lend to foreigners, but not on what you lend to Israelites. Obey this rule, and the LORD your God will bless everything you do.

– Deuteronomy 23:20

This religious tradition of not charging any interest to any fellow Jews kept a fair amount of economic equality among the Jewish people both in Israel and abroad in foreign countries. The Bible also established a system of debt relief every seven years, where all debts, especially debts on real estate, were canceled every seventh year regardless of the lender’s financial interests. As Moses stated in the Torah:

Do not refuse to lend them something, just because the year when debts are canceled is near. Do not let such an evil thought enter your mind. If you refuse to make the loan, they will cry out to the LORD against you, and you will be held guilty.

– Deuteronomy 15:9

One should keep in mind that the ancient laws of the Torah did not allow for any military expansion or conquest outside of the Divinely-ordained borders of Israel, but this did not stop the Jews from becoming extremely successful international businessmen who established large Jewish settlements and commercial colonies in Babylon, Egypt, Persia, and then eventually throughout the Greco-Roman Empire. The Jewish desire for mercy and justice for its own people, as commanded by the Bible and its one, true God caused the following general rule to be applied:

Be generous to these poor people, and freely lend them as much as they need. Never be hard-hearted and tight-fisted with them.

– Deuteronomy 15:8

The Biblical Ban on Interest

For those modern Judeo-Christian believers who remain in denial when it comes to the clear, and repeated condemnations of usury found throughout Scriptures, it should be remembered that the system was never perfect, or perfectly fair. Regardless, today’s total acceptance of the taking of interest on loans and debts should be tempered with a firm knowledge that the modern world is far from the Hebrew financial traditions of yesteryear. In reality, usury is against the laws of God and today’s believers still need to know this, rather than slipping away into some sort of anti-religious socialist ideals of the recent past. Here is a summary of the relevant Biblical passages when it comes to charging interest:

If you lend money to any of my people who are poor, do not act like a moneylender and require him to pay interest.

– Exodus 22:25

Do not make them pay interest on the money you lend them.

– Leviticus 25:37

When you lend money or food or anything else to Israelites, do not charge them interest.

– Deuteronomy 23:19

My brothers, my servants, and I are lending money and grain to the poor, but we must stop charging them interest.

– Nehemiah 5:10

[He] who lends money to the poor without interest; who does not accept a bribe against the innocent. Whoever does these things will never be shaken.

– Psalm 15:5

He lends money on interest and takes increase; will he live? He will not live! He has committed all these abominations. He will surely be put to death; his blood will be on his own head.

– Ezekiel 18:13

According the the Jewish prophets, the perfect, righteous man was one who, regardless of wealth or prestige, remained staunch in their refusal to practice usury of any kind, even to the smallest degree. Honesty, integrity, holiness, and the ban on the taking of interest, went together just as Moses, indeed, just as God Himself, had originally commanded. Two separate passages of Ezekiel sums this attitude up:

He doesn’t lend money for profit. He refuses to do evil and gives an honest decision in any dispute.

– Ezekiel 18:8

He refuses to do evil and doesn’t lend money for profit. He keeps my laws and obeys my commands.

– Ezekiel 18:17

 

Scriptural Finance

Sound business advice includes the imperative to avoid poverty at all costs and to never be a borrower, but always a lender. As Solomon intoned, in the Book of Proverbs, ‘Poor people are slaves of the rich. Borrow money and you are the lender’s slave.’ (Proverbs 22:7) Also, one needed to be wary of those who might have the power to refuse to pay back any loans. This makes sense because many lenders would not ever pay back their loans, if they could actually get away with it without any penalties. This is the way of the world and lenders would be wise to heed this advice. The Bible writes as follows:

He will…bless all your work, so that you will lend to many nations, but you will not have to borrow from any.

– Deuteronomy 28:12

You should not lend anything to someone more powerful than you. If you do, you might as well consider it lost.

– Sirach 8:12

The people of Israel were repeatedly commanded by God to remain obedient to His laws and to be wary of any nation which was more financially powerful and who might even try lending money to Israel. As the LORD God warns advisedly, ‘They will have money to lend you, but you will have none to lend them. In the end they will be your rulers.’ (Deuteronomy 28:44) If one is absolutely forced to borrow any money at all, the following rule should be applied:

When you are in debt, pay it back as soon as you can.

– Sirach 29:1-2

The Old Testament also warns against being greedy when it comes to the collection of collateral on any loan. Lenders are advised to be less cautious and to trust that those who borrow money will, in fact, pay it back. The general idea is for those with money to not be so quick to demand collateral and to accept less, all the while giving more to others. The Bible reads:

When you lend someone something, you are not to take as security his millstones used for grinding his grain. This would take away the family’s means of preparing food to stay alive.

– Deuteronomy 24:6

When you lend someone something, do not go into his house to get the garment he is going to give you as security.

– Deuteronomy 24:10

In several different places, the Bible advises those who have the money to freely lend it out to those who need it. The Gospels state: ‘When someone wants to borrow something, lend it to him.’ (Matthew 5:42) This includes friends, neighbors, and the poor. Scriptures also promises those who lend without interest that the LORD God Himself will reward them for their good deeds. The reward for their generosity will not only come in this life, but also in the next. Besides, lending at no interest is something the LORD God wants his followers to do. The pertinent passages can be read as follows:

Be kind enough to lend to your neighbor when he needs help. You are keeping the LORD’s commands if you help him. If he needs something, lend it to him.

– Sirach 29:1-2

Good will come to those who are generous and lend freely, who conduct their affairs with justice.

– Psalm 112:5

Whoever is kind to the poor lends to the LORD, and He will reward them for what they have done.

– Proverbs 19:17

When you give to the poor, it is like lending to the LORD, and the LORD will pay you back.

– Proverbs 19:17

In terms of freely lending to those in need at no interest, Jesus Christ goes even further. He recommends to lenders that they should give their money out to people who may never pay it back, This practice of basically giving money away for free should be done in order to ensure a blessing from the LORD God. This is because even the wicked will lend at no interest in order to secure some form of future gain if possible. Jesus Christ advised the following:

Do good and lend, expecting nothing in return and your reward will be great.

– Luke 6:35

 

The End of Usury?

Unlike the Pagan nations, and their laws, the Jews continued in their tradition of refusing to charge interest on loans, at least amongst themselves, long after the Second Temple of Jerusalem had fallen to the Roman military, scattering the remaining Jews throughout the Empire. The general rules, as stated in the Babylonian Talmud, were as follows:

The general principle of usury is: All payment for waiting for one’s money is forbidden.

– Babylonian Talmud, Nezikin I, Baba Mezi’a 63b

Lenders on interest are compared to shedders of blood.

– Babylonian Talmud, Kodashim III, Temurah 6b

After the religion of Christianity managed to take over the Pagan traditions of the Greco-Roman economic system both slavery and usury were abolished due to the growing influence of the Christian Churches who saw themselves as the New Israel where all men were brothers in Christ and equal before God. Like the religious authorities of ancient Israel had done many centuries before, the Church hierarchy soon banned the taking of interest throughout Christendom. The policy of Jesus Christ was just like that of Moses when it came to the practice of usury:

If you lend only to those from whom you hope to get it back, why should you receive a blessing? Even sinners lend to sinners to get back the same amount!

– Luke 6:34

After awhile, Jews were allowed to lend money to Christians at interest for purposes of economic necessity. Eventually, the Church lost control over the financial laws of the various Christian kingdoms and the taking of interest, a distinctly Pagan, anti-Jewish, anti-Christian practice, was again legal throughout the Western world of Christianity. This may not have been a good thing, or the only way to modern prosperity. Perhaps someday, mankind will recognize the sheer genius and inherent goodness of the Biblical laws which prohibited usury among fellow religious believers. Indeed, it may still be a possibility to have a capitalistic system not based upon money and interest, but re-established upon the ancient laws of the one, true God once again.

The Good News about Barack Obama’s Understated Christian Faith.

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

They say a Picture is worth a thousand words. Hopefully, this picture says to everyone in America at least five all-important words- ‘Barack Obama is a Christian‘. Without acknowledging this undeniable fact, the other 9,995 words do not matter in the least.

The Good News about Barack Obama, an American Christian President

The following quotes from Christian President Barack Obama were taken during an interview conducted by Cathleen Falsani, a Chicago Sun-Times reporter, in 2004 when the possibility of him being elected President four years later would have been unthinkable. In the interview, Barack Obama’s public honesty towards his Christian faith was far more pronounced than today in the year 2011. This is mainly because the Republican opposition’s mockery and ridicule of his authentic and learned form of Christian faith has paid off with the American voters, many of whom are so delusional that they ignorantly believe him to be the anti-Christ and/or a secret Muslim lying about his Christian faith. Those who even pay attention to such an absurd, baseless claim need a serious reality check. For example, no true Muslim believer would ever dare to say something even remotely similar to the following quote:

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And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

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As the following excerpts will show, this pre-Presidential interview goes far in proving that President Obama’s adherence to Christianity is very informed and directly based upon the teachings of Rabbi joshua (Jesus) as recorded in the Gospels. Here is a direct comparison of Barack Obama’s actual remarks and the relevant New Testament passage which clearly shows his authentic Christian faith to be just as rooted in Scriptures as any Republican believer, including ex-President George W. Bush. These comparisons also suggest that the ugly, vile attacks and brutal questioning of his religious beliefs since he became President has very little to do with the Bible and is most likely a subtle form of white racism in disguise.

THE OBAMA: (In Chicago’s) South Side working class and lower income communities…it was in those places where I think what had been more of an intellectual view of religion deepened…I became much more familiar with the ongoing tradition of the historic black church and it’s importance in the community. And the power of that culture to give people strength in very difficult circumstances, and the power of that church to give people courage against great odds. And it moved me deeply.
THE GOSPELS: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven….Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied…Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great. (Matthew 5:4-12)

THE OBAMA: But my mother was deeply spiritual person…her view always was that underlying these religions were a common set of beliefs about how you treat other people and how you aspire to act, not just for yourself but also for the greater good.
THE GOSPELS: In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.(Matthew 7:12)

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Jesus Christ is the LORD. I believe in that.

– President Barack Obama, September 26, 2011

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THE OBAMA: I probably didn’t get started getting active in church activities until I moved to Chicago…one of the churches that I became involved in was Trinity United Church of Christ. And the pastor there, Jeremiah Wright, became a good friend. So I joined that church and committed myself to Christ in that church. It was a daytime service, during a daytime service. And it was a powerful moment. Because, it was powerful for me because it not only confirmed my faith, it not only gave shape to my faith, but I think, also, allowed me to connect the work I had been pursuing with my faith.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John…Jesus replied, ‘Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.’ Then John consented. As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, ‘This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.’ (Matthew 3:13-17)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith. So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition.
THE GOSPELS: “Have faith in God,” Jesus answered. “Truly I tell you, if anyone says to this mountain, ‘Go, throw yourself into the sea,’ and does not doubt in their heart but believes that what they say will happen, it will be done for them.” (Mark 11:22-23)

THE OBAMA: There are values that transcend race or culture, that move us forward, and there’s an obligation for all of us individually as well as collectively to take responsibility to make those values lived.
THE GOSPELS: Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and teach them to obey everything I have commanded. And I will be with you always, to the end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20)

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I am a Christian by choice…I came to MY CHRISTIAN FAITH later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that would want to lead.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

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THE OBAMA: I retain from my childhood and my experiences growing up a suspicion of dogma. And I’m not somebody who is always comfortable with language that implies I’ve got a monopoly on the truth, or that my faith is automatically transferable to others.
THE GOSPELS: Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, ‘You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant.’ (Mark 10:42-43)

THE OBAMA: I’m a big believer in tolerance. I think that religion at it’s best comes with a big dose of doubt. I’m suspicious of too much certainty in the pursuit of understanding just because I think people are limited in their understanding.
THE GOSPELS: (Jesus) said, “Woe to you lawyers as well! For you weigh men down with burdens hard to bear, while you yourselves will not even touch the burdens with one of your fingers.’ (Luke 11:46)

THE OBAMA: I think that, particularly as somebody who’s now in the public realm and is a student of what brings people together and what drives them apart, there’s an enormous amount of damage done around the world in the name of religion and certainty.
THE GOSPEL: Again I say to you, that if two of you agree on earth about anything that they may ask, it shall be done for them by My Father who is in Heaven. For where two or three have gathered together in My name, I am there in their midst. (Matthew 18:19-20)

THE OBAMA: Jesus is an historical figure for me, and he’s also a bridge between God and man, in the Christian faith, and one that I think is powerful precisely because he serves as that means of us reaching something higher.
THE GOSPELS: Jesus answered, ‘I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.’ (John 14:6)

THE OBAMA: And he’s also a wonderful teacher. I think it’s important for all of us, of whatever faith, to have teachers in the flesh and also teachers in history.
THE GOSPELS: The student is not above the teacher, nor a servant above his master. It is enough for students to be like their teachers, and servants like their masters. (Matthew 10:23-25)

THE OBAMA: Some of the things I talked about…are channeled through my Christian faith and a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.
THE GOSPELS: He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me. He who sees Me sees the One who sent Me. I have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. (John 12:44-46)

THE OBAMA: Alongside my own deep personal faith, I am a follower, as well, of our civic religion. I am a big believer in the separation of church and state…I am a great admirer of our founding charter, and its resolve to prevent theocracies from forming, and its resolve to prevent disruptive strains of fundamentalism from taking root ion this country. As I said before, in my own public policy, I’m very suspicious of religious certainty expressing itself in politics.
THE GOSPELS: Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. (Matthew 22:21)

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(The story of Jesus’ birth) that we are called to love each other as we love ourselves, that we are our brother’s keeper and our sister’s keeper, and our destinies are linked…It’s a message that guides MY CHRISTIAN FAITH.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

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THE OBAMA: I can give religious expression to that. I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, we are all children of God. Or I can express it in secular terms. But the basic premise remains the same. I think sometimes Democrats have made the mistake of shying away from a conversation about values for fear that they sacrifice the important value of tolerance. And I don’t think those two things are mutually exclusive.
THE GOSPELS: So Jesus was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, ‘If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.’ (John 8:31-32)

THE OBAMA: I think that I am disturbed by, let me put it this way: I think there is an enormous danger on the part of public figures to rationalize or justify their actions by claiming God’s mandate.
THE GOSPELS: Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows’ houses, and for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you will receive greater condemnation. (Matthew 23:14)

THE OBAMA: This is something that I’m sure I’d have serious debates with my fellow Christians about. I think that the difficult thing about any religion, including Christianity, is that at some level there is a call to evangelize and proselytize. There’s the belief, certainly in some quarters, that people haven’t embraced Jesus Christ as their personal savior that they’re going to Hell.
THE GOSPELS: Go throughout the whole world and preach the gospel to all people. (Mark 16:15)

THE OBAMA: I find it hard to believe that my God would consign four-fifths of the world to hell…I can’t imagine that my God would allow some little Hindu kid in India who never interacts with the Christian faith to somehow burn for all eternity…That’s just not part of my religious makeup.
THE GOSPELS: See that you do not despise one of these little ones. For I tell you that their angels in Heaven always see the face of my Father in Heaven. (Matthew 18:14)

THE OBAMA: When I tuck my daughters in at night and I feel like I’ve been a good father to them, and I see in them that I am transferring values that I got from my mother and that they’re kind people and that they’re honest people and that they’re curious people, that’s a little piece of Heaven.
THE GOSPELS: If anyone causes one of these little ones-those who believe in me-to stumble, it would be better for them to have a large millstone hung around their neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea. (Matthew 18:6)

THE OBAMA: I am a Christian. So, I have a deep faith. So I draw from the Christian faith…So, I’m rooted in the Christian tradition. I believe that there are many paths to the same place.
THE GOSPELS: John said unto him, ‘Teacher, we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followed not us.’ But Jesus said, ‘Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. For he that is not against us is for us.’ (Mark 9:38-40)

THE OBAMA: And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.
THE GOSPELS: Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:17-20)

As can be seen, the Christian beliefs and doctrines of President Barack Obama all have direct parallels with the written words of the Gospels. This not only shows that Obama truly has read his Bible, but has also applied it to his politics and private life in many different ways. Growing up in an essentially non-religions household with a broken family, Barack Obama once was lost, but quite obviously has been found by the Grace of the LORD Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ).

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo/Christian Tradition.

Judaism – The Exile and Return of Reform Judaism

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

– Zechariah 10:3-4

The Exile and Return of Reform Judaism

I once was lost, but now am found, was blind, but now I see. T’was Grace that taught my heart to fear and Grace, my fears relieved. How precious did that Grace appear the hour I first believed…When we’ve been here ten thousand years bright shining as the sun. We’ve no less days to sing God’s praise than when we’ve first begun.

– Amazing Grace, a famous Christian Gospel song

Like Christianity, Judaism is a multi-denominational religion with three major branches: Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism. For many different reasons, the practice of Conservative and Reform Judaism is mainly found in North America, most especially the United States. In Israel, South and Central, and certain parts of Europe, the vast majority of Jews either practice, or belong to Synagogues affiliated with Orthodox Judaism. The basic history of these denominations starts in Germany where the first official break with Orthodox Judaism began in the early to mid-19th century. To many traditional Jews, especially the devout Rabbis, this movement, known as Reform Judaism, was considered an outright rebellion and little more than a blatant effort to please and cater to the Protestant Gentiles who ruled both Germany and German society. This movement, which had been expected to spread out to the Jewish communities found in other nations, met with little to no success in England, France and throughout Eastern Europe. With the sole exception of Germany, the Jewish diaspora overwhelmingly rejected the Reform Jewish movement and continued to look to the Orthodox Jewish establishment for religious guidance.

However, the growing population of Jews living in the United States, funded and sponsored by a certain number of very wealthy German-American Jews, found Reform Judaism to be a perfect way to blend into American society and finally find acceptance among the Gentiles after centuries of isolation and persecutions. Quite a bit of the success of Reform Judaism was due to the weakness and lack of influence the Orthodox Jewish authorities had in the United States. Nevertheless, the underlying religious doctrines of the original 19th century Reform Jewish movement were considered to be too non-traditional and militantly secular by a growing.number of God-fearing American Jews. To counter some of the radical changes in religious beliefs sought by the leaders of Reform Judaism, the Conservative Jewish denomination was formed and became quite successful throughout America. Thus the three branches of Judaism can be seen as follows:

Orthodox Judaism: Practiced throughout the world, especially in Israel and the United States

Conservative Judaism: Only practiced in the United States of America

Reform Judaism: Only practiced in Germany and the United States

Some observers both Jew and Christian, have had mixed feelings about Reform Judaism. Unfortunately, there seems to be a lack of understanding about the original Reform Judaism as practiced and understood iu the 19th century compared to the official doctrines of 21st century Reform Judaism. In short, there has been an almost complete reversal in the actual religious tenets of the Reform Jewish movement, especially here in the United States. As to be expected, Reform Judaism in today’s Germany is basically extinct and practiced by a dwindling number of German Jews, most of whom being those who returned to Germany after the Nazis were defeated in World War II. Basically, the surviving elements of Reform Judaism have completely reversed themselves on a great number of fundamental religious beliefs and practices. This can be seen in the following manner:- The official Jewish doctrines of Divine Revelation, Divine Judgment, Divine Miracles, and Divine Redemption were officially denied by the Reform Jewish authorities in 1843 (Germany) and 1885 (USA) and then re-affirmed in 1776 and 1997.

– Nearly all the religious beliefs, traditions, and practices of Orthodox Judaism were completely rejected and abolished by Reform Judaism. This included complete denial of the ordained Rabbinical authority, the rules and laws of the Talmud, the binding, eternal nature of the Mosaic laws and commandments including kosher food restrictions and Sabbath day observance.

Put bluntly, the official statements of 19th century Reform Judaism were little different from that of secular humanism, which completely rejected the
Bible as the ‘Word of God’ and claimed it had no meaning outside of its historical value. Read carefully, the Reform Jewish movement had little, to no, faith in the LORD God of Israel, who was considered a tribal myth created by primtive people who didn’t know any better. Like many liberal Protestant Gentile intellectuals, both in Germany and America, Reform Judaism basically saw itself as a progressive force forcing humanity towards a universal and global spirituality that knew no particular religious faith other than reason alone. Their typical attitude towards religion, including Judaism, can be seen from the following quote:
Rabbi W. Gunther Plaut writes “there is no such thing as a Jewish theological principle, policy, or doctrine.” This is because Reform Judaism affirms “the fundamental principle of Liberalism: that the individual will approach (Jewish law)…in the spirit of freedom and choice. Traditionally Israel started with…the commandment engraved upon the Tablets, which then became freedom. The Reform Jew starts with..the freedom to decide what will be…ngraved upon the personal Tablets of his life.”
– Contemporary Reform Jewish Thought. Edited by Bernard Martin. Quadrangle Books (1968)

While little known to the vast majority of Biblical believers, including some Jews, the radical rejection of Judaism, as seen in their official 19th century statements, have evolved back into a far more appreciative, and fraditional, view of Judaism as a unique, even supernatural revelation of God’s will. Ironically, the Reform Jewish documents of 1843 and 1885 seem to be completely contradictory to the statements made in 1937, 1976 and 1997. Indeed, the Reform Jews of yesteryear, who adamantly opposed and ignored the call to resettle the Holy Lands, have now become the American Zionists of today. Reform Judaism initial rebellion against ancient Jewish religious practices and traditions have given way to an affectionate and encouraging attitude that seeks to have all Jews practice their religion on a daily basis and look to Israel for theological and spiritual guidance. Indeed, the Reform Judaism of the 21st century looks much like the Prodigal Son, who met with little success after leaving his and his family behind, only to be welcomed back home with happiness and love that their son had returned. What follows is a collection of passage from the following official document of Reform Judaism. They reveal a clear evolution from 19th century agnosticism, and even atheism, back to an authentically Judeo-Christian 21st century monotheism that bodes well for the future of all Judaism and the Jewish people.

