Tag Archives: Apocrypha

Adam began to b…

Adam began to beg God, saying, ‘O my Lord, my God, and my Creator, You commanded the Four Elements to be gathered together, and they were gathered together by Thine order. Then You spread Your hand and created me out of one Element, that of dust of the Earth.

– 1st Book of Adam and Eve 34:4-5

Yet another Reference to the Four Elements in the Apocryphal 1st Book of Adam and Eve at Hidden Mysteries.org 

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Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell

He descended into Hell….

– Nicene Creed (451 A.D.)

+ Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell +
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There came a man, whose appearance was that of a thief, carrying a cross upon his shoulder, shouting from the outside of the door of Hell, saying: ‘Open up so that I may come in.’ And Satan, opening up to him a little, brought the man inside into his dwelling, and again shut the door behind him. And all the Saints saw him most clearly and said to him: ‘Your appearance is that of a robber. Tell us what it is that you carry on your back.’ The answered with humility: ‘Truly I was a thief in all ways; but the Jews hung me up on a cross, along with my Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father most high. I have now come proclaiming Him. He indeed is coming right behind me.’

– Gospel of Nicodemus

Near the end of every Sunday Mass, Roman Catholics join together to recite the exact words of what’s been called either the Nicene Creed, or the extremely similar Apostles’ Creed. They have been during this for nearly 1,700 years. Many other Christian sects do the same. One of the more frightening verses concerning Jesus in this age-old Creed states quite bluntly: ‘He descended into Hell.’ Over the centuries, many believers have probably wondered what exactly does this really mean. Did Jesus Christ really descend into Hell? What happened when He was down there? How did He manage to escape? Why did He even need to go to such a terrible place?

The answers to all these questions can be found in the oft-neglected Christian doctrine known as the Harrowing of Hell. As the basic story-line goes, the LORD Jesus Christ died on the Cross only to find Himself leading an entire army of Angels down the treacherous slopes of Hell. After travelling further and further down into the darkness of this wicked kingdom, both He and his Angelic forces finally came to the heavily-guarded fortress where the self-appointed ruler of the dead, a Pagan god called Hades, resided. While Jesus laid seige to this foul fortress, the ancient serpent known as Satan, the Devil found himself trying to reassure the Pagan ruler of this dark kingdom that there was nothing to fear.

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Shortly after their initial assault, the Divine expedition led by Christ finally manages to tear down and smash the Gates of Hell into a thousand pieces. The LORD Jesus then charges through the wreckage in order to capture and subdue two of the most evil beings ever known, namely the Pagan god of the dead Hades and his diabolical side-kick Satan. Here are the essential details of this epic battle which immediately followed the death of Jesus Christ on the Cross:

+ The Shattering of the Gates of Hell: And, behold, suddenly Hades trembled, and the gates of Heall and its bolts were shattered. The iron bars were broken and fell to the ground, and everything was laid open. And Satan remained in the midst, and stood confounded and downcast, bound with fetters on his feet. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Defeat of Satan: The Lord Jesus Christ…carrying a chain in His hand, bound Satan by the neck, tying his hands behind him. He then cast Satan into Hell, and placed His holy foot on his throat, saying: ‘Through all ages you have done many evils; you have not rested. Today I condemn you to everlasting fire.’ (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Damnation of Hades: The Hades was suddenly summoned and Jesus commanded him saying: ‘Take this most wicked and impious one, and keep him even unto that day in which I shall command you.’ And so Hades, as soon as he received Satan, was plunged under the feet of the Lord…into the depth of the abyss. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Conquest of the Underworld: Then the Savior, inquiring thoroughly about all, seized the underground kingdom of Hades, immediately threw some down into Hell, and led some with Him to Heaven…And the Lord set His cross in the midst of Hades, which is the sign of victory, and which will remain unto eternity. (Gospel of Nicodemus 9-10)

+ The Ascent into Heaven: Then we all went forth to Heaven along with the Lord, leaving Satan and Hades in Hell. (Gospel of Nicodemus 10)

