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A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism


Six hundred and Thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty-five negative precepts, corresponding to the number of solar days in the year, and two hundred and forty-eight positive precepts, corresponding to the number of parts to a man’s body.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 23b


For most observers, 613 seems like such a strange, even random, number for anyone, let alone an entire world religion, to have held in such high regard for so long. Yet, ask any devout Jew of today how many Commandments their religion has and their answer would be no different from the Rabbis who ran the elite Jewish academies over 1,500 years previously. Back then, and as it still is now, the religion of Judaism believed in 613 Commandments and the preponderance of historical evidence seems to suggest this exact number has some extremely old roots, One could even contend the Jewish tradition of numbering their religious commandments at exactly 613 is, by any standard, a truly ancient practice that has stood the test of time, even unto this very day.

Thus are we introduced to 613, the magic number of Torah scholarship and Jewish living. Its source is the Babylonian Talmud; its importance is echoed in a vast body of scholarly literature spanning a millennium; its potential as an aid to studying and remembering Torah deserves our careful analysis.

– ‘Origin’ of 613 Commandments, by Rabbi Mendel Weinbach

The greatest proof of this particular number’s authenticity can be found in the pages of the Babylonian Talmud (Compiled 200-500 A,D.) where the 613 Commandments is mentioned at least six different times in five separate volumes of this comprehensive Jewish collection of religious doctrine (Makkoth 23b, Yebamoth 47b and 62a, Nedarim 25a, Shabbath 87a, Shebu’oth 29a). Thus, it must said the numerical tradition of precisely 613 Judaic laws, and no more or less than this, has to be at least 1,500 years old, if not far older. That’s quite a long time for a number, especially a rather large, number like 613 to have remained the same, especially when it comes to the law, which been subject to change since the dawn of civilization. Yet for Judaism, these laws are said to have come from God Himself and there seems to be little reason not to believe them.

NOTE: The following 613 Commandments of Judaism come from Sefer Hamitzvot (Book of Commandments), written by the great Jewish sage Maimonides (12th century). They are divided into 14 Books and further subdivided by different subjects. With that said, here are the 613 Commandments of Judaism, as they have been understood for many centuries:
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BOOK ONE: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE

Fundamentals of Torah:

1. To know there is a God (Ex. 20:2)

2. Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him (Ex. 20:3)

3. To know that He is one (Deut. 6:4)

4. To love Him (Deut. 6:5)

5. To fear Him (Deut. 10:20)

6. To sanctify His Name (Lev. 22:32)

7. Not to profane His Name (Lev. 22:32)

8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name (Deut. 12:4)

9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name (Deut. 18:15)

10. Not to test the prophet unduly (Deut. 6:16)

Laws of Character

11. To emulate His ways     (Deut. 28:9)

12. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20)

13. To love Jews (Lev. 19:18)

14. To love converts (Deut. 10:19)

15. Not to hate fellow Jews (Lev. 19:17)

16. To reprove (Lev. 19:17)

17. Not to embarrass others (Lev. 19:17)

18. Not to oppress the weak (Ex. 21:22)

19. Not to speak derogatorily of others (Lev. 19:16)

20. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)

21. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)

Laws of Torah Study

22. To learn Torah (Deut. 6:7)

23. To honor those who teach and know Torah (Lev. 19:32)

Laws of Idolatry and Paganism

24. Not to inquire into idolatry (Lev. 19:4)

25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see (Num. 15:39)

26. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27)

27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped (Ex. 20:5)

28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God (Ex. 20:5)

29. Not to make an idol for yourself (Ex. 20:4)

30. Not to make an idol for others (Lev. 19:4)

31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes (Ex. 20:20)

32. Not to turn a city to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)

33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship (Deut. 13:17)

34. Not to rebuild it as a city (Deut. 13:17)

35. Not to derive benefit from it (Deut. 13:18)

36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship (Deut. 13:12)

37. Not to love the missionary )Deut. 13:9)

38. Not to cease hating the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

39. Not to save the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

40. Not to say anything in his defense (Deut. 13:9)

41. Not to refrain from incriminating him (Deut. 13:9)

42. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry (Deut. 13:14)

43. Not to listen to a false prophet (Deut. 13:4)

44. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God (Deut. 18:20)

45. Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet (Deut. 18:22)

46. Not to swear in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13)

47. Not to perform ov (medium) (Lev. 19:31)

48. Not to perform yidoni (magical seer) (Lev. 19:31)

49. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)

50. Not to erect a column in a public place of worship (Deut. 16:22)

51. Not to bow down on smooth stone (Lev. 26:1)

52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard (Deut. 16:21)