The Denials and Rejections of 19th Century Reform Judaism

(Frankfurt Society of Friends of Reform , Declaration of Principles, 1843)

(Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

 

 

 

The Affirmations and Acceptances of 21st Century Reform Judaism

(The Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism “The Columbus Platform” – 1937)

(Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

(Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform “The Miami Platform” – 1997)

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The Official Denials of 19th Century Reform Judaism

Denial of Divine Revelation: ‘We recognize in every religion an attempt to grasp the Infinite, and in every mode, source or book of revelation held sacred in any religious system the consciousness of the indwelling of God in man.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Denial of Divine Judgement: ‘We reject as ideas not rooted in Judaism, the beliefs both in bodily resurrection and in Gehenna and Eden (Hell and Paradise) as abodes for everlasting punishment and reward.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Denial of Divine Miracles: ‘Modern discoveries of scientific researches in the domain of nature and history are not antagonistic to the doctrines of Judaism, the Bible reflecting the primitive ideas of its own age, and at times clothing its conception of divine Providence and Justice dealing with men in miraculous narratives.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Denial of Divine Redemption: ‘A Messiah who is to lead back the Israelites to the land of Palestine is neither expected or desired by us; we know no fatherland except that which we belong by birth or by citizenship.’ (Frankfurt Society of Friends of Reform , Declaration of Principles, 1843)

Denial of Eternal Law: ‘We recognize in the Mosaic legislation…only its moral laws, and maintain only such ceremonies as elevate and sanctify our lives, but reject all such as are not adapted to the views and habits of modern civilization.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Denial of Moral Standards:‘We hold that Judaism presents the highest conception of the God-idea…developed and spiritualized by the Jewish teachers, in accordance with the moral and philosophical progress of their respective ages.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

The Official Rejections of 19th Century Reform Judaism

Rejection of Orthodox Judaism: ‘We recognize the possibility of unlimited development in the Mosaic religion.’ (Frankfurt Society of Friends of Reform , Declaration of Principles, 1843)

Rejection of Talmudic Authority: ‘The collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or practical standpoint.’ (Frankfurt Society of Friends of Reform , Declaration of Principles, 1843)

Rejection of Kosher Diet: ‘We hold that all such Mosaic and rabbinical laws as regulate diet, priestly purity, and dress originated in ages and under the influence of ideas entirely foreign to our present mental and spiritual state. They fail to impress the modern Jew with a spirit of priestly holiness; their observance in our days is apt rather to obstruct than to further modern spiritual elevation.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Rejection of Rabbinical Holiness: ‘We hold that all such Mosaic and rabbinical laws as regulate diet, priestly purity, and dress originated in ages and under the influence of ideas entirely foreign to our present mental and spiritual state. They fail to impress the modern Jew with a spirit of priestly holiness; their observance in our days is apt rather to obstruct than to further modern spiritual elevation.’   (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Rejection of Zionism: ‘We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

Rejection of Mt. Sinai Covenant:‘We recognize in Judaism a progressive religion, ever striving to be in accord with the postulates of reason…We acknowledge that the spirit of broad humanity of our age is our ally in the fulfillment of our mission, and therefore we extend the hand of fellowship to all who cooperate with us in the establishment of the reign of truth and righteousness among men.’ (Declaration of Principles “The Pittsburgh Platform” – 1885)

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The Official Affirmations of 21st Century Judaism

Affirmation of Divine Revelation: We believe that the eternal covenant established at Sinai ordained a unique religious purpose for Am Yisrael. Medinat Yisrael , the Jewish State, is therefore unlike all other states. Its obligation is to strive towards the attainment of the Jewish people’s highest moral ideals to be a mamlechet kohanim (a kingdom of priests), a goy kadosh (a holy people), and l’or goyim (a light unto the nations). (Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform “The Miami Platform” – 1997)

Affirmation of Divine Judgment: ‘The people of Israel is unique because of its involvement with God and its resulting perception of the human condition. Throughout our long history our people has been inseparable from its religion with its messianic hope that humanity will be redeemed.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Affirmation of Divine Miracles: ‘We ground our lives, personally and communally, on God’s reality and remain open to new experiences and conceptions of the Divine. Amid the mystery we call life, we affirm that human beings, created in God’s image, share in God’s eternality despite the mystery we call death.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Affirmation of Divine Redemption: ‘While that day of redemption remains but a distant yearning, we express the fervent hope that Medinat Yisrael, living in peace with its neighbors, will hasten the redemption of Am Yisrael, and the fulfillment of our messianic dream of universal peace under the sovereignty of God…When God restores the fortunes of Zion we shall be like dreamers. Our mouths will fill with laughter and our tongues with songs of joy. Then shall they say among the nations God has done great things for them. ‘ (Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform “The Miami Platform” – 1997)

Affirmation of Eternal Law: ‘Torah results from the relationship between God and the Jewish people. The records of our earliest confrontations are uniquely important to us.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Affirmation of Moral Standards: ‘In Judaism religion and morality blend into an indissoluble unity. Seeking God means to strive after holiness, righteousness and goodness. The love of God is incomplete without the love of one’s fellowmen. Judaism emphasizes the kinship of the human race, the sanctity and worth of human life and personality and the right of the individual to freedom and to the pursuit of his chosen vocation. justice to all, irrespective of race, sect or class, is the inalienable right and the inescapable obligation of all. The state and organized government exist in order to further these ends.’ (The Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism “The Columbus Platform” – 1937)

The Official Acceptances of 21st Century Reform Judaism

Acceptance of Orthodox Judaism: ‘Jewish life is marked by consecration to these ideals of Judaism. It calls for faithful participation in the life of the Jewish community as it finds expression in home, synagogue and school and in all other agencies that enrich Jewish life and promote its welfare. The Home has been and must continue to be a stronghold of Jewish life, hallowed by the spirit of love and reverence, by moral discipline and religious observance and worship. The Synagogue is the oldest and most democratic institution in Jewish life. It is the prime communal agency by which Judaism is fostered and preserved. It links the Jews of each community and unites them with all Israel. The perpetuation of Judaism as a living force depends upon religious knowledge and upon the Education of each new generation in our rich cultural and spiritual heritage.’ (The Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism “The Columbus Platform” – 1937)

Acceptance of Talmudic Authority: ‘Rabbis and teachers, philosophers and mystics, gifted Jews in every age amplified the Torah tradition. For millennia, the creation of Torah has not ceased.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Acceptance of Kosher Diet: ‘The past century has taught us that the claims made upon us may begin with our ethical obligations but they extend to many other aspects of Jewish living, including: creating a Jewish home centered on family devotion: lifelong study; private prayer and public worship; daily religious observance.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Acceptance of Rabbinical Holiness: ‘Lawgivers and prophets, historians and poets gave us a heritage whose study is a religious imperative and whose practice is our chief means to holiness.’ (Reform Judaism: A Centenary Perspective Adopted in San Francisco – 1976)

Acceptance of Zionism: ‘The restoration of Am Yisrael to its ancestral homeland after nearly two thousand years of statelessness and powerlessness represents an historic triumph of the Jewish people, providing a physical refuge, the possibility of religious and cultural renewal on its own soil, and the realization of God’s promise to Abraham: “to your offspring I assign this land” .,,To help promote the security of Medinat Yisrael and ensure the welfare of its citizens, we pledge continued political support and financial assistance…we resolve to implement educational programs and religious practices that reflect and reinforce the bond between Reform Judaism and Zionism.’ (Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform “The Miami Platform” – 1997)

Acceptance of Mt. Sinai Covenant:‘We believe that the eternal covenant established at Sinai ordained a unique religious purpose for Am Yisrael. Medinat Yisrael , the Jewish State, is therefore unlike all other states. Its obligation is to strive towards the attainment of the Jewish people’s highest moral ideals to be a mamlechet kohanim [a kingdom of priests], a goy kadosh [a holy people], and l’or goyim [a light unto the nations].’ (Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform “The Miami Platform” – 1997)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses.

The Judeo-Christian – Comparing the Talmud and the Gospels

Yet again, the Talmud and the Gospels appear as one and the same text, strongly implying that Joshua (Jesus in Greek), the lanky carpenter from the ‘certain Galilean’ countryside, studied with the best student Pharisees of His day. Embittered by their arrogant dismissal of his lowly pious father and mother, Joseph and Mary, this outsider Rabbi rebel with a cause has still managed to bring the greatest teachings of the Talmud to Gentiles throughout the world.
TALMUD: God has a seal, and His seal is truth. (Deuteronomy Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: He who has received His testimony has set his seal to this, that God is true. (John 3:33)

TALMUD: If you sit in judgment and you find one of the litigants anxious to verify his statement by taking an oath, have suspicion against that individual. (Leviticus Rabba 6)
GOSPEL: ‘Woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.’ And Judas, who was betraying Him, said, ‘Surely it is not I, Rabbi?’ Jesus said to him, ‘You have said it yourself.’ (Matthew 26:24-25)

The Joshua Talmud
TALMUD: Consider the immeasurable distance from us of what we know as God’s dwelling-place, the Heavens; yet how near He is to us when we call upon Him. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: Truly I tell you, whatever you bind on Earth will be bound in Heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth will be loosed in Heaven. (Matthew 18:18)

TALMUD: Heaven and Earth wept at the death of Moses. (Deuteronomy Rabba 11)
GOSPEL: It was now about noon, and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, for the sun stopped shining. And the curtain of the Temple was torn in two. Jesus called out with a loud voice, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.’ When He had said this, He breathed His last. (Luke 23:44-46)

TALMUD: If you sit in judgment and you find one of the litigants anxious to verify his statement by taking an oath, have suspicion against that individual. (Leviticus Rabba 6)
GOSPEL: Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not break your oath, but fulfill to the Lord the vows you have made.’ But I tell you, do not swear an oath at all, either by Heaven, for it is God’s throne, or by the Earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. (Matthew 5:33-35)

TALMUD: God has a seal, and his seal is truth. (Deuteronomy Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: He who has received His testimony has set his seal to this, that God is true. For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for He gives the Spirit without measure. (John 3:33-34)

TALMUD: Heaven and Earth wept at the death of Moses. (Deuteronomy Rabba 11)
GOSPEL: For truly I tell you, until Heaven and Earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law (of Moses) until everything is accomplished. (Matthew 5:18)

The Talmud’s Classical Format

TALMUD: Justice is one of the supports of God’s throne. (Deuteronomy Rabba 5)
GOSPEL: Woe to you Pharisees, because you give God a tenth of your mint, rue and all other kinds of garden herbs, but you neglect justice and the love of God. You should have practiced the latter without leaving the former undone. (Luke 11:42)

TALMUD: One of the reasons why Moses called upon Heaven and Earth as witnesses (Deuteronomy 33) is that by them the Torah was given (Deuteronomy 4). (Deuteronomy Rabba 10)
GOSPEL: For truly I tell you, until Heaven and Earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law (of Moses) until everything is accomplished. (Matthew 5:18)

TALMUD: If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: Jesus said, ‘Watch out for the teachers of the law. They like to walk around in flowing robes and be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, and have the most important seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets.’ (Mark 12:38-39)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ He that proclaims the absolute unity of God proclaims the kingdom of Heaven. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate. (Mark 10:7-9)

TALMUD: Death is designed for man from time immemorial. When the hour of man’s departure hence arrives, nothing will save him from it. (Talmud, Tanchum. Voeschanan)
GOSPEL: And who of you by being worried can add a single hour to his life? (Matthew 6:27)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: Jesus went around teaching from village to village. Calling the Twelve to him, he began to send them out two by two and gave them authority over impure spirits. (Mark 6:7)

An Age-Old Talmud

TALMUD: If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: When he noticed how the guests picked the places of honor at the table, he told them this parable: ‘When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for a person more distinguished than you may have been invited.’ (Luke 14:7-8)

TALMUD: If you want a vine to flourish it should be replanted on another soil. God replanted his vine, Israel, from Egypt to Palestine, and it became famous. (Exodus Rabba 44)
GOSPEL: When they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. ‘Get up,’ he said, ‘take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him.’ So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: ‘Out of Egypt I called my son.’ (Matthew 2:13-15)

TALMUD If you are a man of distinction and entitled to a prominent seat at an assembly, seat yourself, nevertheless, two or three seats lower, for it is better to be told ‘Go up,’ than to be asked to ‘go down.’ Hillel was apt to say, ‘If I condescend I am exalted, but if I am haughty I am degraded.’ (Leviticus Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: When he noticed how the guests picked the places of honor at the table, he told them this parable: “When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor, for a person more distinguished than you may have been invited. If so, the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this person your seat.’ Then, humiliated, you will have to take the least important place. But when you are invited, take the lowest place, so that when your host comes, he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up to a better place.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all the other guests. For all those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.” (Luke 14:7-11)

TALMUD: ‘I have created somethings in pairs,’ says God, ‘such as Heaven and Earth, the sun and the moon, Adam and Eve, male and female in all animals, this life and the future life; but I am One.’ (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: After this the LORD (Jesus) appointed seventy-two others and sent them two by two ahead of him to every town and place where he was about to go. (Luke 10:1)

Old Preface to the Talmud

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Jewish, Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Bibles

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Judeo-Christian Bible – Tanakh, the Bible of Judaism

Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh

And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

The Facts about the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible
– The Jewish Bible is commonly known as the Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ”ךְ‎, pronounced also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach). It is a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible consisting of 24 separate books. The Tanakh has also been known as the Masoretic Text or the Miqra.
– The name ‘Miqra’ (מקרא), meaning ‘that which is read’, is a traditional alternative Hebrew term for the Tanakh.
– The word ‘Tanakh’ is, in fact, an acronym created from the first few Hebrew letters of the Masoretic Text’s three traditional subdivisions: The Torah (‘Teaching’, also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi’im (‘Prophets’) and Ketuvim (‘Writings’). When the Hebrew letters for Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim are combined together they become the word TaNaKh, thus the name Tanakh stands for the whole Jewish Bible.
– Thus, the offiical Bible of Judaism, the Tanakh, has 3 distinct sections which can be seen as follows:

The Tanakh (Ta = Torah, Na = Nevi’im, Kh = Ketuvim)
Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)

– The exact number of 24 books is mentioned in Midrash Koheleth 12:12.
– The 2st century book called ‘Against Apion’, by th Jewish historian Josephus lists only 22 sacred books of the Jewish Bible. In response to this discrepancy (22 versus 24 books), some scholars and researchers ‘have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah; as St. Jerome noted in the 4th century AD. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical.’
– According to Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. In stark contrast to Christian Bibles, the Tanakh counts as a single book each Book of Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah and it also considers the Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar) as one book.
– The Tanakh is the Hebrew name for the 24 Books of the Old Testament which, in both English and Hebrew, include the following:

1) Genesis (Bereshith), 2) Exodus (Shemot), 3) Leviticus (Vayikra), 4) Numbers (Bamidbar), 5) Deuteronomy (Devarim), 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets including Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi, 14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)

15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 16) Job (איוב/Iyov), 17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 18) Ruth (רות/Rut), 19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 21) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– What has usually been called ‘The Book of Twelve Prophets’, a singular text situated as the 13th book in the Tanakh, includes all of the following Christian books: Book of Hosea, Book of Joel, Book of Amos, Book of Obadiah, Book of Jonah, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Zephaniah, Book of Haggai, Book of Zechariah, and Book of Malachi

The Law (Torah)
1) Genesis (Bereshith)
2) Exodus (Shemot)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim)

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (Trei Asar/תרי עשר)

The Writings (Ketuvim)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

– Judaism believes that the books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were relayed with an accompanying oral tradition passed on by each generation, called the Oral Torah.
– According to the Talmud, most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the ‘Men of the Great Assembly’ by 450 BCE, and have since remained unchanged. Modern scholars tend to assume that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BC and 200 AD
– The tradition of dividing the Tanakh into 3 sections is well-documented all the way back to the Second Temple period. Even so, the word ‘Tanakh’ a three-part acronym representing Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim, wasn’t used back then, Instead the Bible of Judaism was called Mikra, meaning ‘reading’ or ‘that which is read’ in Hebrew. As one source notes: ‘Mikra continues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Jewish scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew both are used interchangeably.’
– According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a), most of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei K’nesset HaGedolah), a task completed in 450 BCE. The Bible of Judaism has remained unchanged since that date.
– Other scholars state that the ‘evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE. A popular position is that the Torah was canonized circa 400 BCE, the Prophets circa 200 BCE, and the Writings circa 100 CE, perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia. This position, however, is increasingly criticised by modern scholars.’
– A few scholars believe that the entire Jewish canon of the Bible was, in fact, decided upon after the Maccabees defeated the Greeks and regained their religious independence sometime during the subsequent Hasmonean royal dyasty in 140-37 BC.
– Formal finalization of the canon has often been ascribed to Rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. One researcher Heinrich Graetz has concluded that the 24 Books of the Tanakh were officially canonized ‘at a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew), some time in the period 70-90 CE.’
– Even so, there are still different Rabbinical texts dating from later on which ‘seem to indicate that certain books were disputed as accepted canon (such as Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Esther, called the Antilegomena), but it may not necessarily be the case.’ The Talmud, which was written soon after the destruction of the Second Temple, still disagrees with these various writings strongly implying ‘that the books themselves were already accepted canon, but may have been misunderstood on philosophical or ecclesiastical grounds. The Talmud eliminates this misunderstanding.’
– The Hebrew text was originally written with just consonants, having very few, if any applied vowel letters. This made it extremely difficult to learn or to actually study and read. Then, in the early part of the Middle Ages, a group of scholars known as the Masoretes created a single system of pronunciation and vocatization, making the entire text far easier to learn and read.  During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization.
– The major force behind the Masoretes was a man named Aaron ben Moses ben Asher who helped to establish the Tiberias school of reading and pronouncing the Tanakh. Because of its mysterious origins, some Orthodox Jews ‘believe the pronunciation and cantillation derive from the revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses.’ In short, the ability to understand the multi-layered meaning of Scriptures is heavily dependent on this system. One sources put it bluntly: ‘The combination of a text (מקרא mikra), pronunciation (ניקוד niqqud) and cantillation (טעמים te`amim) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text.’

Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh

The Facts about Section 1- The Law, or Teaching (Torah)
– The 1st section of the Tanank called the Law, or ‘Teaching’ (תּוֹרָה/Torah) consists of 5 books, commonly referred to as the ‘Five Books of Moses’ or Pentateuch. Printed copies of the Torah are often called Chamisha Chumshei Torah or simply, a Chumash.
– In Hebrew language, the five books of the Torah are identified using the first prominent word which has been written at the beginning of each book. Thus, the actual names of the Torah books has nothing, or little, to do with the book’s entire contents. This is quite different from the English names for them which originate from the Greek words originally given to the books in the Septuagint. These Greek words attempted to describe or summarize the book’s contents.
– According to Rabbinic tradition the five books of the Torah were all written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy which describe his death. The past 200-300 years of modern research has changed this assumption so that now ‘the majority of scholars agree that the Pentateuch does not have a single author, and that its composition took place over centuries.’
– In short, the Torah consists of the following five books:

The Law (Torah)
1. Bereshith – Genesis (Bereshith)
2. Shemot – Exodus (Shemot)
3. Vayikra – Leviticus  (Vayikra)
4. Bamidbar – Numbers   (Bamidbar)
5. Devarim – Deuteronomy (Devarim)

Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh-Tanakh

The Facts about Section 2- The Prophets (Nevi’im)
– The 2nd section of the Tanakh, called the Prophets (Nevi’im) has 8 books. They include: 6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua), 7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim), 8) Samuel I/II (שמואל/Sh’muel), 9) Kings I/II (מלכים/M’lakhim), 10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu), 11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu), 12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel), 13) The Twelve Prophets named Hosea/Joel/Amos/Obadiah/Jonah/Micah/Nahum/Habakkuk/Zephaniah/Haggai/Zechariah/Malachi
– This section covers the time period from the beginning of the Israelite settling of the Holy Lands (Israel) up until the time of the destruction of the First Temple, the Temple of Solomon, and the subsequent Babylonian captivity. This era is known as the ‘period of prophecy’
– The Prophets section are also sometimes divided into two parts called the Earlier Prophets and Later Prophets.
– The Prophets contain 8 Books according to Judaism. These same Books total 21 in the Christian Old Testament. The reason why is because Samuel I and II are counted as one book, as is Kings I and II. The single Book of the Twelve Prophets, known as the minor prophets, becomes 12 separate Christian Books of hte Old Testament.
– The Prophets (Nevi’im), which are the 6th through 13th Books in the Tanakh, can be listed as follows:

The Prophets (Nevi’im)
6) Joshua (יהושע/Y’hoshua)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu)
2) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)

Contents of the Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar)
I. Hosea (הושע/Hoshea)
II. Joel (יואל/Yo’el)
III. Amos (עמוס/Amos)
IV. Obadiah (עובדיה/Ovadyah)
V. Jonah (יונה/Yonah)
VI. Micah (מיכה/Mikhah)
VII. Nahum (נחום/Nakhum)
VIII. Habakkuk (חבקוק/Havakuk)
IX. Zephaniah (צפניה/Ts’phanyah)
X. Haggai (חגי/Khagai)
XI. Zechariah (זכריה/Z’kharyah)
XII. Malachi (מלאכי/Mal’akhi)

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The Facts about Section 3- The Writings (Ketuvim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim), the third and final section of the Tanakh, which consists of 11 books, is also known as the ‘Hagiographa’, a Greek word,
– The 4th through 8th Book, in the third section of the Tanakh called the Writings, are traditionally knows as the Five Scrolls (Megillot). They are as follows: I. Song of Songs, II. Ruth, III. Lamentations, IV. Ecclesiastes, V. Esther
– Sometimes the Writings (Ketuvim) are divided in the following manner: I. The Books of Truth (Psalms, Proverbs, Job), II. The Books of Widsom (Job, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs) III. The Books of Poetry (Psalms, Lamentations, Song of Songs), and IV. The Books of History (Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles I/II)
– Because of differences in organization, these 11 Jewish books of the Writings (Ketuvim) equal 13 Books of the Christian Old Testament. This is because in Judaism, Chronicles I and II, along with Ezra and Nehemiah, are counted as one book each.
– The 3 Books of Truth are also known in Hebrew as Sifrei Emet (ספרי אמת, literally “Books of Truth”)
– The exact ordering and names of the Writings, both in Hebrew and English, can be seen as follows: 1) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
2) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei), 3) Job (איוב/Iyov), 4) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim), 5) Ruth (רות/Rut), 6) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah), 7) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet), 8) Esther (אסתר/Esther), 9) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el), 10) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia), 11) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)
– The Writings (Ketuvim) which are the 14th throuth 21st Books in the Tanakh can also be divided into 3 distinct sections, they can be listed in the following manner:

The Books of Truth (Sifrei Emet)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov)

The Five Scrolls (Megilot)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther)

The Rest of the Writings
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim)

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Some Additional Facts about the Tanakh
– Like the Christian Bible, the original Jewish Bible had no chapters or verses. They eventually adopted the same basic system used by Christianity, but even today, ‘chapter divisions and verse numbers have no significance in the Jewish tradition. Nevertheless, they are noted in all modern editions of the Tanakh so that verses may be located and cited.’
– Some Tanakhs even note the ‘division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into parts I and II is also indicated on each page of those books in order to prevent confusion.’
– The inclusion of numbered chapters, and then later verses, in the Jewish Bible ‘began in the late Middle Ages in Spain, partially in the context of forced clerical debates which took place against a background of harsh persecution and of the Spanish Inquisition (the debates required a common system for citing biblical texts).’
– Because of this ugly history of conflict with Christianity, Judaism does not rely so heavily upon the numbered chapter and verse format. Indeed, as one source notes: ‘From the standpoint of the Jewish textual tradition, the chapter divisions are not only a foreign feature with no basis in the mesorah, but are also open to severe criticism of three kinds:..Nevertheless, because they proved useful for citations, they are often included in most Hebrew editions of the biblical books.’
– In older versions of the Jewish Bible, the Christian-based chapter and verse numbers were featured very prominently on each page. In the past fifty years or so, things have changed and there is now a ‘major trend towards minimizing the impact and prominence of the chapter and verse numbers on the printed page. Most editions accomplish this by removing them from the text itself and relegating them to the margins of the page.’
– The only significant difference in the numbering system between Jewish and Chrisian Bibles occurs in 1 Chronicles. Other than that the numbered chapter and verse system typically coinicides between the two religions.
– For the most part, there are two main approaches to the study, analysis, and interpretation of the Tanakh. The traditional approach is to assume that the Bible has a Divine, supernatural, origin. The modern approach is to assume exactly the opposite, namely that the Tanakh is nothing more than the writings of man.
– Because more than a few professionals and professors of what is called Biblical Studies do not have any religious faith, their commentary and conclusions are often different from that of believers. As one source states: ‘Biblical criticism seems to contradict commitment to the idea that the Bible was written by prophets inspired by God. Indeed, this practice, when applied to the Torah, is generally considered heresy by the entire Orthodox Jewish community. As such, much modern day Bible commentary written by non-Orthodox authors is considered treif (forbidden) by rabbis teaching in Orthodox yeshivas.’
– Even so, numerous Rabbinical experts from the past such as Abraham Ign Ezra, Gersonides, and Maimonides still managed to use the same techniques of modern Biblical scholarship including in-depth historical and scientific analysis of the Bible. There is a crucial difference, however, between these classical Rabbis and modern experts. Put bluntly, the Rabbis from centuries past truly believed that ‘God revealed the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai.’ Many of the modern scholars do not.
– In the modern world of today, the two non-Orthodox branches of Judaism, called Conservative and Reform Judaism now tend to ‘accept the validity of both traditional and secular approaches to Bible studies.’

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A Brief Publishing History of the Tanakh
– The first ever printed Hebrew Chumash simply had Biblical text with Rashi on the page, and since then many editions have appeared.
– The first Masoretic Mikraot Gedolot was printed in 1524-1525 in Venice, edited by Daniel Bomberg. The Soncino edition was printed in 1527 in Venice. Many editions of Mikraot Gedolot have been made since then.
– Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica appeared in 1906 and was reprinted in 1913.
– The Leningrad Codex, an ancient version of the Tanakh still intact, was originally edite under Paul E. Kahle as the Biblia Hebraica (BHK) and was published in Stuttgart in 1937.
– The Leningrad codex was also used for Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) in 1977 and will continue to be used for Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ). The Leningrad Codex lists a different order for the books of the Ketuvim and has ‘also served as the basis for two important Jewish editions of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh).’
– Aharon Dotan’s Edition is viewed as the official Tanakh of the Israeli military which includes which was reprinted with ‘a concise commentary’. It has been updated recently as the ‘Codex Leningradensis’.
– The Koren Tanakh (Bible) Edition (1962) is considered the first edition in alomst 500 years that was ‘designed, edited, printed, and bound by Jews.’
– The Aleppo Codex Edition (1977) has been called  the ‘first edition to include a reconstruction of the letters, vowels, and cantillation marks in the missing parts of the Aleppo Codex.’
– Jerusalem Crown: The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Edition (2000) has been written and edited ‘according to the method of Mordechai Breuer under the supervision of Yosef Ofer’, two prominent Hebrew Bible scholars.