After eventually coming face to face with Hell’s somewhat surprised and frightened ruler godKing Hades, Jesus Christ presses on to attack His traditional age-old foe the Devil named Satan. When they finally meet, Jesus quickly binds the adversary with a chain He had benn carrying with Him, then tosses His ancient enemy down onto the ground on his back. Having been subdued beneath the mighty feet of Christ, Satan ends up being cast even further down into the burning depths of Tartarus. This particular abode also happens to be the lowest level of Hell set aside for its most dangerous inhabitants- a fitting end for Satan. After having thoroughly defeating Satan, Jesus summons King Hades to appear before Him once again. He then orders this so-called Greco-Roman deity to take charge over his evil companion Satan as they are both officially banished into eternal exile- on a journey down into a bottomless pit of eternal damnation.

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Finally, Jesus Christ proceeds to cast judgment upon all the countless number of Hell’s deceased inhabitants, condemning some and redeeming many others until a perfect and eternal justice has been achieved. Whether this took a day, or a thousand years, is a question mere mortals have yet to answer. Making sure to gather together all of His fellow Saints and Angels, the only Son of God finally decides to leave a Sign of the Cross behind as both a monument to His Divine love and mercy, and as a warning to any stray forces of darkness, still haunting the depths of the Underworld. Jesus Christ then leaves this dark, foreboding world of the dead and ascends upwards into Heaven where He has been destined to rule for all eternity.

Herein lies the story of what really happened to Jesus the very moment after giving up the ghost during His crucifixion at Golgotha, just outside of Jerusalem. Indeed, it must be stated loudly and clearly that Jesus Christ really did die and really did descend into Hell nearly 2,000 years ago, thus achieving the eternal salvation of all mankind, One can sympathize with the fact this ancient Christian tale may leave some readers wishing, hoping, waiting for more or expecting it to contain additional drama and excitement. Suffice it to say that, even though the story of Christ’s descent into Hell may seem too simple, like a child’s fairy tale or nursery rhyme, for God-fearing Christians it remains the truest story ever told.

Apocrypha – The 10 Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch (II Enoch)

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

– The 10 Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch –

The apocryphal text commonly referred to as the 2nd Book of Enoch, or the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, contains a surprisingly traditional view of both the Judeo-Christian Kingdom of Heaven and its Angelic inhabitants. This is in spite of the fact that this particular Book has been lost for nearly 1,200 years. Apparently, this same document had been held in high esteem among at least some members of the early Christian Church. It contains numerous comments and remarks by the author Enoch of his vivid celestial journey through ten different parts of the Kingdom of Heaven, which are inhabited by a multitude of different Angels, many of them with wings. Similar to the early Church, the theological doctrine of multiple levels of Heaven can be found in at least one of St, Paul’s letters and should continue to be understood as a thoroughly Christian belief system.

So all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years. Enoch walked with God and he was not, for God took him.

– Genesis 5:23-24

In short, the following summaries of the 2nd Book of Enoch’s Ten Heavens reflect a thoroughly Judeo-Christian understanding of the Bible and its enduring legacy. How so? Nearly all of the different types of Angelic beings that the author Enoch encounter in Heaven are also clearly listed in the official Catholic hierarchy of Angels which has remained unchanged since the Church’s earliest origins in Rome and Constantinople. This seems to strongly suggest that, while appearing as fictional nonsense to outsider, the standard Judeo-Christian set of belies concerning Angels have serious precedent, not only in Scriotures but in many different books of the Apocrypha including this one. Here are ten brief summaries describing the Ten Heavens of the 2nd Book of Enoch:

An ancient copy of the actual Book of Enoch

10 Summaries of the 10 Heavens of II Enoch

I. The 1st Heaven – Clouds, Stars, Snow, and Morning Dew: Located atop the clouds and inhabited by winged Angels, this is where the rulers and elders of the constellations reside here with 200 angels. Nearby is the Great Sea, larger than any of earth’s oceans, while the Heavenly store-houses for both snow and morning dew are located here. (II Enoch 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1)

II. The 2nd HeavenPrison of Darkness, Death and Despair: A place of darkness where the angels of darkness who joined with Satan in his original rebellion have been imprisoned, hanging from chains and awaiting Judgment Day. (II Enoch 7:1-3)