53. To destroy idols and their accessories (Deut. 12:2)

54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories 9Deut. 7:26)

55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols (Deut. 7:250

56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters (Deut. 7:2)

57. Not to show favor to them (Deut. 7:2)

58. Not to let them dwell in our land (Ex. 23:330

59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing (Lev. 20:23)

60. Not to be superstitious (Lev. 19:26)

61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. (Deut. 18:10)

62. Not to engage in astrology (Lev. 19:26)

63. Not to mutter incantations (Deut. 18:11)

64. Not to attempt to contact the dead (Deut. 18:11)

65. Not to consult the ov (Deut. 18:11)

66. Not to consult the yidoni (Deut. 18:11)

67. Not to perform acts of magic (Deut. 18:10)

68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head (Lev. 19:270

69. Men must not shave their beards with a razor 9Lev. 19:27)

70. Men must not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

71. Women must not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

72. Not to tattoo the skin (Lev. 19:28)

73. Not to tear the skin in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

74. Not to make a bald spot in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

Laws of Repentance

75. To repent and confess wrongdoings (Num. 5:7)

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BOOK TWO: THE BOOK OF LOVE OF GOD

Laws of Reading the Shema

76. To say the Shema twice daily (Deut. 6:7)

Laws of Prayer and Kohanic Blessings

77. To serve the Almighty with prayer daily (Ex. 23:25)

78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily (Num. 6:23)

Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza and Sefer Torah

79. To wear tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)

80. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)

81. To put a mezuzah on each door post (Deut. 6:9)

82. Each male must write a Sefer Torah (Deut. 31:19)

83. The king must have a separate Sefer Torah for himself (Deut. 17:18)

Laws of Tzitzit

84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments (Num. 15:38)

Laws of Blessings

85. To bless the Almighty after eating (Deut. 8:10)

Laws of Circumcision

86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth (Lev. 12:3)

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BOOK THREE: THE BOOK OF SEASONS

Laws of the Sabbath

87. To rest on the seventh day (Ex. 23:12)

88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day (Ex. 20:10)

89. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3)

90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat (Ex. 16:29)

91. To sanctify the day with Kiddush and Havdallah (Ex. 20:8)

Laws of Eruvin (Rabbinical)

Laws of Yom Kippur Rest

92. To rest from prohibited labor (Lev. 23:32)

93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32)

94. To afflict yourself on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29)

95. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29)

Laws of Festival Rest

96. To rest on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:7)

97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

100. To rest on Shavuot     (Lev. 23:21)

101. Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot (Lev. 23:21)

102. To rest on Rosh Hashana  (Lev. 23:24)

103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashana (Lev. 23:25)

104. To rest on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

105. Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

106. To rest on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

Laws of Chometz and Matzah

108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)

109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan (Ex. 12:15)

110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 13:3)

111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 12:20)

112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 13:7)

113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 12:19)

114. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)

115. To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night (Ex. 13:8)

Laws of Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav

116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashana) (Num. 29:1)

117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)

118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days (Lev. 23:40)

Laws of Shekalim

119. Each man must give a half shekel annually (Ex. 30:13)

Laws of Sanctification of Months

120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins (Ex. 12:2)

Laws of Fasts

121. To afflict and cry out before God in times of catastrophe (Num. 10:9)

Laws of Megillah and Chanukah (Rabbinical)

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BOOK FOUR: THE BOOK OF WOMEN

Laws of Marriage

122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin (Deut. 22:13)

123. Not to have relations with women not thus married (Deut. 23:18)

124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife (Ex. 21:10)

125. To have children with one’s wife (Gen 1:28)

Laws of Divorce

126. To issue a divorce by means of a “get” document (Deut. 24:1)

127. A man must not remarry his wife after she has married someone else (Deut. 24:4)

Laws of Yivum and Chalitzah (Levirate Marriage)

128. To do yibum (marry childless brother’s widow) (Deut. 25:5)

129. To do chalitzah (freeing a widow from yibum) (Deut. 25:9)

130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (Deut. 25:5)

Laws of Women

131. The court must fine one who seduces a maiden (Ex. 22:15-16)

132. The rapist must marry the maiden (if she chooses) (Deut. 22:29)

133. He is not allowed to divorce her (Deut. 22:29)

134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife (Deut. 22:19)

135. He must not divorce her (Deut. 22:19)

Laws of Sotah (Suspect Wife)

136. To fulfill the laws of the Sotah (Num. 5:30)

137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

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BOOK FIVE: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS