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the 24 Books of the Tanakh

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books. (Numbers Rabba 14)

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them. He must be meek, and even humble; every act of his life should testify to his worth, and withal if his hearers do not like his preaching he is to desist from it. (Midrash Songs 4)

There is no hard and fast rule as to any part with which books in Holy Writ should open. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Exact Sequence of the Tanakh

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Authors of the Tanakh

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job. Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch. Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth. David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. (Baba Bathra 15a)

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther. (Baba Bathra 15a)

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time. (Baba Bathra 15a)
This confirms the opinion of Rab, since Rab Judah has said, ‘Ezra did not leave Babylon to go up to Eretz Yisrael until he had written his own genealogy.’ Who then finished it the Book of Chronicles? – Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. (Baba Bathra 15a)

You say that Joshua wrote his book. But is it not written, And Joshua son of Nun the servant of the Lord died? – It was completed by Eleazar. But it is also written in it, And Eleazar the son of Aaron died?  – Phineas finished it. You say that Samuel wrote the book that bears his name. But is it not written in it, Now Samuel was dead?  – It was completed by Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet. You say that David wrote the Psalms, including work of the ten elders. Why is not Ethan the Ezrahite also reckoned with? – Ethan the Ezrahite is Abraham. The proof is that it is written in the Psalms, Ethan the Ezrahite, and it is written elsewhere, Who hath raised up righteousness from the East. (Baba Bathra 15a)

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 3)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Torah (First 5 Books of the Tanakh)

The Torah or knowledge increases, and the intellect becomes keener by proper study, and any difficult matter submitted to scholars will find solution; as a structure will be satisfactorily erected by skilful workmen each contributing his skill.–Mid. Songs 5.

In one sense there is an advantage in failing memory; if man’s memory did not fail, there would be no study of the Torah. (Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum. Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum. Vayakhail)

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it. (Tanchum. Devorim)

Torah borrows from righteousness, and righteousness from the Torah; all without charging any interest. Is man, and man only, not to extend a helping hand to his fellow-man without exacting usury for a kind act? (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was given in the wilderness, and like the wilderness it is free and open to all comers without formalities or introductions: all that wish to do so can enter into it. (Tanchum, Vayakhail)

Whilst the Torah teaches peace and goodwill to one’s fellow-man, it likewise teaches the necessity of standing up against evil deeds and even rebuking the evil-doer. Moreover, though all reverence and deference are due to one’s teacher, yet in the matter of censurable conduct it becomes the pupil’s duty to protest against it. Bad conduct is contaminating. One is apt to fall into the same error if one sees any evil act and does not lift up one’s voice to protest against it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah was to God, when He created the world, what the plan is to an architect when he erects a building. (Genesis Rabba 1)

There is a limit to everything except to the greatness and depth of the Torah. (Genesis Rabba 10)

You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to it. (Tanchum, Mishpotim)

The Torah is full of holy fire; it was written with a black fire upon a white fire. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

The Torah has meekness as its footgear, and the fear of God as its crown. Hence Moses was the proper person through whose hands it should be delivered; he was meek, and with the fear of the Lord he was crowned. (Tanchum, Bereshith)

You cannot expect to occupy yourself with the study of the Torah in the future world and receive the reward for so doing in this world, you are meant to make the Torah your own in this life, and to look for reward in the life to come.(Tanchum, Bereshith)

God consulted the Torah when about to create man, but the Torah was dubious about calling man into existence, for since his days would be so short and his ways so perverted he would require much forbearance. God’s reply was, ‘By thee (Torah) I declare myself as a God merciful, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and in truth.’ (Tanchum, Pekudai)

Ben Azai was in a deep study, and to those who passed him it seemed as if he was sitting in the midst of a flame. They told Rabbi Akiba of it, who went to him and asked him whether he was studying any mystery. ‘Not at all,’ said Ben Azai. ‘I was looking up the Pentateuch, the Prophets and the Hagiographa, and rejoiced over their contents as though I had been one of those who received the Torah at the foot of Sinai when God proclaimed His word in the midst of fire.’ (Midrash Songs 1)

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Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Prophets of the Tanakh

With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, viz. Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo. Once at the assembly of the wise men in Jericho they heard the echo proclaim, ‘There is one amongst you who is well worthy of the Holy Spirit, but alas the present generation is unworthy of it.’ They thought of Hillel the elder. At his death they lamented him with the words, ‘Oh that saintly man, that meek man, that pupil of Ezra.’ (Midrash Song of Songs 8)

All the prophets started with admonitions and ended with words of comfort. Jeremiah alone had no words of comfort to offer.(Midrash Psalms 4)

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles. Now on the view that Job lived in the days of Moses, should not the book of Job come first? We do not begin with a record of suffering. But Ruth also is a record of suffering?  – It is a suffering with a sequel of happiness, as R. Johanan said: Why was her name called Ruth? – Because there issued from her David who replenished the Holy One, blessed be He, with hymns and praises. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets. Let us examine this. Hosea came first, as it is written, ‘God spake first to Hosea.’ But did God speak first to Hosea? Were there not many prophets between Moses and Hosea? R. Johanan, however, has explained that what It means is that he was the first of the four prophets who prophesied at that period, namely: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos and Micah. Should not then Hosea come first? – Since his prophecy is written along with those of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, and Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the prophets, he is reckoned with them. But why should he not be written separately and placed first? – Since his book is so small, it might be lost if copied separately. (Baba Bathra 14b)

Let us see again. Isaiah was prior to Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Then why should not Isaiah be placed first? Because the Book of Kings ends with a record of destruction and Jeremiah speaks throughout of destruction and Ezekiel commences with destruction and ends with consolation and Isaiah is full of consolation; therefore we put destruction next to destruction and consolation next to consolation.,  (Baba Bathra 14b)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Psalms

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them. It is like a company of musicians who appear before a king, and are told: ‘Although you are, everyone of you, efficient in your art, yet I wish the one with the sweetest voice to sing before me.’ (Midrash Songs 4)

Traditional Jewish Quotes about the Book of Job

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses – The proof is that it is written here (in connection with Job), ‘O that my words were now written,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with Moses, ‘For wherein now shall it be known.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– But on that ground I might say that he was contemporary with Isaac, in connection with whom it is written, Who now is he that took venison?  (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Or I might say that he was contemporary with Jacob, in connection with whom it is written, If so now  do this? or with Joseph, in connection with whom it is written, ‘Where they are pasturing?’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

– The proof that Job was contemporary with Moses is that] it is written [in continuation of the above words of Job], Would that they were inscribed in a book, and it is Moses who is called ‘inscriber’, as it is written, ‘And he chose the first part for himself, for there was the lawgiver’s’ portion reserved. (Baba Bathra 15a)

– Raba said that Job was in the time of the spies. The proof is that it is written here in connection with Job, ‘There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name,’ and it is written elsewhere in connection with the spies, ‘Whether there be wood therein.’ Where is the parallel? In one place it is Uz, in the other EZ? – What Moses said to Israel was this: ‘See if that man is there whose years are as the years of a tree and who shelters his generation like a tree.’ (Baba Bathra 15a)

A certain Rabbi was sitting before R. Samuel b. Nahmani and in the course of his expositions remarked, Job never was and never existed, but is only a typical figure. He replied: To confute such as you the text says, There was a man in the land of Uz, Job was his name. But, he retorted, if that is so, what of the verse, The poor man had nothing save one poor ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up etc. Is that anything but a parable? So this too is a parable. If so, said the other, why are his name and the name of his town mentioned? (Baba Bathra 15a)

R. Johanan and R. Eleazar both stated that Job was among those who returned from the (Babylonian) Exile, and that his house of study was in Tiberias. An objection [to this view] was raised from the following: ‘The span of Job’s life was from the time that Israel entered Egypt till they left it.’  (Baba Bathra 15a)

Job was born when the Jews went down to Egypt; he married Dinah, Jacob’s daughter, and he died when the Israelites left Egypt.(Genesis Rabba 57)

Job probably never existed, and if he did exist, the events recorded concerning him never took place. The whole narrative is intended as a moral lesson.  (Genesis Rabba 57)

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The Bible of Judaism (Tanakh)
1) Genesis (Bereshith) – 1st Book of the Law (Torah)
2) Exodus (Shemot) – 2nd Book of the Law (Torah)
3) Leviticus (Vayikra) – 3rd Book of the Law (Torah)
4) Numbers (Bamidbar) – 4th Book of the Law (Torah)
5) Deuteronomy (Devarim) – 5th Book of the Law (Torah)
6) Joshua (Y’hoshua) – 1st Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
7) Judges (שופטים/Shophtim) – 2nd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
8) Samuel I/II (שמואל / Sh’muel) – 3rd Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
9) Kings (I & II) (מלכים/M’lakhim) – 4th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
10) Isaiah (ישעיה/Y’shayahu) – 5th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
11) Jeremiah (ירמיה/Yir’mi’yahu) – 6th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
12) Ezekiel (יחזקאל/Y’khezqel) — 7th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
13) The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר/Trei Asar) – 8th Book of the Prophets (Nevi’im)
14) Psalms (תהלים/Tehillim) – 1st Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
15) Proverbs (משלי/Mishlei) – 2nd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
16) Job (איוב/Iyov) – 3rd Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
17) Song of Songs (שיר השירים/Shir Hashirim) – 4th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
18) Ruth (רות/Rut) – 5th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
19) Lamentations (איכה/Eikhah) – 6th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
20) Ecclesiastes (קהלת/Kohelet) – 7th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
21) Esther (אסתר/Esther) – 8th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
22) Daniel (דניאל/Dani’el) – 9th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
23) Ezra/Nehemiah (עזרא ונחמיה/Ezra v’Nechemia) – 10th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)
24) Chronicles I/II (דברי הימים/Divrei Hayamim) – 11th Book of the Writings (Ketuvim)

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Samuel, St. Jeremiah, and St. Isaiah.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Strange, Unique, and Astounding Words and Deeds of the Holy Bible

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Some Strange and Astonishing Numbers of the Bible
– The King of Bashan was apparently so huge he had a bed measuring 13 and 1/2  feet long long and 6 feet wide. (Deutronomy 3:11)
– Absalom once had 6.5 pounds of actual hair removed during his annual haircut. (2 Samuel 14: 26)
– King Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines, and 12,000 horses. (1 Kings 11:1-3)
– An Army of 185,000 wound up being destroyed in a single night (Isaiah 37:36)
– Rehoboam was a father of 88 children. (2 Chronicles 11:21)
– King Zimri is said to have reigned for only 7 days. (I Kings 16:15)
– Methuselah, a son of Adam, lived to be 969 years old. (Genesis 5:27)
– Noah was 600 years old when he built the ark, and 950 years old when he died. (Genesis 7:6 and Genesis 9:29)
– Adam was 930 years old when he died. (Genesis 5:5)
– One man supposedly had 12 fingers and 12 toes. (2 Samuel 21:20)
– A Biblical army once consisted of 700 left-handed men. (Judges 20:16)

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Strange and Impossible Occurrences in the Bible
– A large group of men actually drank water like dogs. (Judges 7:5)
– A soaking wet sacrifice was then burnt through a supernatural occurrence. (1 Kings 18:17-40)
– A man named Balaam was once directly spoken to by a donkey. (Numbers 22:28-30)
– Women shaved their heads completely before getting married. (Deuteronomy 21:11-13)
– The once sun stood still for an entire day. (Joshua 10:13)
– One man increased his overall lifettime by 15 years simply with prayer. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– The sun is purported to have gone backward, from west to east. (Isaiah 38:8)
– A prostitute named Rachab truly was an actual ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:5)
– The Prophet Elijah once outran a chariot. (1 Kings 18:41-46)
– An axe head made of iron ended up floating on top of the water. (2 Kings 6:1-6)
– A desperate woman eventually boiled and ate her son  (2 Kings 6:29)
– The wicked Jezebel eventually had her body eaten by dogs. (2 Kings 9:30-36)
– Jacob once used a stone for a pillow. (Genesis 28:1)
– A baby named Zarah once had scarlet thread tied around her hand before birth. (Genesis 38:28-30)
– The Prophet Isaiah allegedly walked around naked for three years. (Isaiah 20:2-3)
– The Bible is described as being cut with a pen knife. (Jeremiah 36:20-2)
– John the Baptist supposedly ate only locusts and honey for food. (Mathew 3:4)
– A woman personally killed a man by driving a nail through his head. (Judges 4:17-21)
– Moses once caused a victory on the battlefield simply because he stretched out his hand (Exodus 17:11)
– The life of Hezekaih was increased by 15 years because he prayed. (Isaiah 38:1-5)
– Seven women once wanted and sought after the same man.  (Isaiah 4:1)
– Obviously dead, dry bones were then miraculously brought to life. (Ezekiel 37)
– God is described as having had a wash pot (Psalms 60:6-8)
– An ancient bottle of milk is also described. (Judges 4:19)
– Someone is reputed to have been the first left-handed man in history. (Judges 3:15)
– There are 2 men in the Bible who never died but were instead caught up into Heaven are Enoch, from Genesis, and Elisjah: 1) Enoch, who walked with God and was no more (Genesis 5:22-24), and 2) Elijah, who was caught up by a whirlwind into heaven (II Kings 2:11).
– In ancient Israel, men closed a deal by exchanging sandals. (Ruth 4:7)
– Once when Ezekiel was just sitting in his house alone, a gigantic hand suddenly picked him up by the hair of his head and took him somewhere between heaven and earth. (Ezekiel 8:3)

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The Biblical Roots of Odd and Original Phrases
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)

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+ The Biblical Origins of 10 Specific Phrases +

1) Spare the rod, spoil the child-

He who spares the rod hates his son, but he who loves him is careful to discipline him.

– Proverbs 13:24

2) By the sweat of your brow-

To Adam he said, Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. … By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

– Genesis 3:17,19

3) It is better to give than to receive-

In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’

– Acts. 20:35

4) A leopard cannot change its spots-

Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil

– Jeremiah 13:23

5) Money is the root of all evil-

For the love of money is a root of all sorts of evil, and some by longing for it have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.

– Timothy 6:10

6) Nothing new under the sun-

That which has been is that which will be, And that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun.

– Ecclesiastes 1:9

7) Let him who is without sin cast the first stone-

But when they persisted in asking Him, Jesus straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.’

– John 8:7

8) A Fly in the ointment-

Dead flies make a perfumer’s oil stink, so a little foolishness is weightier than wisdom and honor.

– Ecclesiastes 10:1

9) The Salt of the earth-

You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.

– Matthew 5:13

10) Being Used as a Scapegoat-

The goat on which the lot for the scapegoat fell shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make atonement upon it, to send it into the wilderness as the scapegoat.

– Leviticus 16:10

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Elijah.

Bible – The New Testament Basics

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The New Testament Basics +

The English Bible – a book which if everything else in our language should perish, would alone suffice to show the whole extent of its beauty and power.

– Julia Crawford

The Basic Aspects of the New Testament
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters totalling 27 different texts in all.
– The 4 Gospels are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
– The Four Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel is considered to be the only exception.
– In chronological order, the 27 Books of Christian New Testament (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant) are as follows: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts of Apostles, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. Nearly 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– Among confessions of faith drawn up by Protestants, several identify by name the 27-books of the New Testament canon, including the French Confession of Faith (1559), the Belgic Confession (1561), and the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647).
– The New Testament is mainly about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph, the Nazarene. Therefore the vast majority of the New Testament takes places from O BC to 33 AD, starting out with His birth in Bethlehem and ending with His crucifixion, death, and burial in Jerusalem 33 years later.
– Various passages which speak of Jesus Christ as God include John 1:1, John 20:28, Romans 9:5, Philippians 2:11, and Colossians 1:16.
– Other passages which speak of Jesus Christ as Man can be listed as follows: John 1:14, Luke 2:7, Luke 2:40, Luke 8:23, John 4:6 and Hebrews 4:15.
– The manuscript evidence for the New Testament is dramatic, with over 5,300 known copies and fragments in the original Greek, nearly 800 of which were copied before 1000 AD. Some manuscript texts date to the early second and third centuries, with the time between the original autographs and our earliest existing copies being a remarkably short 60 years. Interestingly, this manuscript evidence far surpasses the manuscript reliability of other ancient writings that we trust as authentic every day.
– The heroic saga known as ‘Iliad’, by Homer, still considered the most renowned book of ancient Greece, has 643 copies of manuscripts to prove itself the authentic writings of Homer. Even so, there are still 764 disputed lines of text which have yet to be determined as authentic. In comparison there are only 40 lines in all the New Testament manuscripts which remain subject to dispute.
– The supporting literature and commentary on the New Testament also provides a strong foundation of reliability as to its origins. If one tried to rewrite the entire text, even without having an actual copy of the New Testament, literally all of it, except eleven verses, ‘can be reconstructed from the writings of the early church fathers in the second and third centuries.’

The Basic Use of Names in the New Testament
– Jesus had many names including Immanuel, Alpha and Omega, Bright and Morning Star, Good Shepherd, I Am, King of Kings, Lamb of God, Master, Prince of Life, Root of Jesse. Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, and Prince of Peace (Revelation 1:11, 22:16, 19:16, John 10:14, 8:58, 1:29, 38, 15:1, Acts 3:15, Isaiah 11:10, 9:6).
– The names of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, as described in the Book of Revelation, are called Conquest, Slaughter, Famine, and Death.
– The names of the ‘Three Wise Men’ are known as Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar as these names were detailed in an early 6th century Greek manuscript.
– The various gifts of the ‘Three Wise Men’ were as follows: Melchoir (means king of light) offered Gold; Gaspar (means the white one) offered Frankincense (Frankincense is a gum resin used as a base for incense); and Balthazar (means lord of treasures) offered Myrrh (Myrrh is a gum resin, was valued as a perfume and unguent used in embalming).
– Although it is written nowhere to be found in the New Testament, the two robbers crucified next to Jesus were named Dismas and Gestas.

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What can I do with respect to the next world without my Bible?

– John Bacon

The Basic Timeline of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins writing his 13 Letters
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrews
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing his 13 Letters
90 A.D. – John writes the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3 Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation

NOTE: The 13 Letter of Paul are Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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+ The Basic Gospels, Books, and Letters of the New Testament+

The Traditional Names of the 4 New Testament Gospels
1) The Gospel According to St. Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to St. Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to St. John

The Traditional Names of the 2 New Testament Books
1) The Book of Acts of the Apostles, 2) The Book of Revelation of St. John

The Traditional Names of the 21 New Testament Letters
1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) Letter to Titus, 13) Letter to Philemon, 14) Letter to the Hebrews, 15) Letter of James, 16) 1st Letter of Peter, 17) 2nd Letter of Peter, 18) 1st Letter of John, 19) 2nd Letter of John, 20) 3rd Letter of John, 12) the Letter to Jude.

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+ The Basic Authorship of the New Testament +

The English Bible has been a greater influence in the course of English literature than all other forces put together. It is impossible to read standard authors intelligently without knowing something about the Bible, for they all assume familiarity with it on the point of their readers…….to any young man or woman, eaten with ambition to become a writer, I shall advise first of all, KNOW THE BIBLE.

– William Lyon Phelps, Prof. of English Literature at Yale University

The Basic Facts about the Authors of the New Testament
– The 27 Books of the New Testament were all written by only  8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude
– These 8 individual New Testament authors, along with the names of the various 27 books they are responsible for writing, can be seen as follows: 1) Matthew = Gospel of Matthew,  2) Mark = Gospel of Mark, 3)  Luke = Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts,  4) John = Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation, 5) James = Letter of James, 6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 7) St. Jude = Letter of Jude, 8) St. Paul = Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
– Some of the traditional names given to the 8 New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark), Luke the Physician (Luke), John the Disciple that Jesus loved (John), Paul (Saul) of Tarsus (Paul), Peter of the Twelve (Peter), James, the brother of Jesus (James), Jude, the brother of James (Jude)
– John, Paul, and Luke are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters). The can be represented in the following manner:

The 3 Primary Authors of the New Testament (20 Books)
1) John (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters): Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
2) Paul (13 Letters): Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
3) Luke (2 Books): Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

– Only two, out of the eight New Testament authors, namely St. Peter and St. Matthew, were ever considered to be actual Apostles, a group of Twelve men previously chosen by Rabbi Joshua ben Joseph (Rabbi Jesus, the Nazarene) to carry on in His name and to serve as the chosen leaders of His growing religious movement.The other six authors were seen instead as Disciples, a name given to a much larger, constantly expanding, circle of followers and associates who had chosen Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) as their LORD and Savior.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

I Thoroughly believe in a University education for both men and women, but I believe a knowledge of the Bible without a college education is more valuable that a college education without the Bible.

– William Lyon Phelps

The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

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Jesus loves me – this I know, For the Bible tells me so.

– Anna Bartlett Warner

The Basic Organization of the New Testament
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– In chronological order, the New Testament of the Christian Bible, including all Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Bibles, consists of the following 27 different Books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The Book of Acts, usually seen as a Historical book, was written by Luke, the same author who wrote the Gospel of Luke.
– The Book of Revelation, written by St. John of Patmos, is a terrifying series of prophetic visions as personally experienced by St. John, the author. Because of this, the Book is categorized as Apocalyptic. This book has also been called the Apocalypse of John.
– Most scholars, including the Roman Catholic Church itself, believe that the prophecy of the Beast, and anti-Chrsit, has already been fulfilled many centuries ago. Thus, the actual identity of the infamous Beast, whose number is 666, was non other than Caesar Nero, the Emperor of Rome.
– The 4 Gospels are all first person narratives about the life and death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (0-33 AD), Three of them are commonly known as the Synoptic Gospels because of the vast similarity in content. The Gospel of John is considered to be the only exception to the other three.
– Luke, one of the Gospel authors was also a medical doctor. (Colossians 4:14)
– The 21 Letters, can be further divided into two basic groups, commonly known as the 13 Pauline Letters, and the 7 General, or Catholic, Letters. The last letter, Letter to the Hebrews, is the only New Testament Book with an unknown author.
– Overall, these 21 Letters, as they are written in the New Testament, include the following: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon, 14) Hebrews, 15) James, 16) 1 Peter, 17) 2 Peter, 18) 1 John, 19) 2 John, 20) 3 John, 21) Jude.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon,
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, the General Epistles, or Catholic Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude

The Basic Organization of the New Testament Letters
– As described previously, they 21 Letters of the New Testament have always been categorized into two main groups called the 13 Letters of Paul and 7 Catholic Letters of the New Testament.
– The 13 Letters authored by Paul are traditionally known as the Pauline Letters, or Pauline Epistles. They are as follows: 1) Romans, 2) 1 Corinthians, 3) 2 Corinthians, 4) Galatians, 5) Ephesians, 6) Philippians, 7) Colossians, 8) 1 Thessalonians, 9) 2 Thessalonians, 10) 1 Timothy, 11) 2 Timothy, 12) Titus, 13) Philemon
– The other 7 Letters, not including Hebrews, have usually been referred to as the Catholic Letters, Catholic Epistles, or the General Epistles. They can be listed as follows: 1) James, 2) 1st Peter, 3) 2nd Peter, 4) 1st John, 5) 2nd John, 6) 3rd John, 7) Jude
– In brief, the Seven Catholic Letters (General Epistles) of the New Testament are as follows: 1) James, 2) I Peter, 3) II Peter, 4), I John, 5) II John, 6) III John, and 7) Jude
– The 2 letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– The General epistles, or Catholic Epistles, are individual books of the New Testament in the form of letters.
– Traditional full length names and titles of these letters are: the Epistle of James, First Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle of Peter, First Epistle of John, Second Epistle of John, Third Epistle of John, Epistle of James, Epistle of Jude
– These Letters have been called ‘general’ because for the most part, their intended audience seems to be Christians in general rather than individual persons or congregations as is the case with the Pauline epistles.
– 2nd John and 3rd John are included as General Epistles despite the fact they are addressed to the ‘elect lady’, thought by many scholars to be the Church itself, and to ‘Gaius’, about whom there has been much speculation but little in the way of conclusive proof as to his actual identity.
– Even today, some scholars continue to question the actual authorship of these works. Some believe 2 Peter to be a pseudepigraphal work.
– The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to Jesus’ brothers James and Jude.
– The alleged author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years
– The Letter to the Hebrews has been deemed the work of an unknown author since the very beginning of Christianity. More than one Church Father declared that only God would ever know the actual identity of the author who wrote Hebrews. Even so, numerous theories and conjectures as to who really wrote it have been circulating throughout the Church for many centuries. Some believers have contended that St. Paul is the real author. A careful reading of the text, however, reveals that ‘the grammar and use of certain key Pauline terms is markedly different from the whole body of his identified (written) work.’ In other words, there is substantial linguistic evidence that someone else besides St. Paul wrote the Letter to the Hebrews.
– Considering the fact that quite a few Old Testament books were also wtitten by unknown authors, one could rightfully say that occasional anonymity is actually a key aspect of the overall Biblical (Judeo-Christian) tradition. In other words, it may well be considered an authenticlly Hebrew tradition to include anonymous sacred writings into Scriptures. As one source puts it bluntly, ‘Most of the writings in the Old Testaments are authored by anonymous Israelites, and in many cases it is not known whether they were compiled by individuals or groups.’ Thus, the anonymous nature of the Letter to the Hebrews is nothing new to the the Bible or to the religions of Judaism and Christianity
– The Syrian Orthodox Peshitta, ‘excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch).’ Even today, the educational program for this particular Eastern Christian Sect: ‘presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.’
– The Third Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.