III. The 3rd HeavenMercy of Paradise and Justice of Hell: A Paradise reserved for the good and the righteous, consisting of a fragrant orchard grove with the fiery golden Tree of Life in the center where the LORD rest when visiting. The roots to the Tree of Life extend downwards to the Garden of Eden below and there four different springs flowing with milk, honey, wine, and oil. 300 singing Angels tend the Garden. In contrast, the northern section is a terrible place of icy, frozen darkness with a river of fire flowing through it and inhabited by fierce cruel angels with weapons who torture those sinners who have been condemned here. (II Enoch 8:1-10, 9:1, 10:1-3)

IV. The 4th Heaven Twelve Gates of the Sun and the Moon: Includes the 12 great gates (and pathways) of the Moon, the 6 eastern gates and 6 western gates of the Sun along with all its different pathways. Guarded and maintained by thousands upon thousands of Angels, the sun is escorted daily by 8,000 other stars and needs 100 Angels just to light its fire Some of the inhabitants include six-winged creatures who accompany the Angels, exotic Rainbow-colored Phoenixes and Chalkydri with heads like crocodiles, as well as armed soldiers who are constantly singing and playing musical instruments. (II Enoch 11:1-6, 12:1-2, 13:1-2, 14:1-2, 15:1-3, 16:1-3, 17:1)

V. The 5th HeavenGiants of Silence, Sadness and Regret: A sad, solemn place of silence and gloom filled with a countless number of gigantic human soldiers called the Grigori who chose Satan as their prince and rejected the LORD of light. Their faces are withered, but they still remain capable of occasionally singing praises unto the LORD. (II Enoch 18:1-7)

VI. The 6th HeavenArchangels of the Arts and Sciences: Traditional home of seven different groups of Angels who both rule over the stars, keeping track of their motions, as well overseeing and managing the various governments on Earth. They also keep records of everyone’s good or bad deeds, and keep careful watch over earth’s natural systems of life and death. Other inhabitants include six Phoenixes, six Cherubim, six Seraphim who, with one voice, sing songs so other-worldly, they remain impossible to describe. (II Enoch 19:1-3)

VII. The 7th HeavenPowers and Dominions of Fire and Light: an Angelic realm of light and fire, filled with the many different eternally loyal soldiers of the LORD including Archangels, Virtues (forces), Dominions, Powers, (orders), and Principalities (governments). Also present are the other-worldly Cherubim, seraphim, thrones, and other celestial being with many eyes, along with what the text calles ‘nine regiments’ and the ‘Ioanit stations of light.’ (II Enoch 20:1-2, 21:3)

VIII.The 8th HeavenSummer and Winter of Drought and Snow: Controls and changes the different seasons of the year causing either draught or rain on Earth. Also contains the twelve constellations. (II Enoch 21:7)

IX. The 9th HeavenTwelve Secret Mansions of the Stars in the Night: Considered the celestial homes of the constellations which lie both above and behind the 12 groups of stars as seen in the circular night sky above the Earth. Called Kuchavim in Hebrew. (II Enoch 21:8)

X. The 10th Heaven – Cherubim, Seraphim, and the Throne of Thunder and Lightning: Seen as the highest of Heavens as well as the actual location of the LORD God’s mighty Throne of Judgment. Typically, this is where the LORD holds counsel with His Angels and Saints, making His decisions, handing down His judgments, and commanding His countless Angels who surround Him as they sing songs of praise and glory. (II Enoch 22:1-10)

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity


 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

– John 1:1


– The Judeo-Christian Bible –

The Old Testament Canons of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Christianity

 

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The Three Old Testament Canons of Christianity
I. Protestant Christianity: 39 Books
II. Roman Catholicism: 46 Books
III. Eastern Orthodoxy: 51 Books

Facts about the Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox Canons
– The Protestant Old Testament Canon of 39 Books is less than 500 years old. It contains the exact same text of the Hebrew, or Jewish, Bible that is also called the Tanakh. Even though the Tanakh consists of only 24 Books, the same set of documents has been organized into the 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament. The Protestant Canon comes mostly from Bibles translated into the German, Scandinavian, and English languages
– The Catholic Old Testament Canon of 46 Books is more than 1,600 years old. The earliest list comes from the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D. and comes mainly from Bibles translated into the Latin and sometimes Greek languages.
– The Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon of 51 Books is nearly as old as the Catholic Canon and comes mainly from the Septuagint, a Bible that was translated into Greek centuries before Christianity even began.