Laws of Forbidden Relations

139. Not to have relations with your mother (Lev. 18:7)

140. Not to have relations with your father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)

141. Not to have relations with your sister (Lev. 18:9)

142. Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:110

143. Not to have relations with your son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)

144. Not to have relations with your daughter (Lev. 18:10)

145. Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:100

146. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter (Lev. 18:17)

147. Not to have relations with a woman and her son’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

148. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

149. Not to have relations with your father’s sister (Lev. 18:12)

150. Not to have relations with your mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)

151. Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:14)

152. Not to have relations with your son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)

153. Not to have relations with your brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)

154. Not to have relations with your wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)

155. A man must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

156. A woman must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

157. Not to have homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22)

158. Not to have homosexual relations with your father (Lev. 18:7)

159. Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)

160. Not to have relations with a married woman (Lev. 18:20)

161. Not to have relations with a menstrually impure woman (Lev. 18:19)

162. Not to marry non-Jews (Deut. 7:3)

163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:4)

164. Don’t keep a third generation Egyptian convert from marrying into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:8-9)

165. Not to refrain from marrying a third generation Edomite convert (Deut. 23:8-9)

166. Not to let a mamzer marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:3)

167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:2)

168. Not to castrate any male (including animals) (Lev. 22:24)

169. The High Priest must not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)

170. The High Priest must not have relations with a widow even outside of marriage (Lev. 21:15)

171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden (Lev. 21:13)

172. A Kohen must not marry a divorcee (Lev. 21:7)

173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who had forbidden relations) (Lev. 21:7)

174. A priest must not marry a chalalah (party to or product of 169-172) (Lev. 21:7)

175. Not to make pleasurable contact with any forbidden woman (Lev. 18:6)

Laws of Forbidden Foods

176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:2)

177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Deut. 14:11)

178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:9)

179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:21)

180. Not to eat non-kosher animals (Lev. 11:4)

181. Not to eat non-kosher fowl (Lev. 11:13)

182. Not to eat non-kosher fish (Lev. 11:11)

183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects (Deut. 14:19)

184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land (Lev. 11:41)

185. Not to eat non-kosher maggots (Lev. 11:44)

186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground  (Lev. 11:42)

187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish (Lev. 11:43)

188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter (Deut. 14:21)

189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)

190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded (Ex. 22:30)

191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature (Deut 12:23)

192. Not to eat blood (Lev. 3:17)

193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals (Lev. 3:17)

194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh (Gen. 32:33)

195. Not to eat meat and milk cooked together (Ex. 23:19)

196. Not to cook meat and milk together (Ex. 34:26)

197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years (Lev. 19:23)

201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

202. Not to eat untithed fruits (Lev. 22:15)

203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols (Deut. 32:38)

Laws of Slaughtering

204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it (Deut. 12:21)

205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day (Lev. 22:28

206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth (Lev. 17:13)

207. Not to take the mother bird from her children (Deut. 22:6)

208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest (Deut. 22:7)

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BOOK SIX: THE BOOK OF OATHS

Laws of Oaths

209. Not to swear falsely in God’s Name (Lev. 19:12)

210. Not to take God’s Name in vain (Ex. 20:7)

211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you (Lev. 19:11)

212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim (Lev. 19:11)

213. To swear in God’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court (Deut. 10:20)

Laws of Vows

214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed (Deut. 23:24)

215. Not to break oaths or vows (Num. 30:3)

216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah (Num. 30:3)

Laws of The Nazir

217. The Nazir must let his hair grow (Num. 6:5)

218.  He must not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)

219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar (Num. 6:3)

220. He must not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)

221. He must not eat raisins (Num. 6:3)

222. He must not eat grape seeds (Num. 6:4)

223. He must not eat grape skins (Num. 6:4)

224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpse ((Num. 6:6)

225. He must not come into contact with the dead (Num. 6:7)

226. He must shave after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite period (Num. 6:9)

Laws of Estimated Values and Vows

227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah (Lev. 27:2)

228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals(Lev. 27:12-13)

229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses (Lev. 27:14)

230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields (Lev. 27:16)

231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) (Lev. 27:28

232. Not to sell the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

233. Not to redeem the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

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BOOK SEVEN: THE BOOK OF SEEDS

Laws of Mixed Species

234. Not to plant diverse seeds together (Lev. 19:19)

235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

236. Not to crossbreed animals (Lev. 19:19)

237. Not to work different animals together (Deut. 22:10)

238. Not to wear sha’atnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen (Deut. 22:11)

Laws of Gifts to the Poor

239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor (Lev. 19:10)