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0 A.D. – The Birth of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)
33 A.D. – The Death of Rabbi Joshua the Messiah (Jesus Christ)

The Basic Dates, Books, and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

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The Basic Chronological List of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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The Basic Conclusions about the New Testament

1) The Gospel of Matthew was probably written by the Apostle Matthew in the year 55 A.D. or later

2) The Gospel of Mark was probably written by the Disciple Mark in the year 50 A.D. or later

3) The Gospel of Luke was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 60 A.D. or later

4) The Gospel of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

5) The Book of Acts was probably written by the Disciple Luke in the year 65 A.D. or later

6) The Letter to the Romans was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D.or later

9) The Letter to the Galatians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

10) The Letter to the Ephesians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

11) The Letter to the Philippians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

12) The Letter to the Colossians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians was probably  written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

15) The 1st Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

17) The Letter to Titus was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

18) The Letter to Philemon was probably written by the Disciple Paul in the years 50-70 A.D. or later

19) The Letter to the Hebrews was probably written by an unknown author in the year 65 A,D. or later

20) The Letter of James was probably written by the Disciple James in the year 45 A.D. or later

21) The 1st Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

22) The 2nd Letter of Peter was probably written by the Apostle Peter in the year 60 A.D. or later

23) The 1st Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

24) The 2nd Letter of John was written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

25) The 3rd Letter of John was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

26) The Letter of Jude was probably written by the Disciple Jude in the year 60 A.D. or later

27) The Book of Revelation was probably written by the Disciple John in the year 90 A.D. or later

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Jude

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

+ The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity +

God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim

A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b

– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’

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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah): This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:

Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)
1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)
6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)
14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles

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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

The Bible of Christianity
– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi
– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament

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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

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The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi

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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 2nd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 3rd Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

100 B.C. – 4th Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Paul.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Bible – Words, Facts, Figures, Statistics, Numbers, Versions, Translations, History and Languages of the Bible

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Books, Chapters, Verses, and Words of the Bible
Authors: over 40 individuals
Translations: over 1,200 languages
Books: 66 in Protestant Bible, 73 in Catholic Bible, 81 in Eastern Orhodox Bible
Chapters:1,189
Verses: 31,071
Words: 783,137
Letters: 3,566,480
Longest Book: Psalms (150 chapters)
Longest Chapter: Psalm 119 (176 verses)
Longest Verse: Esther 8:9 (78 words)
Shortest Book: 3 John
Shortest Chapter (by number of words): Psalm 117 (by number of words)
Shortest Verse: John 11:35 is 2 words- ‘Jesus wept’
Middle Books: Micah and Nahum
Middle Chapter: Psalm 117
Middle Verse: Psalm 118:8
The word ‘God’: appears 3,358 times
The word ‘LORD’: appears: 7,736 times

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, Author of the Latin Vulgate Bible

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Facts and Figures of the Bible
~ The Bible was compiled over the course of some 1,500 years (from 1400 B.C to A.D. 100), spanning 40 generations, and includes the writings of over 40 different individual authors.
~ In terms of exact numbers, the Bible represents the work at least 40 different authors, in about 20 occupations, living in 10 countries spanning about 6,000 miles.
~ In terms of content, the Bible features ‘a cast of 2,930 different characters,’ while the number of different locations include at least ‘1,551 geographical sites mentioned as scenes of the action.’
~ The Bible contains every conceivable subject included in every literary form (poetry, prose, romance, mystery, biography, science, history, etc).
~ One source summarizes the Biblical authors as a group of God-fearing men ‘from many walks of life (kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars), in different places (wilderness, dungeon, palaces), at different times (war, peace), in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair), on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe), in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)’
~ The Bible has been translated into at least 1,000 languages, along with many more partial translations.
~ The English translation of the Bible contains around 3,566,480 letters, 773,746 words, 31,102 verses 1,189 chapters, and 66 books.
~ The contents of the Bible has remained basically unchanged since the earliest days of the Christian Church. The Old Testameny continues to be based upon the older version of Scriptures, called the Hebrew Bible, which has been used by Judaism for over 4,000 years.  Here are the exact words of one of the earliest Church councils naming the exact contents of the Biblical Old Testament by name:

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

+ The Council of Carthage, III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

~ Other Ancient Church Lists of the same 46 Old Testament Books and Additions include: Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397),  Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408), The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419) and the Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 33)
~ In addition, the Christian New Testament contains the exact same number of books (27) and contents (4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters) regardless of Christian denomination.

The Bible is more than a Book. It is a living being with an action, a power which invades everything that opposes its extension.

– Napoleon Bonaparte

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Numbers and Statistics of the Bible
~ Starting somewhere aroud 1,400 B.C., it took over 40 individuals writing over the course of 40 different generations (1,500 years) to complete the Bible.
~ The standard Judeo-Christian Old Testament contains 17 books of history, 5 books of poetry, and 17 books of prophecy.
~ In the original languages which they were written, the Judeo-Christian Bible uses over 8,674 different Hebrew words and 5,624 different Greek words.
~ The basic 66 books of the Judeo-Christian Bible contain 1189 chapters composed of 31,071 different verses with a total of 783,137 words.
~ The most popular English-language version of the Judeo-Christian Bible, known as the King James Version, contains 12,143 different English words
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has been translated into over 2,000 languages
~ The longest Book is the Book of Psalms (Old Testament) and the shortest is 2 John (New Testament)
~ The longest Biblical verse is Esther 8:9 and the shortest is John 11:35
~ The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 and the shortest verse in the Bible is John 11:35
~ The longest Biblical chapter is Psalm 119 and the shortest is Psalm 117
~ The Judeo-Christian Bible has over 1,189 chapters with 929 Old Testament Chapters and 260 New Testament chapters
~ The word ‘God’ is mentioned 3,358 different times, while the word ‘LORD’ is used on 7,736 separate occasions
~ It has been estimated that the Judeo-Christian Bible can be read out loud in just 70 hours time.
~ The Bible was the first book to ever be printed in the year 1454
~ Miles Coverdale published the first English translation of the entire Bible in 1535
~ Neither the Book of Solomon or the Book is Esther contains a single reference to either God or the LORD God

The Bible is a Book in comparison with which all others in my eyes are of minor importance; and in all my perplexities and distresses has never failed to give me light and strength.

– Robert E. Lee

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Versions and Translations of the Bible
~ The Bible is the most translated book in the world. It has been translated into more different languages and dialects than any other book that has been written.
~ There are now more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated.
~ The Bible, in whole or in part, is now available in more than 1,100 different languages and dialects.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts.
~ Translations such as the King James Version are derived from existing copies of ancient manuscripts such as the Hebrew Masoretic Text (Old Testament) and the Greek Textus Receptus (New Testament), and are not translations of texts translated from other interpretations.
~ Bible translations have been made into 2,454 languages, with various portions of the Bible in 848 languages, one of the two Testaments in 1,168 languages, and the full Bible in 438 languages
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages, with countless more partial translations, and audio translations (for unwritten languages).
~ How many Versions of the Bible are there? There are more than 80,000 versions of the Bible. New versions of the Bible continue to be added or updated. Popular English versions include the American Standard, Jerusalem and King James versions.

It’s impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible.

– George Washington, Former President of the United States (1789-1797)

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Publishing and Sales of the Bible
~ The Bible is the worlds best seller ever, and the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.
~ The estimated number of total Bibles ever sold equal 2.5 Billion to 6 Billion copies
~ The Bible is the best-selling book of all time. The United Bible Societies (UBS) estimate they have distributed nearly 9 billion Bibles, whole or in part, since 1947.
~ The Bible is not only the best selling book of all time but the best selling book each year.
~ About 50 Bibles are sold every minute.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ In 1989, the American Bible Societies (ABS) distributed more than 106,387,551 Scripture portions in the United States alone. During the same year, a worldwide partnership of Bible Societies distributed well over 650 million Scripture portions and about 15.5 million Bibles.
~ According to a recent U.B.S. report, Bible portions are available in 2,123 languages, the complete Bible, in 349 languages, and the New Testament in 841 languages. In 1995, they distributed 565 million Bibles and Bible portions to 200 countries.
~ The Bible is, some calculate, a $200 million-a-year retail market in the United States. According to a recent national survey concluded in US, the average American home had four bibles and almost all U.S. homes had at least one or more. Most Americans still prefer the King James Version (KJV).
~ According to statistics gathered from Wycliffe International, the Society of Gideons, and the International Bible Society, the number of new Bibles that are sold, given away, or otherwise distributed in the United States is about 168,000 per day.

Believe me, Sir, never a night goes by be I ever so tired but I read the word of God before I go to bed.

– Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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History and Language of the Bible
~ The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of St. Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries.
~ Some common Catholic translations, which are still read and published even today, are the Douay-Rheims, Catholic Confraternity Version, New American and Revised Standard Version Bibles. Of these, the Douay-Rheims is the earliest, translated from Latin in 1609. Each type also has one or more editions.
~ The first attempted translations of the Bible took place in the 7th Century. The translations weren’t precise, more paraphrases of the original texts. The copies were known as ‘Manuscript Bibles’ and few have survived. It wasn’t until the 13th Century, that John Wycliffe first translated the Bible more accurately into easy English.
~ The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in the 1380’s by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor and theologian. Wycliffe, with the help of his followers, called the Lollards, and his assistant Purvey, and many other faithful scribes, managed to produce dozens of English language manuscript copies of the scriptures. They were translated out of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only source text available to Wycliffe. The Pope was so infuriated by his teachings and his translation of the Bible into English, that 44 years after Wycliffe had died, he ordered the bones to be dug-up, crushed, and scattered in the river.
~ The Bible was the world’s first printed book, and was first reprinted in 1450.
~ The Gutenberg Bible is the official name of the first book that Johannes Gutenberg printed in 1454. It is thought that he printed about 180 copies, known as the 42-line Bible, of which significant parts of 48 copies still survive. Gutenberg did not make any printing errors.
~ One English translator of the Bible named Tyndale was actually strangled and burned at the stake in 1536 by order of the Catholic Church. The authorities opposed the translation of the Bible because they feared loss of power but also because they thought that ordinary people would not be able to cope with the apparent contradictions.
~ The ‘Placemakers’ Bible was the second edition of the Geneva Bible, published in 1562. It has been given the name the ‘Placemakers’ Bible because it printed: ‘Blessed are the placemakers’ instead of ‘peacemakers’ in Matthew 5:9.
~ In the year 1603, James IV of Scotland then became King James I of England. He initiated a series of  procedures aimed at creating peace between the hostile English religious faction. One of them was to commission the creation of a high-quality English language Bible.
~ The King James Version of the Bible was first published in 1611. Even today, it is considered to be the best Bible avoilable in the English language.
~ The ‘Wicked’ Bible refers to a 1631 edition of the King James Bible. In Exodus 20 verse 14, the word ‘not’ was left out. This changed the 7th commandment to read, ‘Thou shalt commit adultery.’ Most of the copies were recalled immediately and destroyed on the orders of Charles I. But there are 11 copies still remaining. They are known as the ‘Wicked’ Bible. The Bible museum in Branson, Missouri, has one copy of the ‘Wicked Bible. Needless to say, the printer was fined heavily for his mistake.
~ In 1663, the first Bible was printed in North America, even though it happened to be written in a native Algonquin Indian Language which had been specially translated and published by John Eliot, the ‘Apostle to the Indians’.
~ The Thumb Bible, printed in 1670, was one inch square and half an inch thick. It could be read only with a magnifying glass.
~ The ‘Sin On’ Bible refers to a famous mistake in the 1716 King James Version. Apparently, John 8:11 should have read: ‘Go, and sin no more.’ However, the printer accidentally inverted the “n’ and the ‘o’ in the word ‘on,’ so it read, ‘Go and sin on more.’
~ The ‘Fool’ Bible is a term for a mistake in the printing of the 1763 King James Version. The publisher responsible for the error was ordered to pay £3,000 for his inadvertent printer’s mistake which he made in Psalm 14:1. There he printed: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is a God,’ instead of: ‘the fool hath said in his heart there is no God.’ As soon as this error was spotted all copies of this Bible were suppressed.
~ The first English language Bible printed in the United States occurred in 1782.
~ The record for the world’s slowest selling book belongs to David Wilkin’s translation of the New Testament into Coptic. Since it was first published in 1791 it has never sold more than 2 copies a year.
~ The first translation of the Bible created in America was printed in 1808 by a man name Charles Thomson.
~ Little known to most people, Noah Webster. famous author and editor of ‘Webster’s Dictionary’ and the ‘Blue-Back Speller’ also wrote a translation of the Bible first published in 1833.
~ The Revised Version of the whole Bible was issued in 1885.
~ The American Standard Version was first published in 1901.

The Bible is the word of God. It is the most valuable gift God ever given to mankind. The Bible is my best friend and my best partner.

– Mother Theresa

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Some Interesting Facts about the Bible

~ No other book in the world has been attacked more frequently and more fiercely than the Bible, yet no other book has printed more copies, in more languages, and endured for so long, with great popularity, than the Bible.
~ The Bible has been translated in whole or in part into more than 2,000 language.
~ The Bible contains 773,746 words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters and 66 books.
~ In terms of length, the average word of the Bible contains fewer than five letters.

~ The longest book in the Bible is Psalms and the shortest is 2 John, while the Longest Biblical name is spelled Mahershalalhashbaz (Isaiah 8:1)
~ In total, the Bible describes 1,260 promises being made, 6,468 commands being given, and 3,294 questions being asked.
~ The Bible lists over 8,000 predictions, with 3,268 verses of fulfilled prophecies and 3,140 verses of unfulfilled prophecies.
~ The system of chapters was introduced in A.D. 1238 by Cardinal Hugo de S. Caro, while the verse numberings were added in 1551 by Robertus Stephanus, after the invention of modern printing.
~ The Bible was formally divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250. The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.
~ In the earliest days of English Christianity the only Bible available for study was the Latin Vulgate, written by Jerome between 383 and 405 A.D. Because it was written in Latin, rather than English, this version of the Bible could only be read by the Catholic clergy.
~ The first copy of the Guttenberg Bible (printed on a printing press) took 3 years of constant printing to produce, being finished in 1445. Printed in 2 volumes, and totalling 1,284 pages, the final results included Nearly 200 originals being completely printed and remarkably perfect. 48 of these original printings still exist today.
~ The Holy Bible has been translated into 2,018 languages…In comparison, Shakespeare, considered by many to be the master writer of the English language, has only been translated into 50 languages.
~ The Bible has been recorded with at least 10 different media from papyrus to rocks, pen to chisel, leather to clay.
~ The average person can read the entire Bible in about seventy hours reading time. If one reads three chapters per day and five on Sundays, they will finish the whole Bible in about one year. About fourteen chapters per day will usually result in reading the entire Bible in three months.
~ The average time it takes to read the following books is as follows: Revelation = 34 minutes, Luke = 85 minutes and Philemon = just 1 minute.
~ The Bible is the number one shoplifted book in America.
~ The longest intercontinental telegram ever sent was the entire text of the New International Version of the Bible which was sent from Geneva, Switzerland, where it was translated, to New York for printing.
~ A Bible located at the University of Gottingen is written on 2,470 palm leaves.
~ In 1988, on the 1,000th anniversary of the baptism of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, the Soviet Union, in an agreement with the UBS (United Bible Society), received hundreds of thousands of Bibles.

Until people see the Bible as a practical guidebook for their everyday existence, it will probably continue to remain on the shelf.

– George Barna

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian Tradition

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

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A Brief Look at the Traditional Titles of the New Testament
1) The Gospel According to Matthew
2) The Gospel According to Mark
3) The Gospel According to Luke
4) The Gospel According to John
5) The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
6) The Letter to the Romans
7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians
8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians
9) The Letter to the Galatians
10) The Letter to the Ephesians
11) The Letter to the Philippians
12) The Letter to the Colossians
13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians
14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians
15) The 1st Letter to Timothy
16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy
17) The Letter to Titus
18) The Letter to Philemon
19) The Letter to the Hebrews
20) The Letter of James
21) The 1st Letter of Peter
22) The 2nd Letter of Peter
23) The 1st Letter of John
24) The 2nd Letter of John
25) The 3rd Letter of John
26) The Letter of Jude
27) The Book of Revelation

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A Brief Synopsis of the 8 Authors of the New Testament
1) Matthew: Gospel of Matthew
2) Mark: Gospel of Mark
3) Luke: Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts
4) John: Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
5) James: Letter of James
6) Peter: 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
7) Jude: Letter of Jude
8) Paul: Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon

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A Brief Set of Facts about the New Testament
– The New Testament is a unique set of sacred writings, divided into 27 Books, that was added to the Old Testament almost 2,000 years ago to create the Holy Bible, the primary source document for the religion called Christianity.
– Every Known sect of Christianity, including the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches accept and recognize the same 27 Books as the official version of the New Testament.
– The Canon of the New Testament, consisting of the same 27 Books listed above, has remained unchanged for nearly 2,000 years. –
– The first official lists of these books were published at the Council of Nicea and at the Council of Carthage.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament have exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The  4 Gospels of the New Testament include: 1) The Gospel of Matthew, 2) The Gospel of Mark, 3) The Gospel of Luke, and 4) The Gospel of John.
– The 2 Books of the New Testament are commonly known as: 1) The Book of Acts and 2) The Book of Revelation.
– The 21 Letters of the New Testament can be listed as follows:  1) The Letter to the Romans, 2) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 3) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 4) The Letter to the Galatians, 5) The Letter to the Ephesians, 6) The Letter to the Philippians, 7) The Letter to the Colossians, 8) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 9) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 10 ) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 11) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 12) The Letter to Titus, 13) The Letter to Philemon, 14) The Letter to the Hebrews, 15) The Letter of James, 16) The 1st Letter of Peter, 17) The  2nd Letter of Peter, 18) The 1st Letter of John, 19) The 2nd Letter of John, 20) The 3rd Letter of John, and 21) The Letter to Jude.
– The New Testament is believed to have been written in the years 45 – 90 A.D. Some scholars continue to dispute this, claiming that all, or some of the Books, were written much later.
– The 27 Books of the New Testament by 8 different authors whose actual names include the following: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul, 6) Peter, 7) James, and 8) Jude.
– Luke, John, and Paul are credited with writing the vast majority of the New Testament, including 20 out of 27 total Books. To be specific, Luke is the author of 2 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book). John wrote 5 Books (1 Gospel, 1 Book, and 3 Letters), while Paul is credited with 13 Books (13 Letters).
– The author who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews has remained anonymous and completely unknown for nearly the past 2,000 years

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A Brief Chronology for the 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

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A Brief Timeline for the Various Dates and Authors of the New Testament
45 A.D. – Letter of James (James)
50 A.D. – Gospel of Mark (Mark)
50 A.D. – Beginning of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
55 A.D. – Gospel of Matthew (Matthew)
60 A.D. – Letter of Jude (Jude)
60 A.D. – 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Peter (Peter)
60 A.D. – Gospel of Luke (Luke)
65 A.D. – Book of Acts (Luke)
65 A.D. – Letter to the Hebrews (Unknown)
70 A.D. – End of Paul’s 13 Letters (Paul)
90 A.D. – 1st Letter of John, 2nd John, 3rd John (John)
90 A.D. – Gospel of John (John)
90 A.D. – Book of Revelation (John)

NOTE: Paul’s 13 Letters include Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter.

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In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

A Reference Guide to the Books, the Authors, and the Dates of the Old Testament

The Protestant Old Testament (39 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Esther, 18) Job, 19) Psalms, 20) Proverbs, 21) Ecclesiastes, 22) Song of Songs, 23) Isaiah, 24) Jeremiah, 25) Lamentations, 26) Ezekiel, 27) Daniel, 28) Hosea, 29) Joel, 30) Amos, 31) Obadiah, 32) Jonah, 33) Micah, 34) Nahum, 35) Habakkuk, 36) Zephaniah, 37) Haggai, 38) Zechariah, 39) Malachi

The Catholic Old Testament (46 Books)
1) Genesis, 2) Exodus, 3) Leviticus, 4) Numbers, 5) Deuteronomy, 6) Joshua, 7) Judges, 8) Ruth, 9) 1 Samuel, 10) 2 Samuel, 11) 1 Kings, 12) 2 Kings, 13) 1 Chronicles, 14) 2 Chronicles, 15) Ezra, 16) Nehemiah, 17) Tobit, 18) Judith, 19) Esther, 20) 1 Maccabees, 21) 2 Maccabees, 22) Job, 23) Psalms, 24) Proverbs, 25) Ecclesiastes, 26) Song of Songs, 27) Wisdom, 28) Sirach, 29) Isaiah, 30) Jeremiah, 31) Lamentations, 32) Baruch, 33) Ezekiel, 34) Daniel, 35) Hosea, 36) Joel, 37) Amos, 38) Obadiah, 39) Jonah, 40) Micah, 41) Nahum, 42) Habakkuk, 43) Zephaniah, 44) Haggai, 45) Zechariah, 46) Malachi

Basic Statistics of the Old Testament
The Number of Protestant Books = 39
The Number of Catholic Books = 46
The Number of Eastern Orthodox Books = 51
The Middle book = Book of Proverbs
The Largest Book = Book of Psalms
The Smallest Book = Book of Obadiah
The Oldest Book = Book of Job (~1,000 B.C.)
The Newest Book = Book of Malachi (400 BC)
The Chapters = 929
The Middle chapter = Job 20
The Longest chapter = Psalms 119
The Verses = 23,114
The Middle verses = 2 Chronicles 20:17,18
The Shortest verse = 1 Chronicles 1:25
The Longest verse = Esther 8:9
The Words = 602,585
The Letters = 2,278,100

The Books, Authors, and Dates of the Old Testament
1. The Book of Genesis was written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
2. The Book of Exodus was written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C.
3. The Book of Leviticus was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
4. The Book of Numbers was written by the Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
5. The Book of Deuteronomy was written by Moses in 1,400 B.C.
6. The Book of Joshua was written by Joshua in the year 1,350 B.C.
7. The Book of Judges was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
8. The Book of Ruth was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
9. The 1st Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
10. The 2nd Book of Samuel  was written by the Prophet Samuel in the year 1,000 B.C.
11. The 1st Book of Kings was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
12. The 2nd Book of Kingswas written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
15. The Book of Ezra was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
16. The Book of Nehemiah was written by the Prophet Ezra in the year 450 B.C.
17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author in the year 400 B.C.
18. The Book of Job was written by Prophet Moses in 1,400 B.C.
19. The Book of Psalms was written by King David in the year 1,000 B.C.
20. The Book of Proverbs was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C.
22. The Song of Solomon was written by King Solomon in the year 1,000 B.C,
23. The Book of Isaiah was written by the Prophet Isaiah in the year 700 B.C.
24. The Book of Jeremiah was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
25. The Book of Lamentations was written by the Prophet Jeremiah in the year 600 B.C.
26. The Book of Ezekiel was written by the Prophet Ezekiel in the year 550 B.C.
27. The Book of Daniel was written by the Prophet Daniel  in the year 550 B.C.
28. The Book of Hosea, was written by the Prophet Hosea in the year 750 B.C.
29. The Book of Joel, by was written by the Prophet Joel in the year 850 B.C.
30. The Book of Amos was written by the Prophet Amos in the year 750 B.C.
31. The Book of Obadiah was written by the Prophet Obadiah in the year 600 B.C.,
32. The Book of Jonah was written by the Prophet Jonah in the year 700 B.C.
33. The Book of Micah was written by the Prophet  Micah in the year 700 B.C.
34. The Book of Nahum was written by the Prophet Nahum in the year 700 B.C.
35. The Book of Habakkuk was written by the Prophet  Habakkuk in the year 600 B.C.
36. The Book of Zephaniah was written by the Prophet  Zephaniah in the year 650 B.C.
37. The Book of Haggai was written by the Prophet Haggai in the year 520 B.C.
38. The Book of Zechariah was written by the Prophet Zechariah in the year 500 B.C.
39. The Book of Malachi was written by the Prophet Malachi in the year 430 B.C.
40. The Book of Tobit was written by Tobit in the year 200 B.C.
41. The Book of Judith was written by an unknown author in the year 150 B.C.
42. The Book of Wisdom was written by Solomon in the year 100 B.C.
43. The Book of Sirach was written by Jesus ben Sirach in the year 200 B.C.
44. The Book of Baruch was written by Baruch in the year 150 B.C.
45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.
46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author in the year 100 B.C.