I. The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

II. The 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament
40) The Book of Tobit
41) The Book of Judith
42) The 1st Book of the Maccabees
43) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees
44) The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon
45) The Book of Sirach
46) The Book of Baruch

III. The 5 Additional Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament

47) The 1st Book of Esdras
48) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees
49) The 4th Book of the  Maccabees
50) The Book of Odes
51) The Letter of Jeremiah

I. Protestant Canon = 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible (Judaism) = 39 Books of the Old Testament
II. Roman Catholic Canon
= 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic = 46 Books of the Old Testament
III. Eastern Orthodox Canon = 39 Protestant + 7 Catholic + 5 Orthodox = 51 Books of the Old Testament



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The Current Uncertainty about the Books of the Old Testament
– The traditional dating of the Books which comprise the Old Testament appear to be based upon assumptions that remain inconclusive, at least according to the criteria of today’s Biblical scholarship.
– Since around the 19th century, a number of Biblical scholars have raised doubts about the assumed dates and supposed authors of the Christian Old Testament.
– To rectify the uncertainty surrounding the authors and dates of the Old Testament, some modern Biblical scholars have proposed a series of alternative dates and conclusions concerning certain Old Testament Books.
– Basically, a number of modern Biblical scholars now claim that at least some Old Testament Books were written later on by a greater number of authors who remain unknown.
– To give credit both to the traditional dating and authorship of the 39-51 Books of the Christian Old Testament and to the modern skeptics who doubt them, the following tentative statements have been compiled to provide an overall understanding of this particular Biblical subject.
– The first 39 Statements listed below describes the official Protestant Old Testament Canon, the first 46 Statements describe the official Catholic Old Testament Canon, while all 51 Statements describe the official Orthodox Old Testament Canon. This can be understood in the following manner:

Protestant Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 39
Roman Catholic Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 46
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Canon: Statements 1 to 51

– To simplify the conflicting evidence and numerous conclusions of today’s Biblical scholars, the following Statements have been written for each and every Book included in the three different Canons of the Christian Old Testament.
– These Statements do not represent any final conclusions about the exact dates and authors of the 39-51 Book being discussed, but are simply an attempt to clarify the current chaos, confusion, and uncertainty resulting from the on-going debates among many different Biblical scholars who have many different perspectives and who originate from different sects of Christianity.

– The 51 Statements on the Books of the Old Testament –

1. The Book of Genesis was probably written by the Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

2. The Book of Exodus was probably written by Prophet Moses in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

3. The Book of Leviticus was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

4. The Book of Numbers was probably written by the Prophet Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

5. The Book of Deuteronomy was probably written by Moses and completed in the year 1,400 B.C. or later.

6. The Book of Joshua was probably written by Joshua and completed in the year 1,350 B.C. or later.

7. The Book of Judges was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

8. The Book of Ruth was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

9. The 1st Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

10. The 2nd Book of Samuel was probably written by the Prophet Samuel and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

11. The 1st Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

12. The 2nd Book of Kings was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

13. The 1st Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

14. The 2nd Book of Chronicles was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

15. The Book of Ezra was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

16. The Book of Nehemiah was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 450 B.C. or later.

17. The Book of Esther was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 400 B.C. or later.

18. The Book of Job was probably written by Prophet Moses and completed in 1,400 B.C. or later.

19. The Book of Psalms was probably written by King David and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

20. The Book of Proverbs was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

21. The Book of Ecclesiastes was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

22. The Song of Solomon was probably written by King Solomon and completed in the year 1,000 B.C. or later.

23. The Book of Isaiah was probably written by the Prophet Isaiah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

24. The Book of Jeremiah
was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

25. The Book of Lamentations was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

26. The Book of Ezekiel was probably written by the Prophet Ezekiel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

27. The Book of Daniel was probably written by the Prophet Daniel and completed in the year 550 B.C. or later.

28. The Book of Hosea was probably written by the Prophet Hosea and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

29. The Book of Joel was probably written by the Prophet Joel and completed in the year 850 B.C. or later.

30. The Book of Amos was probably written by the Prophet Amos and completed in the year 750 B.C. or later.

31. The Book of Obadiah was probably written by the Prophet Obadiah and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