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

Official Church Lists of The Old Testament Books

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books.

– Council of Hippo, canon 36 (A.D. 393)

(It has been decided) that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Sirach], twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees.

– Council of Carthage III, canon 47 (A.D. 397)

The whole canon of the Scriptures, however, in which we say that consideration is to be applied, is contained in these books: the five of Moses…and one book of Joshua (Son of) Nave, one of Judges; one little book which is called Ruth…then the four of Kingdoms, and the two of Paralipomenon…(T)here are also others too, of a different order…such as Job and Tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of Maccabees, and the two of Esdras…Then there are the Prophets, in which there is one book of the Psalms of David, and three of Solomon…But as to those two books, one of which is entitled Wisdom and the other of which is entitled Ecclesiasticus and which are called of Solomon’ because of a certain similarity to his books, it is held most certainly that they were written by Jesus Sirach. They must, however, be accounted among the prophetic books, because of the authority which is deservedly accredited to them.

– Augustine, Christian Instruction 2:8:13 (A.D. 397)

A brief addition shows what books really are received in the canon. These are the things of which you desired to be informed verbally: of Moses, five books, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, of Deuteronomy, and Joshua, of Judges, one book, of Kings, four books, and also Ruth, of the Prophets, sixteen books, of Solomon, five books, the Psalms. Likewise of the histories, Job, one book, of Tobit, one book, Esther, one, Judith, one, of the Maccabees, two, of Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books.

– Pope Innocent I, Letters 7 (A.D. 408)

(It has been decided) that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon, the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books . . . Let this be sent to our brother and fellow bishop, [Pope] Boniface, and to the other bishops of those parts, that they may confirm this canon, of these are the things which we have received from our fathers to be read in church.

– The African Code, canon 24 (A.D. 419)
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The Traditional Names of the Books of the Old Testament
The 39 Traditional Names of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Traditional Names of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
– John 1:1

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Books of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Books of the Bible
– The Jewish Bible contains 24 different books which are divided into three sections called the Law (Torah), the Prophets (Nevi’im) and the Writings (Ketuvim). There are 5 book of the Law, 8 books of the Prophets, and 11 books of the Writings.
– The Christian Bible comes in three major versions. The Protestant Bible traditionally has 66 books in total, the Catholic Bible includes 73 different books, while the Eastern Orthodox Bible usually contains 78 total books in their particular version of Scriptures.
– Every Christian Bible has exactly 27 books included in the New Testament. Therefore, the differences in number of total books comes from the Old Testament. Thus, the Protestant Bible has 39 Old Testament books (39 + 27 = 66 books), the Catholic Bible includes 46 Old Testament books (46 + 27 = 73 books), and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament has 54 different books (51 + 27 = 78 books).
– The Bible’s longest book is Psalms, the shortest is 3 John, while the middle book(s) are Micah and Nahum.
– The Old Testament’s middle book is Proverbs, the largest book is Psalms, and the smallest book is Obadiah.
The shortest book in the New Testament is 3 John, if counting by words. If counting verses, the shortest is 2 ohn instead. The longest New Testament book is the Gospel of Luke, and the New Testament’s middle book is 2 Thessalonians

New Testament References to Old Testament Prophets
– Isaiah: mentioned 419 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Psalms: mentioned 414 times in twenty-three New Testament books.
– Genesis: mentioned 260 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Exodus: mentioned 250 times in nineteen New Testament books.
– Deuteronomy: mentioned 208 times in twenty-one New Testament books.
– Ezekiel: mentioned 141 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Daniel: mentioned 133 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Jeremiah: mentioned 125 times in seventeen New Testament books.
– Leviticus: mentioned 107 times in fifteen New Testament books.
– Numbers: mentioned 73 times in four New Testament books.

The Recent Origins of Biblical Chapters and Verses
– Until a few hundred years ago, the Bible contained no chapters or verses at all.
– It wasn’t until the 16th Century, many years after it’s first printing (even more since it was compiled) that the Bible was divided into the chapters and verses we use today. They were designed for ease of reference and are a tool organised by man, not put there by God.
– The whole Bible, divided into chapters and verses, first appeared in 1560 in what is known as the ‘Geneva Bible.’ It was so called because it was prepared by the Reformers in Geneva. It is also called the ‘Breeches Bible,’ because Genesis 3:7 is translated: ‘They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches.’

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Chapters of the Bible

– The Bible was divided into chapters by Cardinal Hugo in 1250.

Brief Facts about the Chapters of the Bible
– The King James translation has 1,189 chapters. If you read three chapters a day, six days a week, and four chapters on Sunday, you will read the entire Bible in less than one year’s time.
– The Old Testament has 929 chapters and the New Testament has 260 chapters.
– The longest chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, which consists of 176 verses.
– In terms of the entire Bible, the middle chapter and the shortest is Psalms 117. It contains only two verses
– The middle chapter of the Old Testment is Job 29.
– The middle chapter in the New Testament is between Romans 13 and 14.
– The longest New Testament Chapter is Luke 1.
– Psalms 117, 118 and 119 are chapters with special significance in the Bible. Apparently, Psalm 117 is the shortest chapter in the Bible, Psalm 118 is the central chapter of the Bible and Psalm 119 is the longest chapter in the Bible.
– There is one chapter that is repeated twice in the Bible: (Psalms 14 and Psalms 53) ‘The fool says in his heart, “there is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.’ However, they are not mirror images of each other.
– Psalm 37 is one of the few that are acrostic – but not in English!
– The LORD God’s Blessing and Cursing Passage, where He gives mankind the choice whether to be obedient to God, is in Deuteronomy Chapter 28.
– The nineteenth chapter of 2 Kings and the thirty-seventh chapter of Isaiah are nearly identical.
– The Most Comforting Chapters – Psalms 23, John 14, Love Chapter – 1 Corinthians 13, Faith Chapter – Hebrews 11, New Testament Formation Acts 2, Alike Chapters — 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37

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Verses of the Bible

– The New Testament was divided into verses by Sir Robert Stephens in 1551.

Brief Facts about the Verses of the Bible
– The Holy Bible contains 31,173 verses.
– The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9 which contains 90 words.
– The shortest verse in the NIV Bible is not ‘Jesus wept’ in John 11:35, but ‘He said’ from Job 3:2.
– The middle verse in the Bible is Psalms 118:8.
– 2 John and 3 John have the same number of verses, 13 of them. However, John 3 wins the title of the shortest book due to its fewer number of words.
– A number of verses in the Bible (KJV) contain every single letter of the 26-letter alphabet except for one specific letter of the alphabet. Ezra 7:21 contains all but the letter ‘J’.
– Joshua 7:24, 1Kings 1:9, 1 Chronicles 12:40, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 28:13, Daniel 4:37, and Haggai 1:1 all contain every single letter except  ‘Q’.
– 2 Kings 16:15 and 1 Chronicles 4:10 contain all letters except ‘Z’.
– Galatians 1:14 contains all letters with the exception of ‘K’.
– According to populr opinion, the most precious verse is John 3:16, the saddest verse is Mark 15:34, and the grandest verse is Romans 8:11.           \
– The 8th, 15th, 21st, 31st verses of the 107th Psalm are alike.
– Every verse in the 136th Psalm has the same ending.
– The middle verse of theOld Testament is 2 Chronicles 20:13. The shortest verse in the Old Testament is 1 Chronicles 1:25 and the longest verse is Esther 8:9.
– The middle verse in the New Testament is Acts 17:17. The shortest verse  is 1st Thessalonians 5:16, while the longest verse is Revelation 20:4, with 68 words

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Words of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Words of the Bible
– The entire Judeo-Christian Bible contains pproximately 773,692 words, with around 592,439 words in the Old Testament and about 181,253 words in the New Testament.
– There are approximately 8,000 different words in the Holy Bible
– The longest single word in the Bible is ‘Mahershalalhashbaz’ (Isaiah 8:1)
– The very last word in the Old testament is the word ‘Curse’, just as the last word in the New testament is the word ‘Amen’
– The Book of Esther and the Song of Solomon are the only two books that do not contain the word ‘God’.

Words for Different Weights and Measures in the Bible
Bath = about 9 gallons
Bekah = ¼ of an ounce
Cab = 2 quarts
Cubit = about 18 inches
Day’s journey = 20-25 miles
Ephah = about 1 bushel
Farthing = ¼ cent
Fathom = 6 feet
Finger = ¾ of an inc
Firkin = 9 gallons
Furlong = fraction of a mile
Gerah  = .4 ounces
Handbreadth = about 3¾ inches
Hin = 6 quarts
Homer = 90 gallons liquid or 11 bushels dry
Log = 1 pint
Mite = of a cent
Omer = 7 pints
Pound = about $16 in money
Reed = about 11 feet
Sabbath Day Journey = 1 mile
Shekel = .5 ounces weight worth $5 in gold or 64 cents silver
Span = about 9 inches
Talent = $1000 worth of metal 75 lbs. weight

Word Repetition in the Bible
– The word ‘And’: occurs 46,277 times
– The word ‘God’: mentioned 3,358 times
– The word, ‘LORD’: appears 7,736 times.
– The words ‘Do not be afraid’: appears 365 times in the Bible, the same number of days in a year.
– The words ‘baptize, baptized, baptizest, baptizeth, baptizing’ are cited in the Bible 77 times.
– The word ‘Lion’ happens 55 times
– The word ‘Salt’: occurs more than 30 times in the Bible.
– The word ‘Dog’: occurs 14 times in the Bible
– The word ‘Christian’: appears only three times in the Bible (Acts 11:26, 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16).
– The words ‘Boy’ and ‘Boys’: are mentioned 3 times.
– The words ‘Girl’ and ‘Girls’: are mentioned 2 times.
– The word ‘Reverend’: one time (Psalms 111:9)
– The word ‘Eternity’: one time (Isaiah 57:15)
– The word ‘Grandmother’: one time (2 Timothy 1:5)
– The word ‘God’: appears in every book except the Book of Esther and Song of Solomon.
– The word ‘Cat’: is totally absent from the Bible.

Words and Phrases with Biblical Origins
A thorn in the side (2 Corinthians 12:7)
The Powers that be (Romans 13:1)
The handwriting on the wall (Daniel 5)
Can a leopard change its spots (Jeremiah 13:23)
Holier than thou (Isaiah 65:5)
A drop in the bucket (Isaiah 40:15)
Woe is me! (Isaiah 6:5)
Like a lamb to slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)
Do not throw pearls before swine (Matthew 7:6)
Fire and brimstone (Genesis 19:24, Revelation 21:8)
The forbidden fruit (Genesis 2:17)
Eat, drink and be merry (Luke 12)
Money is the root of all evil (1 Timothy 6:10)
The skin of our teeth (Job 19:20)
A land flowing with milk and honey (Exodus 3:8)
Feet of Clay (Daniel 2:33-34)
Taking a Sabbatical (Leviticus 25:1-7, Deuteronomy 15:1-11)
Spare the rod, spoil the child (Proverbs 13:24)
By the sweat of your brow (Genesis 3:17,19)
It is better to give than to receive. (Acts. 20:35)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (Jeremiah 13:23)
The love of money is the root of all evil. (Timothy 6:10)
Nothing new under the sun. (Ecclesiastes 1:9)
Let he who is without sin cast the first stone. (John 8:7)
Fly in the ointment. (Ecclesiastes 10:1)
Salt of the earth. (Matthew 5:13)
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Names of the Bible

Brief Facts about the Names of the Bible
– Naming children after famous Biblical characters such as Abraham, Jacob, Jonathan, or Samuel has been a Judeo-Christian tradition for thousands of years and continues to be practiced even today throughout the entire Judeo-Christian world.
– Because of innate differences in language and dialect among Judeo-Christian believers from different continents and nations, the same Biblical name may differ greatly in terms of spellingand pronunciation. For example, Ivan in Russian, Juan in Spanish, and Johann in Swedish, all mean John in the English language.
– Some of the most popular names in history all originate from the Bible. This includes the names Adam, David, John, Jacob, Elizabeth, Sarah,and Mary.

Male Name Repetition in the Bible
– David: mentioned 1118 times
– Moses: mentioned 740 times
– Aaron: mentioned 339 times
– Saul: mentioned 338 times
– Abraham: mentioned 306 times
– Solomon: mentioned 295 times
– Jacob: mentioned 270 times
– Joseph: mentioned 208 times
– Joshua: mentioned 197 times
– Paul: mentioned 185 times
– Peter: mentioned 166 times
– Joab: mentioned 137 times
– Jeremiah: mentioned 136 times
– Samuel: mentioned 135 times
– Isaac: mentioned 127 times

Jesus Christ is mentioned 973 times, second only to David

Female Name Repetition in the Bible
– Sarah, Abraham’s wife: mentioned 57 times
– Rachel, Jacob’s second wife: 47 times
– Leah, Jacob’s first wife: 34 times
– Rebekah, Isaac’s wife; 31 times
– Jezebel, wicked queen: 23 times
– Mary, Jesus’ mother: 19 times
– Abigail: 15 times
– Miriam: 15 times
– Mary Magdalene: 14 times
– Hagar, Abraham’s concubine: 14 times
– Eve: mentioned only 4 times

Names of the Most Unique Biblical Characters
– The Earliest: Adam, world’s first human being. (Genesis 2:7)
– The Oldest: Methuselah, son of Enoch, who lived to be 969. (Genesis 5:27)
– The Strongest: Samson, carnal Nazarite whom God used to deliver Israel from the Philistines. (Judges 14:6, 15:5)
– The Wisest: Solomon, one of the greatest Kings of Israel and the son of David, (1 Kings 3:12)
– The Richest: Solomon, who at one time would receive 666 talents of gold every year until the LORD became angry with him. (1 Kings 10:23)
– The Tallest: Goliath, who was over nine feet tall, but was then killed in battle by David, the shepherd-boy/King. (1 Samuel 17:4)
– The Shortest: Zacchaeus, who once climbed a sycamore tree just to catch a glimpse of Jesus. (Luke 19:3-4)
– The Fattest: Eglon, Moabite king who was killed by the Israelite judge named Ehud. (Judges 3:17)
– The Meekest: Moses, Israel’s great prophet, judge and author of the first five books of the Bible (Numbers 12:3)
– The Cruelest: Manasseh, who shed blood from one end of Judea to the other, but later repented for his violent cruelty. (2 Chronicles 33:1-13)
– The Fastest: Asahel, who was described in the Bible as being ‘light of foot as a wild roe.’ (2 Samuel 2:18)
– The Greatest of the Prophets: John the Baptist, a predecessor and family relative of Jesus of Nazareth. (Matthew 11:11)
– The Guiltiest: Judas, who willingly betrayed Jesus Christ for a mere 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 27:3-5)
– The Proudest: Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king who destroyed Jerusalem, but was later humbled by God himself. (Daniel 4)
– The Most Beautiful: Esther, a Jewish queen who saved her people, the Jews, from mass-murder at the hands of Haman. (Esther 2:7)
– The Most Traveled: Paul, who proved to be a great theologian and tireless missionary (Acts 13:4, 15:36, 18:23)
– The Most Sorrowful: Jeremiah, who was persecuted by his own fellow Jews for preaching against sin and who saw his beloved Jerusalem destroyed as a result. (Jeremiah 9:1, Lamemtations 1:12)
– The Most Persecuted: Job, who was attacked by Satan, totally misunderstood by his wife, and then criticized by his best friends. (Job 1-2)
– The Most Lovestruck: Jacob, who agreed to work for Rachel’s father for a full seven years just for the hand of Rachel in marriage. (Genesis 29:18-20)
– The Most Frightened: Belshazzar, whose knees trembled when the handwriting on the wall appeared from out of nowhere. (Daniel 5:6)
– The Most Rash: Jephthah, who vowed to offer a special sacrifice if God aid him in battle. Tragically, the sacrifice turned out to be his own daughter (Judges 11:30)
– The Most Doubtful: Thomas, who continued to doubt the reality of Christ’s resurrection until he saw Jesus with his own two eyes and touched the Savior with his own two hands. (John 11:16, 20:24-29)

Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.

– St. Jerome, a 5th century Bible Scholar

Names of the 12 Minor Prophets (Old Testament)
1. Hosea
2. Joel
3. Amos
4. Obadiah
5. Jonah
6. Micah
7. Nahum
8. Habakkuk
9. Zephaniah
10. Haggai
11. Zecariah
12. Malachi

Names of the 8 New Testament Authors
~ The Gospel of Matthew was written by Matthew in 55 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark in 50 A.D.
~ The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke in 60 A.D.
~ The Gospel of John was written by John in 90
~ The Book of Acts was written by Luke in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colosians, 1st Thessalonians, 2nd Thessalonians, 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon were all written by Paul from 50 to 70 A.D.
~ The Letter to the Hebrews was most likely written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos in 65 A.D.
~ The Letter of James was written by James in 45 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of Peter were all written by Peter in 60 A.D.
~ The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Letters of John were all written by John in 90 A.D.
~ The Letter to Jude was written by Jude in 60 A.D.
~ The Book of Revelation was written by John in 90 A.D.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

 

 

Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, even unto the end of the age.

– Matthew 28:19-20

 

 

The Tradition of Christianity –

A Basic Guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama

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Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– President Barack Obama, a Protestant Christian for over 20 years

Barack Obama, the first African-American President in a nation that was still practicing black slavery a mere 140 years ago, is one of the most inspiring occurrences in the 21st century and may well be a sign that the third millennium will turn out to be an era of peace and prosperity for all Americans, and for all God’s children throughout the world. In many ways, his election as the most powerful leader in the world, indicates that the Christian doctrine of universal brotherhood has managed to emerge triumphant after a very scary, and completely evil, previous century that threatened the very foundations of Christianity. At the same time, a great many of Obama’s public statements have been infused with the inspirational and moral certainty that originates with his faith in Christianity. Here are just a few highlights:

My Bible tells me that if we train a child in the way he should go, when he is old he will not turn from it. I think faith and guidance can help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence all young people for the act of sexual intimacy.

– Senator Barack Obama

We believe in a country that rewards hard work and responsibility, a country where we look after one another, a country where we say, ‘I am my brother’s keeper, I am my sister’s keeper, I’m not just thinking about myself.’

– President Barack Obama

The fact of the matter is that, regardless of Barack Obama’s politics, some of which are in opposition to traditional Christian doctrines, he is still an authentic, genuine Christian believer who has been properly baptized by an ordained Christian minister. After this he did not fall, and he did not stray. Instead, he dutifully attended Christian Sabbath on a weekly basis for over 20 years before running for President. What follows is a basic guide to the Christianity of President Barack Obama. It has been organized in the following manner:

Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

Part IV. America’s Confusion and Misinformation about Obama’s Christianity

Part V. The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity

Part VI. The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans

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Part I. A Sampling of Quotes from Barack Obama

As somebody who relies heavily on my Christian faith in my job, I understand the passions that religious faith can raise.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(The story of Jesus’ birth) that we are called to love each other as we love ourselves, that we are our brother’s keeper and our sister’s keeper, and our destinies are linked…It’s a message that guides my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

(We can) see God in other people and do our best to help them find their, you know, their own grace…So that’s what I strive to do…That’s what I pray to do everyday. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

= President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I found myself drawn – not just to work with the church but to be in the church…It was through this service that I was brought to Christ.

– President Barack Obama, University of Notre Dame (May 17, 2010)

It was because of these new-found understandings – that religious commitment did not require me to suspend critical thinking…that I was finally able to walk down the aisle of Trinity United Church of Christ one day and be baptized…But kneeling beneath that cross on the South Side of Chicago, I felt God’s spirit beckoning me. I submitted myself to His will, and dedicated myself to discovering His truth.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

Secularists are wrong when they ask believers to leave their religion at the door before entering into the public square. Frederick Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, Williams Jennings Bryant, Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King – indeed, the majority of great reformers in American history – were not only motivated by faith, but repeatedly used religious language to argue for their cause. So to say that men and women should not inject their “personal morality” into public policy debates is a practical absurdity. Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

– Barack Obama (June 28, 2006)

There is hope for a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again and that its tender branch will not cease…The work ahead will not be easy, and there will be setbacks. There will be challenges along the way. But thanks to you, thanks to the great people of this great city, New Orleans is blossoming again.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I am a Christian by choice…I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead…Being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper. Treating others as they would treat me. And I think also understanding that you know, that Jesus Christ dying for my sins spoke to the humility that we all have to have as human beings.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I’m a Christian by choice. My family didn’t-frankly, they weren’t folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn’t raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead-being my brothers’ and sisters’ keeper, treating others as they would treat me….

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead: being my brother’s and sister’s keeper, treating others as they would treat me…I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

It’s interesting listening to the girls, what they pray for…They’ll talk about family and thanking God for blessing us, but they’ll always add a little twist: ‘I hope we have a great Thanksgiving, I can’t wait to see the cousins…They used to pray for a dog, until we got a dog.

– President Barack Obama, commenting on the Obama family prayer before dinner

It means all the world to us to know that there are prayer circles out there and people who are keeping the spirits clean around us.

– First Lady Michelle Obama

I’d just sit in the back and I’d listen to the choir and I’d listen to the sermon…There were times that I would just start tearing up listening to the choir and share that sense of release..

– President Barack Obama (2008-2011)

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Part II. Quotes from Official News Reports about Obama’s Christian Faith

Obama’s Christian Rhetoric

QUOTE- As president, Barack Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ in a number of high-profile public speeches – something his predecessor George W. Bush rarely did in such settings, even though Bush’s Christian faith was at the core of his political identity…Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House – even though Bush’s victories were powered in part by evangelical voters….Still, it is ironic that Obama, who rode a wave of young, Internet-savvy and more secular voters to the White House, would more freely invoke the name of Jesus Christ than did Bush. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

QUOTE- In openly personal terms, President Barack Obama on Tuesday honored the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, saying he draws inspiration from an eternal story of pain, suffering and redemption…Obama’s comments provided a brief, uncommon opening into how he views his Christian faith. He told the religious leaders that their examples are followed by millions of people. He welcomed them warmly as “my brothers and sisters in Christ” and honored Christ as “our risen savior.”…Obama has also held White House events honoring the Jewish and Muslim faiths. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Family Prayer

QUOTE- The first family says grace each night before dinner, President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle told ABC News in an interview that aired Friday…The Obamas have frequently spoken about prayer since arriving in the White House. Last month, Michelle Obama told a nationally syndicated radio show that the Obamas can feel prayers that are said for them…In 2009, Barack Obama said that he had stepped up his praying since becoming president ‘because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate, and I need guidance all the time.’…He told ABC News then that he starts each morning by reviewing a devotional he receives on his BlackBerry. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Little Known Christian Faith

QUOTE- A new poll from the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life indicates that the number of Americans who erroneously believe President Obama is a Muslim is growing…In March 2009, the percentage was 11 percent. Today, it’s 18 percent…The percentage of those asserting that the president is a Christian — which he is — has gone down in that time, from 48% in March 2009 to 34% today…A plurality of Americans — 43% — say they don’t know what religion the president is. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Daily Christian Readings

QUOTE- President Barack Obama is a great example of how technology and religion are symbiotic. Each morning, Obama reads a devotional on his BlackBerry….“I pray all the time now – because I’ve got a lot of stuff on my plate and I need guidance all the time,” he said with a laugh during an interview with ABC’s Nightline that was aired Thursday night…Obama sai receives his daily devotional from Joshua DuBois, his director of faith and neighborhood initiatives….“That’s how I start my morning. You know, he’s got a passage, scripture, in some cases quotes from other faiths to reflect on. This is something where you just hope that you are aligning your work with His purposes and that you’re attuned to the needs of the people you’re there to serve,” he said. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Tolerant Christian Understanding of Faith and Sin

QUOTE- “This is a country that is still predominantly Christian, but we have Jews, Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, Buddhists” and others, he said, adding that “their own path to grace is one that we have to revere and respect as much as our own, and that is part of what makes this country what it is.”…Humans are “sinful” and “flawed” beings that make mistakes and “achieve salvation through the grace of God,” the president continued….Obama responded that abortion should be “safe, legal and rare” in America, adding that families — not the government — “should be the ones making the decision.”…Restrictions against late-term abortion are in place now, he said, adding that “people still argue and disagree about it. That’s part of our Democratic tradition.” -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Christian Faith Denied and Defamed

QUOTE- Americans have some extreme views of President Obama, with a new controversial survey suggesting that 40 percent of adults believe he is a socialist, and about a quarter of survey participants thinking the president is a racist, anti-American and even doing things Hitler did…When broken out by political party, results showed some stark differences. For instance, the majority of Republicans believed the president is a Muslim and a socialist, while around 40 percent believe he is a racist, someone who resents American heritage and “wants terrorists to win.”…Forty percent of Republicans, compared with just 15 percent of Democrats, think Wall Street pulls his strings. -UNQUOTE

Obama’s Non-Muslim Past and Christian Present

QUOTE- Obama, however, claimed that his father, who he only knew as an infant, was an atheist. He assured that his time as President has only served to deepen his commitment to Christianity….Obama has repeatedly said that he is a Christian and prays regularly, but more Americans than ever have raised doubts over his beliefs. -UNQUOTE

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Part III. The Factual Reality of President Obama’s Christian Presidency

– President Obama publically affirmed his Christian faith to a predominantly Muslim audience in Cairo, Egypt. He went to mention the famous Islamic legend of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed came together as one and prayed to God.

– Speaking to students at the University of Notre Dame, Barack Obama repeatedly described about his religious conversion to Christianity which occurred in Chicago working with the inner-city poor as a community activist.

– While discussing his economic policies in a speech at Georgetown Univeristy, President Obama deliberately invoked the Christian Gospel parable of building a house upon a foundation of either sand or solid rock to illustrate his political strategy.

– Even though he remains virulently opposed to nearly all of Obama liberal politics, Mr. Tony Perkins, who is president of the Family Research Council, a conservative Christian interest group, is on record praising the President’s openly Christian faith. Commenting on Barack Obama’s religious faith, He stated: ‘I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort.’

– Obama also managed to schedule an Easter prayer breakfast at the White House specifically for Christian pastors. During his opening remarks, he openly and specifically employed devout Christian rhetoric, even welcoming all the assembled guests as ‘my brothers and sisters in Christ.’

– A growing number of different news organizations have been reluctantly forced to make note of President Obama’s astonishing, and frequent, use of the term Jesus Christ, as well as other blatantly Christian terminology. One particular article even admitted the following: ‘Obama’s invocation of the Christian Messiah is more overt than Americans heard in the public rhetoric of Bush in his time in the White House’.

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America’s Misinformed Confusion about Obama’s Christianity

Did you know that…

1) Since becoming President, Obama has mentioned Jesus Christ by name in public far more often than George W. Bush ever did during his tenure?

2) The Obama family, including his wife Michelle and their two daughters, recite Christian grace and prayers every night before eating dinner?

3) Barack Obama begins each morning by reading and reflecting upon Christian Scriptures and Prayers with one of his Christian staff members?

4) The historical evidence shows that Obama was never really a Muslim believer, while his sincere and authentic conversion to Christianity later in life has been clearly documented and verified?

5) President Obama has read and studied Roman Catholic Saint Augustine, the Christian intellectual Graham Greene, and the famous Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr?

President Obama prays at the Western Wall in Jerusalem

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+ The Opposition to, Versus the Acceptance of, Obama’s Christianity +

Obama’s Public Christian Witness

Opposition To: I don’t need to hear politicians tell me how religious they are…Obama in a very overt way does what Bush tended to do in a more covert way. (Rev. Barry Lynn, United for Separation of Church and State)

Acceptance Of: I don’t recall a single example of Bush ever saying Jesus or Christ…This is different…I applaud that. It gives people a sense of comfort. (Tony Perkins, President of Family Research Council)

Obama’s Actual Christian Faith

Opposition To: Obama can call himself anything he likes, but there is a clear requirement for one to qualify as a Christian and Obama doesn’t meet that requirement…Such people do have a label applied to them in Scripture. They are called ‘false prophets’. (Cal Thomas)

Acceptance Of: Obama has accepted Jesus Christ. That’s what he says he has done. So I just have to believe that the president is what he has said. (Reverend Franklin Graham, Son of Billy Graham)

Obama’s Christian Beliefs

Opposition To: The fact Senator Obama denies Jesus is the only way to be saved…calls into question whether he believes…It is time for Senator Obama to be held accountable for what he says he believes to examine if he really is a Christian. (Bill Keller)

Acceptance Of: The president says he’s a Christian. I take him at his word…I think the faith that most Americans are questioning is the President’s faith in the government to generate jobs. (Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell)

Obama’s Christian Theology

Opposition To: I think he’s deliberately distorting the traditional understanding of the Bible to fit his own worldview, his own confused theology…He is dragging biblical understanding through the gutter. (James Dobson, Focus on the Family)

Acceptance Of: He presents his Christianity as an important aspect of his identity but one he doesn’t want to foist upon anyone else, and he would rather risk downplaying it than offending somebody…This notion that we are our brothers’ keepers…is kind of a mantra for him.(Jeffrey Siker, Loyola Marymount University)

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– The Astonishingly Misinformed Beliefs of Certain Americans –

Some Astonishing Facts about the Misinformed Beliefs of American Voters

+ Bill Keller, a Internet Televangelist, accused President Barack Obama on-air of being an ‘Enemy of God’

+ 14 percent of Americans (24 percent of Republicans and 6 percent of Democrats) believe President Barack Obama may be the Antichrist.

+ A Pew Research poll in August (2010) revealed ‘that one in five Americans falsely believe the president is a Muslim, more than thought so last year’.

+ In a poll by Newsweek, 12 percent of voters incorrectly believe he’s Muslim; more than a quarter believe he was raised in a Muslim home.

+ A Time Magazine poll found that 24 percent of Americans believe Obama is a Muslim, rather than a Christian.

A typical poster filled with lies and disinformation originally created by an Obama Hater

A List of Specific Beliefs of Certain Americans

38% – Believe Obama wants to abolish the right to bear arms

32% – Believe Obama is actually a Muslim in disguise

29% – Believe Obama intends to end U.S. independence and establish a single world government.

29% – Believe Obama has secretly violated the U.S. Constitution

27% – Believe Obama resent’s America’s heritage

27% – Believe Obama is the puppet of Wall Street bankers

25% – Believe Obama was not actually born on United States soil

25% – Believe Obama is the enemy of the U.S. Constitution

23% – Believe Obama is a racist

23% – Believe Obama is anti-American

23% – Believe Obama plans on staging a economic collapse of terrorist incident to seize control and declare Martial Law

20% – Believe Obama is doing the same thing Hitler did

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My the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles.

A Last Important Quote-

And I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.

– President Barack Obama

Bible – The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Bible of Judaism and/or the Bible of Christianity

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God gave the Torah to Israel, but all nations are to benefit by it.

– Tanchum. Devorim



A Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Bibles
– The Bible is the most commonly used English word referring to the collection of sacred writings representing the religion of Judaism and/or Christianity. In general, the Jewish Bible is called the Tanakh, while the Christian Bible is commonly known as the Holy Bible.
– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Tanakh in the Hebrew language, is also called the Jewish Bible, the Hebrew Bible, Hebrew Scriptures, or even the Old Testament. It consists of 24 different books which have been divided into three separate groups known as the Law, or Torah in Hebrew (5 books), the Prophets, or Neviim in Hebrew, (8 books), and the Writings, or Ketuvim in Hebrew (11 books).
– The Bible of Christianity, commonly known as the Holy Bible, also called Scriptures, is composed of two completely different sections called the Old Testament (originally written in Hebrew) and the New Testament (originally written in Greek).
– Some versions of the Christian Old Testament (written in Hebrew) include books which Judaism never fully accepted as Scriptures. Because of these historical differences in opinion, the total number of book in the Christian Bible can vary from 66 books up to 78 books. The New Testament, however, remains the same 27 books for every single form of Christianity.
– The Protestant Christian Bible includes 66 total books (39 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), the Catholic Bible has 73 books (46 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament), and the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 in Old Testament, 27 in New Testament).
– In terms of the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, there are 39 books in Protestant Christianity, 46 books in Catholic Christianity, and 24 books in Judaism.
– Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, the language spoken by the Israelites.Except for a few words and sentences, the New Testament was composed in Greek, the common language in the Hellenistic world.
– The Seven additional Old Testament Books are called “deuterocanonical” by the Catholic Church and “apocryphal” by Protestants, who’ve removed them from their Bibles.
– As just mentioned previously, the Bible of Judaism, called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, includes a total 24 different books, all of which are included in the Judeo-Christian Old Testament. However, the Christian Bible has been arranged differently so that the 24 books of the Jewish Bible has been organized into the 39+ books of the standard Protestant Christian Old Testament. Here are just a few relevant quotes concerning the sequencing of the Tanakh taken from ancient Jewish sources:

Our Rabbis taught- The order of the Prophets is, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

– Baba Bathra 14b

The order of the Hagiographa is Ruth, the Book of Psalms, Job, Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther, Ezra and Chronicles.

– Baba Bathra 14b



– Traditional Judaism, much like traditional Christianity, continues to believe in the age-old folk-lore concerning the actual identity of who wrote the various books of the Bible. They also have several ancient, non-Biblical sources to support their cliaims. Here are just a few examples:

Who wrote the Scriptures? Moses wrote his own book and the portion of Balaam and Job.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Joshua wrote the book which bears his name and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch.

– Baba Bathra 14b

Samuel wrote the book which bears his name and the Book of Judges and Ruth.

– Baba Bathra 14b

David wrote the Book of Psalms, including in it the work of the elders, namely, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Yeduthun, Asaph,

– Baba Bathra 14b

The Psalms were composed by ten individuals: Adam, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, Korah’s three sons (taken as one of the composers), and Ezra. But although they were composed by ten different individuals, David’s name alone is connected with them.

– Midrash Songs 4.

Jeremiah wrote the book which bears his name, the Book of Kings, and Lamentations.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.

– Baba Bathra 15a

The Men of the Great Assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Minor Prophets, Daniel and the Scroll of Esther.

– Baba Bathra 15a

Ezra wrote the book that bears his name and the genealogies of the Book of Chronicles up to his own time.

– Baba Bathra 15a

You say that Moses wrote his book and the section of Balaam and Job. This supports the opinion of R. Joshua b. Levi b. Lahma who said that Job was contemporary with Moses

– Baba Bathra 15a

That King Solomon held the fear of God in high estimation we glean from the fact that his two great books, those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, conclude by saying that the fear of God is above everything.

– Midrash Ecclesiastes 3

– A number of modern scholars remain skeptical concerning the authenticity of any single individual contribution. One must remember that, for the most part, ‘Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author.Instead, they believe that most of the various Biblical books represent ‘the work of many persons over many centuries…very few of them are the work of the individuals whose names have been attached to them by tradition.’ They also suspect that even if they are authentic copies of the original texts of the Prophets, ‘the majority have been heavily edited to the point where their original form and history of composition are today uncertain.’



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You are not permitted to select injunctions of the Torah which you consent to observe, and reject others for the observance of which you can find no reason. In accepting God’s word one is bound to implicit obedience to all of it.

– Tanchum, Mishpotim

The Bible of Judaism

– The Bible of Judaism, known as the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh in Hebrew), is composed of 24 books in total which has been divided into three different sets of writings. They include the following: Part I. The Law (Torah in Hebrew) which has 5 books, Part II. The Prophets (Neviim in Hebrew) which has 8 books, Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim in Hebrew) which has 11 books. Here are two quotes from traditional Jewish sources that originate from many centuries ago:

It is prohibited to add to the canon of the Bible, consisting of twenty-four books.

– Numbers Rabba 14

A preacher must be well conversant with the whole twenty-four books of the Bible. If he is deficient in the knowledge of one of these books it is as bad as if he had no acquaintance with any of them.

– Midrash Songs 4

– Part I. The Law (Torah):
This first section of the Jewish Bible, known simply as the Law, or the Torah, contains 5 individual books including: (1) Genesis, (2) Exodus, (3) Leviticus, (4) Numbers, and (5) Deuteronomy. This same group of texts are also referred to as the Five Books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, by Christianity.
– Part II. The Prophets (Neviim): This second section of the Jewish Bible, called the Prophets, or Neviim, contains the following 8 books: (6) Joshua, (7) Judges, (8) Samuel, (9) Kings, (10) Jeremiah, (11) Ezekiel, (12) Isaiah, and (13) the Book of the Twelve. In Christianity, this same collection is organized into 21 different Old Testament books.
– Part III. The Writings (Ketuvim) This third and final section of the Jewish Bible is known as the Writings, or Ketuvim, is composed of 11 books which include: (14) Ruth, (15) Psalms,  (16) Job, (17) Prophets, (18) Ecclesiastes, (19) Song of Songs, (20) Lamentations, (21) Daniel,  (22) Esther, (23) Ezra and (24) Chronicles. In Christianity, these same documents are traditionally divided into 13 different Old Testament books.
– In the Jewish Bible, the last book in the second section of ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim), called the Book of the Twelve, contains 12 books of the Christian Old Testament books, including: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi. These are known as the 12 minor prophets.
– In summary, the Tanakh, the official Bible of Judaism, includes 24 total books which have been divided into three specific segments known as the Law (Torah) consisting of 5 books, ‘The Prophets’ (Neviim) containing 8 books (or 21 Christian books), and ‘The Writings’ (Ketuvim) which contain 11 books (or 13 Christian books). These 24 individual books (39+ Christian books), listed in chronological order as they appear in the Jewish Bible, can be seen as follows:



Part 1. The Law, or Torah (5 Books)

1) Genesis
2) Exodus
3) Leviticus
4) Numbers
5) Deuteronomy

Part II. The Prophets, or Neviim (8 Books)

6) Joshu
7) Judges
8) Samuel
9) Kings
10) Jeremiah
11) Ezekiel
12) Isaiah
13) Book of the Twelve

Part III. The Writings, or Ketuvim (11 Books)

14) Ruth
15) Psalms
16) Job
17) Prophets
18) Ecclesiastes
19) Song of Songs
20) Lamentations
21) Daniel,
22) Esther
23) Ezra
24) Chronicles



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With the death of the three last of the latter prophets, namely Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit (prophecy) ceased, but use was made of the echo.

– Midrash Song of Songs 8

Facts about the Bible of Christianity

– The Bible of Protestant Christianity contains 66 books (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Roman Catholic Bible contains 73 books (46 Old Testament, 27 New Testament); the Eastern Orthodox Bible contains 78 books (51 Old Testament, 27 New Testament). All of them include the entire text of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible, which is traditionally organized into only 24 books.
– The Protestant Old Testament consists of 39 different Books which is extremely similar in content to the official Jewish Bible, the Tanakh. These books are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Ruth, 9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Esther, 18. Job, 19. Psalms, 20. The Proverbs, 21. Ecclesiastes, 22. The Song of Songs, 23. Isaiah, 24. Jeremiah, 25. Lamentations, 26. Ezekiel, 27. Daniel, 28. Hosea, 29. Joel, 30. Amos, 31. Obadiah, 32. Jonah, 33. Micah, 34. Nahum, 35. Habakkuk, 36. Zephaniah, 37. Haggai, 38. Zechariah, 39. Malachi
– The Roman Catholic Old Testament consists of 46 different Books. In chronological order, they are as follows: 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers,  5. Deuteronomy, 6. Joshua, 7. Judges,  8. Ruth,  9. 1 Samuel, 10. 2 Samuel, 11. 1 Kings, 12. 2 Kings, 13. 1 Chronicles, 14. 2 Chronicles, 15. Ezra, 16. Nehemiah, 17. Tobit, 18. Judith, 19. Esther (includes additions to Esther), 20. 1 Maccabees, 21. 2 Maccabees, 22. Job, 23. Psalms, 24. Proverbs, 25. Ecclesiastes, 26. Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 27. Wisdom of Solomon, 28. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), 29. Isaiah, 30. Jeremiah, 31. Lamentations, 32. Baruch (includes Letter of Jeremiah), 33. Ezekiel, 34. Daniel (includes Susanna & Bel and the Dragon), 35. Hosea, 36. Joel, 37. Amos, 38. Obadiah, 39. Jonah, 40. Micah, 41. Nahum, 42. Habakkuk, 43. Zephaniah, 44. Haggai, 45. Zecariah, 46. Malachi
– The New Testament, for every form of Christianity, consists of the same 27 individual books They are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts of Apostles, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians,  8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude, and 27) Revelation
– The Twelve Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are as follows: 1. Hosea, 2. Joel, 3. Amos, 4. Obadiah, 5. Jonah, 6. Micah, 7. Nahum, 8. Habakkuk, 9. Zephaniah, 10. Haggai, 11. Zecariah, 12. Malachi



– Bible translations developed for Catholic use are complete Bibles. This means that they contain the entire canonical text identified by Pope Damasus and the Synod of Rome (382) and the local Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397), contained in St. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation (420), and decreed infallibly by the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1570). This canonical text contains the same 27 NT Testament books which Protestant versions contain, but 46 Old Testament books, instead of 39. These 7 books, and parts of 2 others, are called Deuterocanonical by Catholics (2nd canon) and Apocrypha (false writings) by Protestants, who dropped them at the time of the Reformation.
– The Deuterocanonical texts are Tobias (Tobit), Judith, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Wisdom, First and Second Maccabees and parts of Esther and Daniel. Some Protestant Bibles include the “Apocrypha” as pious reading.
– The Vulgate Bible, the Latin Bible for the Catholic Church, is an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible, largely the result of the labors of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of old Latin translations. It became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Moses and St. Peter.

Christianity – Names, Numbers, Authors and Ikons of the New Testament

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1

Names, Numbers, Authors and Titles of the New Testament

The 27 Books of the New Testament
1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation

The 3 Main Authors of the New Testament
I. John: (2 Books and 3 Letters) Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation
II. Paul: (13 Letters) Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
III. Luke: (2 Books) Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts

The Basic Facts of the New Testament
– The New Testament has been a collection of exactly 27 different documents since the very beginning of Christianity. 2,000 years later, every form of Christianity still uses the same 27 books as the official Canon of their religious faith.
– The New Testament, including every single version of the Christian Bible ever written, consists of the following 27 different books: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Acts, 6) Romans, 7) 1 Corinthians, 8) 2 Corinthians, 9) Galatians, 10) Ephesians, 11) Philippians, 12) Colossians, 13) 1 Thessalonians, 14) 2 Thessalonians, 15) 1 Timothy, 16) 2 Timothy, 17) Titus, 18) Philemon, 19) Hebrews, 20) James, 21) 1 Peter, 22) 2 Peter, 23) 1 John, 24) 2 John, 25) 3 John, 26) Jude,  27) Revelation.
– The New Testament was completely written by 8 known individuals over a 45 year period of time (~ 45-90 A.D.). Their names are as follows: 1) Matthew, 2) Mark, 3) Luke, 4) John, 5) Paul 6) James, 7) Peter, 8) Jude, 9) ????
– The individual who wrote the Letter to the Hebrews would be counted as the 9th author of the New Testament, yet his identity continues to remain unknown even today, nearly 2,000 years later.
– The New Testament has exactly 4 Gospels, 2 Books, and 21 Letters.
– The 4 New Testament Gospels include the Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, and the Gospel of John.
– The 2 New Testament Books are commonly known as the Book of Acts, and the Book of Revelation.
– The 21 New Testament Letters, as they written in the New Testament, include the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter toTimothy, Letter toTitus, Letter to Philemon, Letter to the Hebrews, Letter of James, 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, and the Letter to Jude.


Vital Statistics of the New Testament
Total Books: 27
Total Chapters: 260
Total Verses: ~7,957
Total Words: ~180,552
Total Letters: ~838,380
Middle Book: 2 Thessalonians
Middle Chapter: Romans 8, 9
Middle Verse: Acts 27:17
Smallest Book: 3 John
Largest Book: Luke
Shortest Verse: John 11:35
Longest Verse: Revelation 20:4
Longest Chapter: Luke 1

The 8 New Testament Authors and Saints
– The 8 New Testament authors and their respective contributions (27 Books) include St. Matthew (Gospel of Matthew), St. Mark (Gospel of Mark), St. Luke (Gospel of Luke, Book of Acts), St. John (Gospel of John, 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John, Book of Revelation), St. James (Letter of James), St. Peter (1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter), St. Jude (Letter of Jude), and St. Paul (Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2nd Letter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon)
– The 2 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Peter are traditionally referred to as the Petrine Epistles
– The 3 New Testament Letters attributed to St. John are traditionally referred to as the Johanine Epistles
– The 13 New Testament Letters attributed to St. Paul are traditionally referred to as the Pauline Epistles
– Some of the traditional names given to the New Testament authors include the following: Matthew the tax collector (Matthew), John-Mark (Mark),

A Basic Time-Line of the New Testament
45 A.D. – James writes the Letter of James
50 A.D. – Mark writes the Gospel of Mark
50 A.D. – Paul begins to write 13 Letters including the Letter to the Romans, 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 2nd Letter to the  Corinthians, Letter to the Galatians, Letter to the Ephesians, Letter to the Philippians, Letter to the Colossians, 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 1st Letter to Timothy, 2ntter to Timothy, Letter to Titus, Letter to Philemon
55 A.D. – Matthew writes the Gospel of Matthew
60 A.D. – Luke writes the Gospel of Luke
60 A.D. – Peter writes the 1st Letter of Peter, 2nd Letter of Peter
60 A.D. – Jude writes the Letter of Jude
65 A.D. – Luke writes the Book of Acts
65 A.D. – An Unknown Author writes the Letter to the Hebrew
70 A.D. – Paul finishes writing the last of his 13 letters
90 A.D. – John writes the Gospel of John
90 A.D. – John wrote the 1st Letter of John, 2nd Letter of John, 3rd Letter of John
90 A.D. – John writes the Book of Revelation  The

Full Titles of the 27 New Testament Books
1) The Gospel According to Matthew, 2) The Gospel According to Mark, 3) The Gospel According to Luke, 4) The Gospel According to John, 5) The Book of Acts, 6) The Letter to the Romans, 7) The 1st Letter to the Corinthians, 8) The 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, 9) The Letter to the Galatians, 10) The Letter to the Ephesians, 11) The Letter to the Philippians, 12) The Letter to the Colossians, 13) The 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, 14) The 2nd Letter to the Thessalonians, 15) The 1st Letter to Timothy, 16) The 2nd Letter to Timothy, 17) The Letter to Titus, 18) The Letter to Philemon, 19) The Letter to the Hebrews, 20) The Letter of James, 21) The 1st Letter of Peter, 22) The 2nd Letter of Peter 23) The 1st Letter of John, 24) The 2nd Letter of John, 25) The 3rd Letter of John, 26) The Letter of Jude, 27) The Book of Revelation

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

The Tradition of Judaism, Part I. Quotations about Jews and Judaism

Part I. Quotations about Jews and Judaism

I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that.

– Shylock, From The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare.


Who hates the Jews more than the Jew?

– Henry Miller

It is extremely difficult for a Jew to be converted, for how can he bring himself to believe in the divinity of another Jew?

– Heinrich Heine

Pessimism is a luxury that a Jew can never allow himself.

– Golda Meir

HEBREW, n. A male Jew, as distinguished from the She-brew, an altogether superior creation.

– Andrew Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary.

What one Christian does is his own responsibility, what one Jew does is thrown back at all Jews. – Anne Frank

To be a Jew is a destiny.