32. The Book of Jonah was probably written by the Prophet Jonah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

33. The Book of Micah was probably written by the Prophet  Micah and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

34. The Book of Nahum was probably written by the Prophet Nahum and completed in the year 700 B.C. or later.

35. The Book of Habakkuk was probably written by the Prophet Habakkuk and completed in the year 600 B.C. or later.

36. The Book of Zephaniah was probably written by the Prophet  Zephaniah and completed in the year 650 B.C. or later.

37. The Book of Haggai was probably written by the Prophet Haggai and completed in the year 520 B.C. or later.

38. The Book of Zechariah was probably written by the Prophet Zechariah and completed in the year 500 B.C. or later.

39. The Book of Malachi was probably written by the Prophet Malachi and completed in the year 430 B.C. or later.

– END OF PROTESTANT OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

40. The Book of Tobit was probably written by Tobit and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

41. The Book of Judith
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

42. The Book of Wisdom was probably written by Solomon and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

43. The Book of Sirach was probably written by Jesus ben Sirach and completed in the year 200 B.C. or later.

44. The Book of Baruch was probably written by Baruch and completed in the year 150 B.C. or later.

45. The 1st Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

46. The 2nd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later.

– END OF ROMAN CATHOLIC OLD TESTAMENT CANON –

47. The 1st Book of Esdras
was probably written by the Prophet Ezra and completed in the year 330 B.C. or later

48. The 3rd Book of the Maccabees was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

49. The 4th Book of the Maccabees
was written by an unknown author and completed in the year 100 B.C. or later

50 The Book of Odes was compiled by an unknown author and completed in the year 50 A.D. or later

51. The Letter of Jeremiah was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah and completed in the year 300 B.C. or later.

– END OF EASTERN ORTHODOX OLD TESTAMENT CANON –



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– The Three Versions of the Christian Old Testament

The 39 Books of the Protestant Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Esther, 18) The Book of Job, 19) The Book of Psalms, 20) The Book of Proverbs, 21) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 22) The Song of Solomon, 23) The Book of Isaiah, 24) The Book of Jeremiah, 25) The Book of Lamentations, 26) The Book of Ezekiel, 27) The Book of Daniel, 28) The Book of Hosea, 29) The Book of Joel, 30) The Book of Amos, 31) The Book of Obadiah, 32) The Book of Jonah, 33) The Book of Micah, 34) The Book of Nahum, 35) The Book of Habakkuk, 36) The Book of Zephaniah, 37) The Book of Haggai, 38) The Book of Zechariah, 39) The Book of Malachi

The 46 Books of the Catholic Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1
st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The Book of Ezra, 16) The Book of Nehemiah, 17) The Book of Tobit, 18) The Book of Esther, 20) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 21) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 22) The Book of Job, 23) The Book of Psalms, 24) The Book of Proverbs, 25) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 26) The Song of Solomon, 27) The Book of Wisdom, 28) The Book of Sirach, 29) The Book of Isaiah, 30) The Book of Jeremiah, 31) The Book of Lamentations, 32) The Book of Baruch, 33) The Book of Ezekiel, 34) The Book of Daniel, 35) The Book of Hosea, 36) The Book of Joel, 37) The Book of Amos, 38) The Book of Obadiah, 39) The Book of Jonah, 40) The Book of Micah, 41) The Book of Nahum, 42) The Book of Habakkuk, 43) The Book of Zephaniah, 44) The Book of Haggai, 45) The Book of Zechariah, 46) The Book of Malachi