– Vicky Baum

Israel has created a new image of the Jew in the world – the image of a working and an intellectual people, of a people that can fight with heroism.

– David Ben-Gurion

If you ever forget you’re a Jew, a Gentile will remind you.

– Bernard Malamud

A baptised Jew is a circumcised Christian.

– German Proverb

In Jewish history there are no coincidences.

– Elie Wiesel

The Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation. If I were an atheist, and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations.

– John Adams

Yes, I am a Jew, and when the ancestors of the Right Honorable gentleman were brutal savages in an unknown island, mine were priests in the temple of Solomon.

– Benjamin Disraeli, Reply to a taunt by Daniel O’Connell.

Historically the profoundest meaning of Passover is something which sets Judaism apart from other religions. It marks the birth of a nation. Out of a mass of slaves, Moses fashioned a nation and gave them a faith.

– Philip S. Bernstein

These three are the marks of a Jew – a tender heart, self-respect, and charity.

– Hebrew Proverb

Why do Jewish men die before their wives? They want to.

– Henny Youngman

I marvel at the resilience of the Jewish people. Their best characteristic is their desire to remember. No other people has such an obsession with memory.

– Elie Wiesel

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the God of Israel.

The Good News Talmud, Part VI.

If sincere converts to Judaism enter Heaven, Antoninus will be at the head of them.

The Talmud, Leviticus Rabba 3

For those Jews and Christians who are familiar with the Maccabees, the following story may well be an old one. However, for those readers not acquainted with the story of the Maccabees, one should take note that both the Catholic and Orthodox Churches recognize several Jewish participants involved in the Maccabee Revolt to be Christian Saints residing in Christian Heaven. One of these Saints is know as Saint Antonin (or Anton, Antoninus, Antonio, etc.), one of the Seven ‘Holy Maccabee’ Sons of St. Solomonia (Hannah, Mirriam). Anyway, I just recently discovered this quote in the Talmud and it made me realize that the ancient Jews must have taken Greek names from some of the more famous Greek Gentiles who openly and publicly converted from Paganism to Judaism thousands of years ago and long before Christianity became an option. With that in mind, the Good News Talmud, Part VI. is dedicated to Saint Antoninus, a Jew so devout he willingly chose and endured hideous torture and death rather than eat even a single bite of pork- truly a Maccabee (and Judeo-Christian) hero forevermore.

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The Good News Talmud, Part VI.

TALMUD: Let no man be deterred from repenting by knowing the great depth of his sin. Let him bear in mind that he does not come to a stranger but to his Heavenly Father. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture and go after the one which is lost until he finds it? When he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!’ I tell you that in the same way, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance. (Luke 15:4-7)

TALMUD: The Tablets of the commandments were called Tablets of Stones, because the punishment for violating the commandments was death by stoning. (Exodus Rabba 41)
GOSPEL: Jesus went to the Mount of Olives….The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery, and having set her in the center of the court, they said to Him, ‘Teacher, this woman has been caught in adultery, in the very act. Now in the Law, Moses commanded us to stone such women; what then do You say?’ They were saying this, testing Him, so that they might have grounds for accusing Him. But Jesus stooped down and with His finger wrote on the ground…straightened up, and said to them, ‘Let He who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her.’…When they heard it, they began to go out one by one, beginning with the older ones, and He was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the center of the court. Straightening up, Jesus said to her, “Woman, where are they? Did no one condemn you?’ She said, ‘No one, LORD.’ And Jesus said, ‘I do not condemn you, either. Go and from now on sin no more.’ (John 8:1-11)

TALMUD: Let no man be deterred from repenting by knowing the great depth of his sin. Let him bear in mind that he does not come to a stranger but to his Heavenly Father. (Deuteronomy Rabba 2)
GOSPEL: For the Son of Man has come to save that which was lost. What do you think? If any man has a hundred sheep, and one of them has gone astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountains and go and search for the one that is straying? If it turns out that he finds it, truly I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine which have not gone astray. So it is not the will of your Father who is in Heaven that one of these little ones perish. (Matthew 18:11-14)

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The Talmud in Classical Format

TALMUD: The Torah was to God, when He created the world, what the plan is to an architect when he erects a building. (Genesis Rabba 1)
GOSPEL: Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house. Yet it did not fall, because it had its foundation on the rock. But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell with a great crash. (Matthew 7:24-28)

TALMUD: The proverb says, ‘If you give out your money in usury you will lose what you gain as well as your original capital.’ (Leviticus Rabba 3)
GOSPEL: For to everyone who has, more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but from the one who does not have, even what he does have shall be taken away. (Matthew 25:29)

TALMUD: Once a man, twice a child. – Genesis Rabba 42
GOSPEL: Jesus replied, “Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again.’ ‘How can someone be born when they are old?” Nicodemus asked. ‘Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother’s womb to be born!’ (John 3:3-4)

TALMUD: The pure of heart are God’s friends. (Genesis Rabba 41)
GOSPEL: Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. (Matthew 5:8)

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Guide to a Page of Talmud

TALMUD: Artaban sent Rabbi Judah Hanasa as a present a pearl of great value, and when be asked the Rabbi a present of equal value in return, the sage sent him a parchment (Ephesian letters). Artaban thought it unworthy, since his own gift was of such priceless value. Rabbi Judah replied that not only was his present precious above all the possessions of both, but it had immeasurable advantage over the valuable pearl, as care must be taken of the pearl, whilst his amulet would take care of its possessor. (Genesis Rabba 35)
GOSPEL: Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. (Matthew 7:6)

TALMUD: The human tongue is not free, like some other members of the human body, but is confined in the mouth, and moreover is constantly in moisture: yet how many burns can it cause with its sharp edge and its fire. How much worse then would it have been, were that dangerous member of the human body possessed of more facilities. (Leviticus Rabba 16)
GOSPEL: Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment, and whosoever shall say to his brother, `worthless one,’ shall be in danger of the council, but whosoever shall say, `Thou fool,’ shall be in danger of hell-fire. (Matthew 5:22)

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TALMUD: Rabbi Tanchuma, son of R. Cheya, laid it down as a maxim that it is man’s duty, when he becomes aware of any one having come down in the world, to consider the best means of helping him as quickly as possible. He himself would never purchase anything for his household without, at the same time, providing an equal quantity for the poor. (Leviticus Rabba 34)
GOSPEL: And He sat down opposite the treasury, and began observing how the people were putting money into the treasury, and many rich people were putting in large sums. A poor widow came and put in two small copper coins, which amount to a cent. Calling His disciples to Him, He said to them, ‘Truly I say to you, this poor widow put in more than all the contributors to the treasury for they all put in out of their surplus, but she, out of her poverty, put in all she owned, all she had to live on.’ (Mark 12:41-44)

TALMUD: When the poor stand at your door, remember that their Maker stands at their right hand (Psalms 109), and consider it a high privilege for you to help them. (Leviticus Rabba 34)
GOSPEL: There was a rich man who was dressed in purple and fine linen and lived in luxury every day. At his gate lay a beggar named Lazarus, covered with sores and longing to eat what fell from the rich man’s table. Even the dogs came and licked his sores. The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried. In Hades, where he was in torment, he looked up and saw Abraham far away, with Lazarus by his side. So he called to him, ‘Father Abraham, have pity on me and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in agony in this fire.’ But Abraham replied, ‘Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, while Lazarus received bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in agony. And besides all this, between us and you a great chasm has been set in place, so that those who want to go from here to you cannot, nor can anyone cross over from there to us.’ (Luke 16:19-26)

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The Simpsons learn Talmud with Krusty the Klown’s Father

TALMUD: Broken things are not admired, but God is pleased with a broken spirit and contrite heart. (Leviticus Rabba 7)
GOSPEL: Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I (too) am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light. (Matthew 11:28-30)

TALMUD: All contention amongst the Israelites ceased when they stood at the foot of Sinai to receive the commandments, and owing to the peace and harmony that existed then amongst them they were fit and qualified to receive God’s behests. (Leviticus Rabba 9)
GOSPEL: James and John, the two sons of Zebedee, came up to Jesus, saying, ‘Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask of You.’ And He said to them, ‘What do you want Me to do for you?’ They said to Him, “Grant that we may sit, one on Your right and one on Your left, in Your glory.’ But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?’ They said to Him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, ‘The cup that I drink you shall drink; and you shall be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized. But to sit on My right or on My left, this is not Mine to give; but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.’ Hearing this, the ten began to feel indignant with James and John. Calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, ‘You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not this way among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant. and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.’ (Mark 10: 35-45)

TALMUD: Once a man, twice a child. – Genesis Rabba 42
GOSPEL: At that time the disciples came to Jesus and said, ‘Who then is greatest in the kingdom of heaven?’ And He called a child to Himself and set him before them, and said, “Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of Heaven. Whoever then humbles himself as this child, he is the greatest in the kingdom of Heaven. And whoever receives one such child in My name receives Me, but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depths of the sea.’ (Matthew 18:1-6)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Maccabees.

The Good News Talmud, Part II.

The Good News Talmud, Part II.

 

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TALMUD: Two sheep and two tenth parts of flour were demanded as an offering, whereas of wine only the smallest possible quantity was to be offered. This was a hint that wine is always to be used sparingly, as indulgence in it leads to mischief. (Talmud, Tanchum. Sheminee)
GOSPEL: While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, ‘Take, eat, this is My body.‘ And when He had taken a cup of wine and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.’ (Matthew 26:26-29)

TALMUD: Have no undue compassion for tyrants, and you will not become a tyrant over those who deserve compassion. (Tanchum. Metzora)
GOSPEL: ‘Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.’…And He said to them, ‘Whose likeness and inscription is this?’ They said to Him, ‘Caesar‘s.’ Then He said to them, ‘Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar‘s; and to God the things that are God’s.’ And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away. (Matthew 22:19-22, Mark 12:17, Luke 20:25)

TALMUD: (Jerusalem in) Palestine is destined to be the centre of the globe. (Tanchum. Kedoshim)
GOSPEL: Nevertheless I must journey on…for it cannot be that a prophet would perish outside of Jerusalem. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, just as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not have it! Behold…you will not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD!’ (Luke 13:33-35)

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TALMUD: God blessed Adam, Noah and Abraham, but He endowed Abraham with the power of blessing which the Lord will endorse. (Talmud, Tanchum. Nosou)
GOSPEL #1: Some men were carrying on a bed a man who was paralyzed; and they were trying to bring him in and to set him down in front of Him. But not finding any way to bring him in because of the crowd, they went up on (T)the roof and let him down…with his stretcher…in front of Jesus. Seeing their faith, He said, “Friend, your sins are forgiven you.’ The scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, ‘Who is this man who speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?‘ But Jesus, aware of their reasonings, answered and said to them, “Why are you reasoning in your hearts? Which is easier to say, ‘Your sins have been forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk?’ (Just) so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.” He said to the paralyzed man,  ‘I say to you, get up, and pick up your stretcher and go home.’ Immediately he got up before them, and picked up what he had been lying on, and went home glorifying God. They were all struck with astonishment…saying, ‘We have seen remarkable things today.’ (Luke 5:18-26)
GOSPEL #2: For you will go on BEFORE THE LORD TO PREPARE HIS WAYS, To give to His people the knowledge of salvation by the forgiveness of their sins, because of the tender mercy of our God with which the Sunrise from on high will visit us. (Luke 1:76-78)

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The Joshua (Jesus) Talmud

TALMUD: God consulted the Torah when about to create man, but the Torah was dubious about calling man into existence, for since his days would be so short and his ways so perverted he would require much forbearance. God’s reply was, ‘By thee (Torah) I declare myself as a God merciful, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and in truth.’ (Talmud, Tanchum. Pekudai)
GOSPEL: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men. The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (John 1:1-5)

TALMUD: This much one should know, the phrase…’the world to come’ does not imply that it is a world yet to be called into existence; it exists already, but the phrase is employed to describe the life into which those who are in the present stage of existence will be transposed when they throw off this mortal coil. (Tanchum. Vayikra)
GOSPEL: Truly I tell you, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God. (Luke 9:27, Matthew 16:28, Mark 9:1)

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TALMUD: The leper, the blind, the abject poor, and those who have no progeny, are as though dead . (Talmud, Tanchum. Tsav)
GOSPEL:  Now as He approached the gate of the city, a dead man was being carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow…When the LORD saw her, He felt compassion for her, and said to her, ‘Do not weep.’ And He came up and touched the coffin; and the bearers came to a halt. And He said, ‘Young man, I say to you, arise!’ The dead man sat up and began to speak. And Jesus gave him back to his mother. Fear gripped them all, and they began glorifying God. (Luke 7:12-16)

TALMUD: The leper, the blind, the abject poor, and those who have no progeny,are as though dead . (Talmud, Tanchum. Tsav)
GOSPEL: ‘Your daughter is dead,” they said. “Why bother the teacher anymore?” Overhearing what they said, Jesus told him, ‘Don’t be afraid; just believe’…When they came to the home of the synagogue leader, Jesus saw a commotion, with people crying and wailing loudly. He went in and said to them, ‘Why all this commotion and wailing? The child is not dead but asleep.’ 40 But they laughed at him. After he put them all out, he took the child’s father and mother…and went in where the child was. 41 He took her by the hand and said to her, “Talitha koum!’… Immediately the girl stood up and began to walk around (she was twelve years old). At this they were completely astonished.  (Mark 5:35-42)

TALMUD: The leper, the blind, the abject poor, and those who have no progeny, are as though dead. (Talmud, Tanchum. Tsav)
GOSPEL: Jesus said to him, ‘Follow Me, and allow the dead to bury their own dead.’ (Matthew 8:22)

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TALMUD: In order not to cause jealousy as to who should be the seventy elders, Moses cast lots by taking seventy-two slips representing six of each tribe, writing the word ‘elder’ on seventy of the slips and leaving the two odd ones blank. Seventy-two men then drew out each of them a slip, and those who drew blanks had to give up their claims (Tanchum. Behaaloscha)
GOSPEL #1: After this the Lord appointed seventy-two others and sent them two by two ahead of him to every town and place where he was about to go…The seventy-two returned with joy and said, “Lord, even the demons submit to us in your name.’ (Luke 10:1,17) in New International Version, Douay-Rheims 1899 American Version

GOSPEL #2: Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come…The seventy returned with joy, saying, ‘Lord, even the demons are subject to us in Your name.’  (Luke 10:1,17) in New American Standard,  New King James or 21st Century King James Version

TALMUD The harp upon which the Levites played had seven strings. (Talmud, Tanchum. Behaaloscha)
GOSPEL:  And Jesus called His disciples to Him, and said, ‘I feel compassion for the people…and I do not want to send them away hungry, for they might faint on the way.’ The disciples said to Him, ‘Where would we get so many loaves in this desolate place to satisfy such a large crowd?’ And Jesus said to them, ‘How many loaves do you have?’ And they said, ‘Seven, and a few small fish.’ And He directed the people to sit down on the ground and He took the seven loaves and the fish; and giving thanks, He broke them and started giving them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the people. And they all ate and were satisfied, and they picked up what was left over of the broken pieces, seven large baskets full. And those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children. (Matthew 15:32-37)

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May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Good News Talmud, Part I.

The Christian Talmud and the Jewish Gospels

I have been an amateur, Gentile Scholar of the Jewish Talmud for around ten or so years. I do not speak Yiddish, Aramaic, or Hebrew. Even so, and given everything I have learned so far without any Jewish input or instruction, I must conclude that the history of Gentile Christian animosity towards this astounding set of documents should be seen as a superstitious, unreasonable assault on common sense, let alone Biblical scholarship and practical judgment.

In reality, the Talmud is literally 99.999% acceptable to nearly all forms of Christian thought and reflects a sense of ethics and morality that is, in fact, far more strict than any form of Christianity. Those who still object to the .001% of the text which may, or may not, be offensive to Christianity, are lost in the land of irrationality and, God willing, someone will save them from themselves. Anyway, here is ABSOLUTE PROOF of an ancient, very real Judeo-Christian tradition embedded in both the Jewish Talmud and the Christian Gospel of Matthew. For those of you who have ever been mocked or ridiculed by either Jewish or Gentile intellectuals who insist that they has never been a Judeo-Christian tradition, here is your undeniable vindication.

TALMUD: Man has two hands, but he is not to rob with the one and give
donations with the other. (Talmud, Midrash Proverbs 11)
GOSPEL: When you give to the poor, do not let your left hand know what
your right hand is doing, so that your giving will be in secret; and
your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you. (Matthew 6:3-4)

TALMUD: Swear not at all, not even to the truth. (Talmud, Tanchum, Vayikra)
GOSPEL: I tell you, Do not swear at all. (Matthew 5:34)

TALMUD: The pure of heart are God’s friends. (Talmud, Genesis Rabba 41)
GOSPEL: Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. (Matthew 5:8)

TALMUD: If you intend to put man to rights, put yourself to rights
first. (Talmud, Midrash Psalms 53)
GOSPEL: Why do you look at the speck that is in your brother’s eye,
but do not notice the log that is in your own eye?…You hypocrite,
first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly
to take the speck out of your brother’s eye. (Matthew 7:3-5)

TALMUD: Have no compunction to chastise where chastisement is called
for. It will produce not animosity, but eventually love and peace.
(Talmud, Genesis Rabba 54)
GOSPEL: Moreover if your brother should trespass against you, go and
tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he will hear you, you
have gained your brother. (Matthew 18:16)

TALMUD: God knows our thoughts before they are formed. (Talmud, Genesis Rabba 9)
GOSPEL: Your Father knows what you need before you ask Him. (Matthew 6:8)

TALMUD: The truth of the Torah is a weapon to its possessor. (Talmud, Numbers Rabba 12)
GOSPEL: Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth. I did
not come to bring peace, but a sword. (Matthew 10:34)

TALMUD: One of the characteristics of the righteous is that their yes
is yes, and their no is no. (Talmud, Midrash Ruth 7)
GOSPEL: Simply let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No’ be ‘No’,
anything beyond this comes from the evil one. (Matthew 5:37)

TALMUD: Man’s eyes and his heart prompt him to sin. (Talmud, Numbers Rabba 17)
GOSPEL: I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has
already committed adultery with her in his heart. (Matthew 5:28)

TALMUD: Adultery can be committed with the eyes. (Talmud, Leviticus Rabba 23)
GOSPEL: I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has
already committed adultery with her in his heart. (Matthew 5:28)

TALMUD: Immediately when a man is born he proceeds into death, when he
dies he proceeds into life. (Talmud, Midrash Samuel 23)
GOSPELS: He who has found his life will lose it, and he who has lost
his life for My sake will find it. (Matthew 10:39)

TALMUD: The Guardian Angels are always near God’s throne. (Talmud,
Tanchum, Sazrea)
GOSPELS: Take heed that you do not despise one of these little ones,
for I say unto you that in Heaven their angels do always behold the
face of my Father which is in Heaven. (Matthew 18:10)

TALMUD: God lends eloquence to the suppliant. (Talmud, Midrash
Proverbs 15)
GOSPEL: Do not worry about how or what you are to say, for it will be
given you in that hour what you are to say. For it is not you who
speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. (Matthew
10:19-20)

TALMUD: No one can imagine the reward of him who accepts all his
sorrows and reverses with religious resignation. (Talmud, Tanchum, Kee
Saizai)
GOSPEL: Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and
falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and
be glad, because great is your reward in heaven. (Matthew 5:11-12)

TALMUD: What Solomon meant to convey by the words, ‘What profit has a
man of all his labor which he does under the sun?’ (Ecclesiaste 1:2)
is that whatever a man may possess on earth, under the sun, he must
inevitably part with, but it is different if he provides for himself
above the sun, in Heaven. (Talmud, Midrash Ecclesiastes 1)
GOSPEL: A man came up to Jesus and asked, “Teacher, what good thing
must I do to get eternal life?’…Jesus answered, ‘If you want to be
perfect, go, sell your possessions and give to the poor, and you will
have treasure in Heaven. Then come, follow me.’ (Matthew 19:16-21)

TALMUD: As the sea throws up its debris upon the shores, so the wicked
have filthiness upon their mouths. (Talmud, Midrash Psalms 2)
GOSPELS: Jesus asked them. ‘Don’t you see that whatever enters the
mouth goes into the stomach and then out of the body? But the things
that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and these make a man
unclean. For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery,
sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander.’ (Matthew
15:16-19)

TALMUD: When no justice is done here below, it will be accomplished
from above. (Talmud, Deuteronomy Rabba 5)
GOSPEL: But many who are first will be last, and many who are last
will be first. (Matthew 19:30)

TALMUD: Swear not at all, not even to the truth. (Talmud, Tanchum,
Vayikra)
GOSPEL: I tell you, Do not swear at all: either by heaven, for it is
God’s throne; or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by
Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. And do not swear by
your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. (Matthew
5:34-36)

TALMUD: To do justice and righteousness is more acceptable to God than
sacrifices (Proverbs 21:3)…Sacrifices atoned only for sins committed
in error not for presumptuous sin, justice and righteousness atone for
all sins. (Talmud, Deuteronmy Rabba 5)
GOSPEL If only you had known what this means, ‘I desire mercy, and not
sacrifice,’ you would not have condemned the guiltless. (Matthew 12:7)

TALMUD: Let no man boast of his exalted position. Even so great a man
as Samuel received a rebuke for his lack of modesty.
(Talmud, Midrash Samuel 12)
GOSPEL: Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child,
the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 18:4)

TALMUD: God will wipe away tears from off all faces (Isaiah 25:8).
This means from the faces of non-Jews as well as Jews.
(Talmud, Genesis Rabba 26)
GOSPEL: Behold, my servant whom I have chosen…I will put my Spirit
upon him, and he shall declare judgment to the Gentiles….And in his
name shall the Gentiles hope. (Matthew 12:18-21)

TALMUD: The leper, the blind, the abject poor, and those who have no
children are as though they are dead. (Talmud, Tanchum,Tsav)
GOSPEL: Another of the disciples said to Him, ‘Lord, permit me first
to go and bury my father.’ But Jesus said to him, ‘Follow Me, and
allow the dead to bury their own dead.’ (Matthew 8:21-22)

TALMUD: When no justice is done here below, it will be accomplished
from above. (Talmud, Deuteronomy Rabba 5)
GOSPEL: Many who are first will be last, and many who are last will be
first. (Matthew 19:30)

TALMUD: He who hears himself abused (or cursed) and does not retaliate
may be called a saintly man. (Talmud, Midrash Psalms 16)
GOSPEL: I tell you do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes
you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. (Matthew 5:38)

TALMUD: The proverb says, ‘If you give out your money in usury you
will lose what you gain as well as your original capital.’ (Talmud,
Leviticus Rabba 3)
GOSPEL: For whoever has, to him shall be given and he shall have
abundance: but whoever has not, from him shall be taken away even that
which he has. (Matthew 13:12)

TALMUD: The righteous are put to more and severer trials than the
unrighteous. (Talmud, Tanchum,Vaayro)
GOSPEL: Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:10)

TALMUD: When the prophets went forth on their mission the Holy Spirit
rested upon them, awed and surprised their audience, and inspired them
with respect for the prophets. (Talmud, Numbers Rabba 10)
GOSPEL: Jesus summoned His twelve disciples and gave them authority
over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every kind of
disease and every kind of sickness…These twelve Jesus sent out after
instructing them: ‘Do not go in the way of the Gentiles…but rather
go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel…Heal the sick, raise the
dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons. Freely you received, freely
give.’ (Matthew 10:1-8)

These passages are proof positive that the Christian Gospels were definitively Jewish in origin, reflecting mainstream Jewish thought
and sentiment as seen during the lifetime of Joshua (Jesus Christ) that has continued, parallel with Christianity for thousands of years
since that time. May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Judeo-Christian, Part V. The Working-Class Hands of the LORD God

Fear God and keep His Commandments for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13


Part V. The Working-Class Hands of the LORD God

In many ways, modern man seems to have overlooked many obvious, yet vitally important parts of the Bible, most especially the very first one or two pages. Indeed, one of the strangest aspects to the beginning of the Book of Genesis is how the author Moses first discusses God, Elohim in Hebrew, who goes about creating the Heavens and the Earth and all the living plants and animals by using words alone, but then changes the subject entirely and suddenly introduces a completely different entity known as the LORD God, called Adonai in Hebrew. This particular Divine being finds Himself in the dark void that existed before Creation where the water is rising up from the depths of the Abyss, perhaps threateningly. Almost immediately, the LORD God creates His own version of a man from clay, dirt, and water, by using His hands, just like a working-class craftsman would do, and endows the little creature with an immortal soul, calling him Adam. He then places His new creation in a garden on Earth, called Eden, which He has carefully cultivated and organized, once again just like a working-class male working for a landscape company that gets His hands dirty for a living, rather than some uppity, elitist sorcerer who can create with mere words alone.