The 51 Books of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
1) The Book of Genesis, 2) The Book of Exodus, 3) The Book of Leviticus, 4) Book of Numbers, 5) The Book of Deuteronomy, 6)The Book of Joshua, 7) The Book of Judges 8) The Book of Ruth, 9) The 1st Book of Samuel, 10) The 2nd Book of Samuel, 11) The 1st Book of Kings, 12) The 2nd Book of Kings, 13) The 1st Book of Chronicles, 14) The 2nd Book of Chronicles, 15) The 1st Book of Esdras, 16) The Book of Ezra, 17) The Book of Nehemiah, 18) The Book of Tobit, 19) The book of Judith 20) The Book of Esther, 21) The 1st Book of the Maccabees, 22) The 2nd Book of the Maccabees, 23) The 3rd Book of the Maccabees, 24) The 4th Book of the Maccabees, 25) The Book of Job, 26) The Book of Psalms, 27) The Book of Odes 28) The Book of Proverbs, 29) The Book of Ecclesiastes, 30) The Song of Solomon, 31) The Book of Wisdom, 32) The Book of Sirach, 33) The Book of Isaiah, 34) The Book of Jeremiah, 35) The Book of Lamentations, 36) The Book of Baruch, 37) The Letter of Jeremiah 38) The Book of Ezekiel, 39) The Book of Daniel, 40) The Book of Hosea, 41) The Book of Joel, 42) The Book of Amos, 43) The Book of Obadiah, 44) The Book of Jonah, 45) The Book of Micah, 46) The Book of Nahum, 47) The Book of Habakkuk, 48) The Book of Zephaniah, 49) The Book of Haggai, 50) The Book of Zechariah, 51) The Book of Malachi



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A Basic Timeline of the Old Testament
– The following timeline includes the 39 Books of the Protestants Old Testament, the 7 Additional Books of the Catholic Old Testament, and the 5 Additional Books of the Orthodox Old Testament.
– For the most part, the dates seen below represent the earliest, rather than the latest, dates when the specific Old Testament Book was finally completed
– The personal name written in parenthesis at each point in the timeline represents the traditional identity of the author. Some modern Biblical scholars continue to claim that these identities cannot be proven, therefore there are more unknown authors than previously assumed.

– The Dates, the Books and the Authors of the Old Testament –

1,400 B.C. – Book of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Moses)

1,400 B.C. – Book of Job (Moses)

1,350 B.C. – Book of Joshua (Joshua)

1,000 B.C. – Book of Psalms (David)

900 B.C. –  Book of Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd Samuel (Samuel)

900 B.C. – Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon (Solomon)

850 B.C. – Book of Joel (Joel)

759 B.C. – Book of Amos (Amos)

750 B.C. – Book of Hosea (Hosea)

700 B.C. – Book of Isaiah (Isaiah)

700 B.C. – Book of Jonah (Jonah)

700 B.C. – Book of Micah (Micah)

700 B.C. – Book of Nahum (Nahum)

650 B.C. – Book of Zephaniah (Zephaniah)

600 B.C. – Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – 1st Book of Kings, 2nd Kings (Jeremiah)

600 B.C. – Book of Habakkuk (Habakkuk)

600 B.C. – Book of Obadiah (Obadiah)

550 B.C. – Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel)

550 B.C. – Book of Daniel (Daniel)

520 B.C. – Book of Haggai (Haggai)

500 B.C. – Book of Zechariah (Zechariah)

450 B.C. – 1st Book of Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah (Ezra)

430 B.C. – Book of Malachi, (Malachi)

400 B.C. – Book of Esther, (Unknown)

330 B.C. – 1 Esdras (Ezra)

300 B.C. – Letter of Jeremiah (Jeremiah)

200 B.C. – Book of Odes (Unknown)

200 B.C. – Book of Sirach, (Sirach)

200 B.C. – Book of Tobit, (Tobit)

150 B.C. – Book of Judith, (Unknown)

150 B.C. – Book of Baruch (Baruch)

100 B.C. – Book of Wisdom (Solomon)

100 B.C. – 1st Book of the Maccabees (Unknown)

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