Reading Scriptures closely enough, one notices that, except for the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, the other plants and trees in the garden are not really His personal creation. Obviously, the LORD must have taken them from the surrounding wilderness that God had already created out of nothing using only the power of His words. Later, like a talented sculptor, the LORD God once again uses His hands to create different animals from the pre-existing water, dirt and clay and then has the man Adam name these new creations separately, like an expert Zoology professor teaching his young graduate student how to classify new species.

He’s got the whole world in His hands

Unlike God who, in the beginning, created life from just words and without hands, the LORD God apparently uses His hands quite often and with skilled craftsmanship. Also, like a professional surgeon and match-maker, the LORD goes on to carefully remove a rib bone from Adam, stitches up the wound, and then creates a female companion for him named Eve. Put bluntly, the LORD God may not be an omnipotent Creator like God, but He is obviously very skilled at using His Hands in a variety of ways.

When I’m out walking, I strut my stuff yeah I’m so strung out. I’m high
as a kite I just might stop to check you out. Let me go on like I blister in
the sun. Let me go on Big Hands I know you’re the one.

– Blister in the Sun, by the Violent Femmes

Throughout the centuries, some Biblical scholars, starting with the Gnostics, have come to some very strange conclusions about God, who created everything using only his voice, and the LORD God, who sculpted, tended garden, and performed medical surgery using His own two hands to perform these tasks. Because of these innate differences, some have apparently decided that the LORD God is an insane impostor god, a Devil, who is keeping us from discovering the higher, one, true God that created all life through His words in just six days. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Indeed, the LORD God’s talented use of His hands is similar to the way mankind differs from any of the other animals. Put specifically, it is man alone that has learned to use his or her hands to manipulate objects with increasing precision in order to create various types of useful, material inventions. Reading Genesis carefully, the LORD God’s hand-made designs truly indicate He has been a master-craftsman from the very beginning of creation and that, ever since Adam, mankind has been kept busy as His various apprentices and assistant journeymen along the way.

As it clearly states in Genesis, God, called Elohim, does indeed create man in His own image, but does not bother to give any of them names or help them to survive the wild and feed themselves. In stark contrast, the LORD God, known simply as Adonai, creates only one man, calls him Adam, and endows him with an immortal soul that survives biological death, taking care to give him healthy produce from the Garden so that he never goes hungry. Then, like a good father, the LORD becomes worried that His single male creation might be lonely and need a suitable partner, almost as if the LORD God had also known personally what it was like to day-dream and long for female companionship and heterosexual love.

As everyone knows, the LORD God specifically commands Adam and Eve not to eat from the two special trees in the middle of His garden called Eden. Unfortunately, the wicked serpent almost immediately seduces them both into disobedience and wicked behavior, causing the LORD to become enraged, much like a cautious master-craftsman who finds that His apprentice, along with his new girl, has just managed to ruin and destroy everything.

Using the fossil records left from past ages, scientists now believe that huge reptiles called dinosaurs were the first life-forms before any mammals, including man, came into existence. Remember that serpents are also reptiles which are directly related to the dinosaurs. With all that in mind, there seems to be a distinct possibility that highly-advanced reptile humanoids from the distant past managed to develop dinosaurs on earth, but eventually proved incapable of making them intelligent and self-aware- like the LORD God made man. The Jewish Babylonian Talmud states the following:

The higher the position the greater is the fall, and this applies to the
serpent, who, not only was the chief of all animals, but walked upright
like man, and when it fell it sank into the reptile world.

– Genesis Rabba 19

In contrast, the LORD God’s hand-crafted, warm-blooded, mammalian creation known as mankind eventually succeeded, as history as shown, just as the cold-blooded serpent’s feeble attempts at evolution, which only created extremely stupid dinosaurs, failed miserably.

 

Ten Commandments

In truth, man’s slow, but steady progress out of the Neanderthal caves of yesteryear is mainly due to the LORD God’s continued love and attention for His creation. Basically, the God who creates life by words alone is still the unknowable, the unthinkable, while the highly-skilled craftsman known as the LORD God, who creates immortal souls with his own two hands, has probably been the true source of our intellectual and societal advancement for thousands of years. Obviously, the LORD God of the Holy Bible is a male with hands and feet just like mankind and has probably been married to a female goddess sometime before, but is now alone and preoccupied with caring for the men and women of planet Earth. Indeed, it is the LORD God, the Father, endowed with a distinct, individual personality, who has been the hidden intelligence guiding Jews, Christians, and Muslims towards a glorious and beautiful future that still lies ahead.

 

A Special-Effects Photo depicting God’s Hands

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian tradition..

Maccabee Judaism- Ancient Prophecy and Modern Times

Judaism’s Orphan Child from Pagan Rome Named Christianity
Do Jews go to heaven? Several Protestant theologians from the past, and from today, remain convinced that all of them go to hell. Being a Roman Catholic, I do not subscribe to those beliefs. In contrast to this, the founder of modern Protestant Christianity, Martin Luther, became a virulent anti-Semite after feeling that the ‘Jews’ had somehow ‘spurned’ him and ended up writing some atrocious lies about the Jews which both Adolph Hitler and Karl Marx used centuries later as part of their anti-Semitic propaganda. Truth to tell, there have been individuals within the Roman Catholic Church who have been just as hateful towards Jews and Judaism. This has been counterbalanced with others who have been quite friendly. What is the official Roman Catholic Church policy on this issue? Any devout Jew who lives life with a faith in God and obeys the laws of Judaism is immediately rewarded after death with admission into Heaven to be with God forever. That is the Church policy of today and I am quite sure that it will never change. Indeed, there are twelve thrones (out of 24) specifically designated for the twelve tribes of Israel in Heaven.

Surrounding the throne I saw twenty-four other thrones on which twenty-four
elders sat, dressed in white garments and with gold crowns on their heads.
From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings, and peals of thunder.

– Revelation 4:4-5

Personally, I see, or visualize, a Heaven where the LORD Jesus Christ himself is surrounded by a large number of historically famous and saintly Rabbis, residing in some huge castle in the clouds. There they discuss and debate all the fine points of the laws of Judaism, along with a great many other subjects. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and his twelve sons, along with Moses and many others are also there. The House of LORD Jesus is probably not the only castle in Heaven. As Christ Himself said, ‘For in my father’s house there are many mansions.’ This is referring to the many houses of Israel mentioned in the Bible that include the House of Judah, the House of Esau, the House of Joseph, The House of David, and the House of Jason, along with dozens of others.

As a Roman Catholic, my beliefs have been shaped by the folk wisdom of the Church which claims that even though quite a few of us go to Heaven, most of us end up in Purgatory, while a very few are condemned to Hell forever. Jewish folk wisdom throughout the ages has mirrored this theory and both of them are probably fairly close to the truth. The Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church states quite clearly: ‘The Jews should not be spoken of as rejected or accursed as if this followed from Holy Scripture.’ The absurd theory, advocated by some Protestants, that all Jews are condemned forever to the burning fires of Hell is nonsensical and not really worthy of a response considering the very real fires that came from the genocidal ovens of the Holocaust. Pope John Paul II has made tremendous strides in eradicating such cruel notions from the minds of most, if not all, Roman Catholics. As the ‘liberal’ bumper sticker declares: ‘Hatred is not a family value.’ The Church could not have said it any better. It’s best that we all remember what King David stated in Psalms about what to actually expect when we pass away. It is as follows:

The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not want. He leads beside green
pastures and past the still waters. He restores my soul. He leads me
on the right path for the sake of His name. Yea, though I walk through
the valley of the shadow of death I will fear no evil, for the LORD is
with me. With his rod and staff he comforts me. He prepares a table
for me in the sight of my enemies. He anoints my head, my cup overflows.
Surely goodness and mercy will follow me all the days of my life and I
will dwell in the House of the LORD forever.

– Psalms 23:1-6

It should be mentioned that the Roman Catholic Church’s first Saints, meaning those whom the Church knows to be in Heaven are, in fact, Jews. They were never Christian, but were martyrs during the War of the Maccabees more than a century and a half before Christ. They include Judas, Simon, and Jonathan Maccabeus, along with seven brothers who laid down their lives by refusing to eat pork at the command of the Greek tyrants who killed them. Thus, the Church’s policy concerning the ‘Jewish question’ is quite simple- there have been Jews in Heaven from the beginning. This may seem surprising to some Christians, but long before Hitler and his genocide of the Jews, the Church has clearly pointed out that the Jews cannot be blamed for what a very few of their distant ancestors did to condemn Jesus Christ to death. It must be remembered that, according to thousands of years of tradition, Christianity declares Jesus, a devout Jew, to be the Prince of Heaven and his own Jewish mother Mary to be Queen of Heaven.

Pope John Paul II stated on several occasions that Roman Catholics should think of the Jews as elder brothers in the faith. I disagree with this idea because throughout history, the strength of the Church has been used to bully the Jews in a way that only an older, bigger brother would treat a younger brother. Truly, the Jews have exemplified Abel and all too often the Christians have acted like Cain. Hopefully in the future, this will change and further ties can be established between these two long-lost brothers. Except for the quiet Jewish refusal to accept Jesus as the Messiah, the laws, morals and ethics of each religion are so similar that all that is really left to do is to cordially discuss theology and what I consider the most important goal of finally circumcising the Gentiles, from Europe to Asia to Africa, once and for all.

Jews, Gentiles, and the Future of Judaism
Some Jews of today seem to be worried that their religion, their traditions and their culture is on the road to extinction. Some Gentiles look upon the situation with a smile. I’m not one of them. In fact, I truly believe that if Jesus Christ doesn’t show up to rule over all of us, as he is predicted to do so by Christian believers, then Judaism will continue indefinitely. The religion of Judaism is neither based nor founded upon the denial of Jesus Christ as the Messiah as some modern Jews may mistakenly believe. In fact, it is a religion that has been practiced long, long before there ever was a Rabbi Jesus to deny. It is the same religion that was practiced by all of His first Apostles and all of the first disciples. It is the religion of Jesus Himself, not the denial of Him. One could go so far as to say that Christianity is basically a very large sect of Judaism that has almost conquered the entire world. To be a Jew is not to deny Jesus, but to affirm God the Father and His transcendence. It must be remembered that Christianity, like Islam, worships the Jewish God of the Old Testament as God the Father. They simply do not adhere to all the laws that Jews do.

Strictly speaking, Judaism could claim that it is the Christians who are the heretics for not obeying the laws of circumcision, kosher food, along with many other requirements. Jesus and his Apostles did practice these laws and it was only later on that things changed. It is sad that they have. Being a Judaizer within the Church, I would like to see a Christianity that did practice literally all the laws of the Judaism as well. Unfortunately, in today’s world, this seems unlikely. What is likely is that over the course of the next couple centuries, the religion of Orthodox Judaism will remain, while Reform and Conservative Judaism will become more and more Orthodox or, instead, fade away into the Gentile majority. Secular Judaism, if there ever was such a thing, will not stand the test of time. Orthodoxy, like a diamond, will not be scratched out of history. It will remain in place in order to authenticate any future Messiah. They will be like a canary in a coal mine, practicing the same 613 commandments that Jesus Himself practiced two thousand years ago. For as Christ himself said:

Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets:
I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until
heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter,
will pass from the law, until all is accomplished…

– Matthew 5:17-18

It is unfortunate that Peter and James went against this teaching of the Gospels and allowed Gentile converts to Christianity to remain uncircumcised and to eat unkosher foods. There’s nothing to stop Christianity from being both kosher and circumcised. Messianic Judaism is a perfect example of this. Although their followers are Christian, they practice most, if not all, the laws of Judaism as well. This is a unique synthesis for what promises to be a worthwhile influx of Jewish tradition into a new type of Christianity. Let’s hope it lasts the test of time instead of fading away and melding with mainline Christian denominations.

Another interesting and fairly recent phenomenon concerns the large amount of Jewish-Catholic families that have been created recently. This has not been seen since the days of Weimar Germany, just before Hitler rose to power. At the time, it looked like many Jews were happily assimilating into the Catholic Church. Today, the same thing is occurring, but these new Jewish-Catholic families are also retaining their Jewish identity and traditions as well. This is a good thing and will not detriment Roman Catholicism in the least. These additional Jewish members to Christianity will find themselves welcomed for many years to come. Orthodox Judaism never likes to lose Jews to Christianity, but their ranks are likely to remain relatively untouched by the massive intermarriage taking place. Are Jews going extinct? Not at all. Again like a diamond, and especially among the Orthodox communities, their obedience to God’s commandments, coupled with their keen sense of ethics and morality, will continue to provide everyone with ‘a light unto the Gentiles.’

Anti-Semitic Insinuation
The research and study of the Jewish people is not an exact science. However, certain conclusions can be drawn in some areas without resorting to stereotyping. One of those conclusions is that scholars who end up, after researching the subject, not liking, or even hating the Jews are letting emotions dictate over reason. This includes Jews themselves who sometimes turn out to be what Sander Gilman referred to as ‘self-hating Jews.’ Another conclusion is that some Jews can also be guilty of letting feelings like personal pride, rather than rational thought, guide them in their search for anti-Semitism. For example, a scholar who comes away judging Sigmund Freud as a fraud and a pervert who committed incest is considered by some to be an obvious anti-Semite. On the other hand, a scholar who reveres Karl Marx is given a pass even though he harbors some pretty harsh criticisms towards the nation-state of Israel. Why is that? Once again, it is because emotions are guiding the debate over whom or what is an anti-Semite.

For example, some Gentile conservatives who harbor a deep respect, or even affection, towards the Jewish people, have been hounded as anti-Semites for their harsh attacks upon historical Jewish figures such as Spinoza, Marx, Lenin and Freud, all of whom were atheists and did not practice Judaism. At the same time, Gentile liberals who hold some pretty virulent thoughts towards Israel, and religious Jews, are let off the hook, simply because they are liberal. Will this ever change or will Gentiles who revere the ancient Jews like Abraham, Moses and Jesus over the modern degenerates just mentioned always end up being labeled anti-Semites? For the time being they will, but given a few decades this will probably no longer be the case. The reason why is that Jews no longer have to be liberal in order to combat anti-Semitism. Conservatism and neo-conservatism are now becoming viable alternatives as well. The Jews have been let into the club, so to speak, and may now safely become more politically diverse than they once were.

Many people forget that, in Europe, Jews had to be liberal because the conservatives wouldn’t accept them. The same thing applies in this country where Jews were banned from membership into certain Golf country clubs simply because they were Jews. That was a scant twenty years ago. Jews are also disliked by many black Americans whom are still apt to believe some of the slanders and lies about Jews from the not-too-distant past. As time goes by, more and more Jews will become conservative thus balancing the overwhelmingly liberal tendencies found in today’s Jewish people. What follows are some typical comments that knee-jerk liberals would label as ‘Nazi’, but are in fact true. The proper responses to them are also listed. They are as follows:

Insinuation *** Response
USURY: Many international bankers are Jewish. *** Just a few short centuries ago, Jews were the only people permitted to charge interest and become money-lenders, while for Christian Gentiles, this was strictly forbidden. It’s no secret. Jews have been lending money to Gentiles for several centuries on a literally exclusive basis.
HOLLYWOOD: The Jews run Hollywood. *** The Jewish influence in Hollywood has been receding since the 1940s. This is probably the last generation of any real prominent Jewish influence. Latinos, Asians and Blacks will probably be making their mark in Hollywood in the years to come.
BIGOTRY: Some Jews are, in fact, ethnocentric and are quite proud of themselves  *** Many Gentiles are also extremely ethnocentric and extremely proud of themselves as well.
GENETICS: Many Jews come from the Ashkenazi, who were a converted tribe of Gentiles from Eastern Europe, and contain very little true blood from the tribe of Judah. *** While Jews are, in fact, an ethnicity they are also a religious community. Ashkenazi Jews are seen as full Jews because ‘purity’ of blood is not a requirement to be Jewish. Anyone can convert to Judaism and be considered a Jew.
MARX: Karl Marx, founder of socialism and communism, ‘workers of the world unite,’ never worked a hard day’s work in his entire life. *** Karl Marx was a convert to Christianity when young and then became a practicing Satanist at University. He despised Jews and Judaism. He still never worked a hard day’s work in his entire life.
FREUD: Sigmund Freud never cured a single patient of mental illness during his entire career. *** Sigmund Freud was a self-proclaimed ‘godless Jew’ his entire life and saw religion as a mentally-ill fantasy. He also committed incest with his own blood niece.

The Good Jew & Evil Gentile
In reality, truly evil Jews are extremely rare and always have been. They remain an endangered species on the brink of extinction. Only anti-Semites will mourn their disappearance. A quick comparison of Jews and Gentiles throughout history indicates that the Jews have almost always been the good guy and not the bad guy. The following chart illustrates this reality:

The Jewish Good Guy and the Gentile Bad Guy

Genesis
Abel: A peaceful shepherd who worshiped and pleased the LORD.
Cain: A violent, jealous farmer who murdered his brother Abel.

Biblical Sexuality
Abraham: Practiced heterosexual monogamy with only Sarah and Hagar.
Sodom: Practiced homosexual sodomy, including numerous ritual orgies.

Jerusalem (33 AD)
Jesus: A peaceful prophet who obeyed God.
Pontius Pilate: A violent dictator who had Him killed.

Germany (Early 20th Century)
Albert Einstein: A genius scientist who renounced warfare and promoted peace.
Adolph Hitler: A mad, tyrant war-monger who killed millions of Jews.

Politics
Barry Goldwater: An anti-Communist Jewish-Christian.
Josef Stalin: An anti-Semitic, Communist murderer.

Classical Music
Felix Mendelssohn: A Jewish-Christian who wrote music in praise of God.
Richard Wagner: An anti-Semite who wrote music dedicated to the pagan ‘gods’.

This comparison list of famous individuals clearly shows that, throughout history, it has almost always been the Gentiles who were the bad guys. The Maccabee Christian Churches hopes to end this recurring tragedy and vicious circle of hate through a renewal of both Jewish and Christian faith throughout the world. Anti-Semitism is not only found among poor and uneducated Gentiles, but among some fairly smart people. Bobby Fischer, a world-champion chess player, and a known anti-Semite once said, ‘I’m not an anti-Semite, I like the Arabs.’ What he meant was that the Jews were not the only Semitic people and therefore the whole term anti-Semitism was nonsense. He does have a point. I think his main point, however, was a case of anti-Semitic insinuation. It wasn’t funny. Anti-Semitism is not nonsense, but the occasional criticism of Jews on an individual basis is also not always anti-Semitism. One should always judge others by what they say and do, not by who they are. Christians especially, must remember what Jesus said, ‘Judge not or you will be judged, for by your own judgment you will be judged.’

Ending Anti-Semitism
The history of the Jews is one of the most tragic, heroic and implausible stories imaginable. The sheer fact that millions of them still exist and have practiced the same 613 commandments for over 3,000 years has no other precedent in human history. It is a miracle by any other name. Their language Hebrew, which came literally out of nowhere, is the oldest known written language in the world. Egyptian hieroglyphics, dating from around the same time period, not to mention Chinese or Hindi script, were mere child scribbles in comparison. Long before Christianity, the Jews were despised, attacked and killed by many different nations including Egypt, Persia, Babylonia, Greece and Rome. No other people have endured so much suffering for so long and for so little reason.  No other people have changed the course of history more so than the Jews. From Jesus Christ to Albert Einstein, the Jews have proven eternally capable of miraculous breakthroughs in thought and action. They truly are God’s chosen people and history shows it. Time and again, they have proven to be ‘a light unto the Gentiles’ in many different ways.

There is a dark side to this story, however, and it stretches from Rome to Berlin to New York City. It is the story of anti-Semitism. For whatever reason, Jews have had to endure bitter hatred from a great many angry, jealous and vicious people. Why did this happen? Some claim it was in order to fulfill Biblical prophecy and because they were, and are, God’s chosen people. This is not to say this should have ever happened, but what God predicted literally 3,000 years prior has, in fact, actually happened. No other set of predictions has ever been as accurate as the Bible. No other religion, or language, or tribe of people has ever lasted as long as the Jews. The current existence of the modern nation-state of Israel provides living proof that Biblical prophecy was, in fact, correct. Skeptics may scoff at this, but even they cannot come remotely close to answering how Jewish history could be so identical to what God predicted in the Old Testament. They can scoff and sneer and call it mere coincidence, but that is little more than a denial of reality. Biblical prophecy is real and not simply the delusional superstitions of believers. Here are just a few examples of the Bible predicting more than 2,000 years of Jewish history with precision.

Historical Event:  Date of Event — Biblical Prophecy
Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel by the Roman Empire: Around 70 A.D. — The LORD will bring a nation from far away…to swoop down on you like an eagle…a grim-faced nation showing no respect. (Deuteronomy 28:49)
Scattering of the Jews throughout Europe and the Middle East: 70 – 1933 A.D. — The LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other. (Deuteronomy 28:64)
European & Arabic Anti-Semitism predicted: 70 – 2006 A.D. — Among those nations you shall find no ease…night and day you shall be in dread, with no assurance of your life. (Deuteronomy 28:65-66)
Immigration to America predicted: 1776 – 2006 A.D. — The LORD will bring you back in ships to Egypt, by a route that I promised you would never see again. (Deuteronomy 28:68)
Birth of Modern Israel: 1948 – 2006 A.D. — The LORD your God will bring you…into the land that your ancestors possessed, and you will possess it; he will make you… prosperous and numerous. (Deuteronomy 30:5)

This history was predicted by God and Moses long before the Jewish people had even set foot upon the Promised Land of Israel. As this chart obviously shows, these prophecies are not just coincidence, but a crystal-clear foretelling of actual events such as the Jews’ defeat at the hand of the Romans, whose imperial symbol was that of the eagle, and the founding of modern Israel. Even the long centuries of anti-Semitism were also predicted. Today, it should be hoped that, after the horrific tragedy of the Nazi Holocaust, the age of anti-Semitism is finally coming, slowly but surely, to an end. This is how it should be. To achieve this, it is necessary to combat any anti-Semitic stereotypes that may still linger in the minds of non-Jews and also Jews themselves. These stereotypes can be easily discredited as the following chart clearly shows:

Issue: Anti-Semitism — The Facts
God: Jews destroy religion. — The most God-fearing country in the world, the U.S., also has the highest number of Jews.
Money: Jews are greedy. — Jews donate to both Jewish and Gentile causes. Gentiles do not donate to Jewish causes.
Sex: Jews are promiscuous. — Throughout history, Jews have behaved with more sexual restraint and morality than Gentiles.
Abortion: Jews promote abortion. — Jewish women are less likely to personally have an abortion than Gentile women.
Crime: Jews are criminals. — Jews are far less likely to ever spend time in jail or prison than Gentiles.
Manners: Jews are rude. — Some Jews sometimes behave with a mixture of Middle Eastern and Eastern European manners. Visit those countries and you will find the Gentiles or Muslims there just as rude.
Race: Jews are racist. — Many Jews played a very prominent role in the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s that ended segregation. At least one of them was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan.

The fact of the matter is that the Jewish people are, in reality, quite similar to the Gentiles. Although their unique religious traditions do set them apart to some extent, they share the same Biblical morality and ethics as the Christians. The so-called ‘Jewishness’ or ‘Yiddishness’ of Jews, with their expressive hand and arm gestures and loud, boisterous voices, stems from their Eastern European heritage and is disappearing rapidly. The truth is that, for the most part, Jews are as all-American and mainstream as the Gentile majority. It is their history and their religion that sets them apart and will continue to do so.

Jews do not have horns, they never eat and kill Gentile babies for Passover and they certainly do not secretly control the world. Didn’t the Nazi Holocaust prove that to be the case? The only real Jewish conspiracy of today is the religion called Christianity. It is time for Gentile society to let go of past prejudices and superstitions and welcome the Jewish people as partners, neighbors, friends and even family members. Hopefully, the ruffled feathers and wounded pride of the Jews can be soothed with just a little sincerity and good-will. It is about time that they can call this world, and this country, their home.

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