240. Not to reap that corner (Lev. 19:9)

241. To leave gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

242. Not to gather the gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

243. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

245. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field (Deut. 24:19)

248. Not to retrieve them (Deut. 24:19)

249. To separate the tithe for the poor (Deut. 14:28)

250. To give charity (Deut. 15:8)

251. Not to withhold charity from the poor (Deut. 15:7)

252. To set aside Trumah Gedolah (tithe for the Kohen) (Deut. 18:4)

253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe (Num. 18:26)

254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order (Ex. 22:28)

255. A non-Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Trumah (Ex. 12:48)

258. An impure Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:4)

259. A chalalah must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:12)

Laws of Ma’aser

260. To set aside Ma’aser each planting year and give it to a Levite (Num. 18:24)

Laws of The Second Tithe and Fourth Year Produce

261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma’aser Sheni) (Deut. 14:22)

262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment (Deut. 26:14)

263. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni while impure (Deut. 26:14)

264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma’aser Sheni (Deut. 26:14)

265. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

266. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

267. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma’aser Sheni (Lev. 19:24)

269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year (Deut. 26:13)

Laws of First Fruits and other Kohanic Gifts

270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple (Ex. 23:19)

271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation (Deut. 26:5)

273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen (Num. 15:20)

274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals to a Kohen (Deut. 18:3)

275. To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen (Deut. 18:4)

276. To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen (Num. 18:15)

277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen (Ex. 13:13)

278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it (Ex. 13:13)

Laws of The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth (Ex. 34:21)

280. Not to work the land during the seventh year (Lev. 25:4)

281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year (Lev. 25:4)

282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner (Lev. 25:5)

283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way (Lev. 25:5)

284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year (Ex. 23:11)

285. To release all loans during the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)

286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower (Deut. 15:2)

287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss (Deut. 15:9)

288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years (Lev. 25:8)

289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:10)

290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves (Lev. 25:9)

291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties (Lev. 25:24)

295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely (Lev. 25:23)

296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities (Lev. 25:29)

297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in (Deut. 18:1)

298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war (Deut. 18:1)

299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields (Num. 35:2)

300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and after the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:34)

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BOOK EIGHT: THE BOOK OF SERVICE

Laws of The Temple

301. To build a Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)

302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal (Ex. 20:22)

303. Not to climb steps to the altar (Ex. 20:23)

304. To show reverence to the Temple (Lev. 19:30)

305. To guard the Temple area (Num. 18:2)

306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded (Num. 18:5)

Laws of Temple Vessels and Employees

307. To prepare the anointing oil (Ex. 30:31)

308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

309. Not to anoint with anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

310. Not to reproduce the incense formula (Ex. 30:37)

311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense (Ex. 30:9)

312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders (Num. 7:9)

313. Not to remove the staves from the ark (Ex. 25:15)

314. The Levites must work in the Temple (Num. 18:23)

315. No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite (Num. 18:3)

316. To dedicate the Kohen for service (Lev. 21:8)

317. The kohanic work shifts must be equal during holidays (Deut. 18:6-8)

318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service (Ex. 28:2)

319. Not to tear the priestly garments (Ex. 28:32)

320. The breastplate must not be loosened from the Efode (Ex. 28:28)

Laws of Entering the Temple

321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated (Lev. 10:9)

322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with long hair (Lev. 10:6)

323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes (Lev. 10:6)

324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately (Lev. 16:2)

325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service (Lev. 10:7)

326. To send the impure from the Temple (Num. 5:2)

327. Impure people must not enter the Temple (Num. 5:3)

328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area (Deut. 23:11)

329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple (Lev. 22:2)

330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service (Lev. 22:7)

331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service (Ex. 30:19)

332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar (Lev. 21:23)

333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve (Lev.21:17)

334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve (Lev. 21:17

335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve (Num. 18:4)

Laws of Restrictions Concerning Sacrifices

336. To offer only unblemished animals (Lev. 22:21)

337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar (Lev. 22:20)

338. Not to slaughter it (Lev. 22:22)

339. Not to sprinkle its blood (Lev. 22:24)

340. Not to burn its fat (Lev. 22:22)

341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal (Deut. 17:1)

342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews (Lev. 22:25)

343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals (Lev. 22:21)

344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified (Deut. 12:15)

345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)

346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog (Deut. 23:19)

347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar (Lev. 2:11)

348. To salt all sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

Laws of Sacrificial Procedure

350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 1:3)

351. Not to eat its meat (Deut. 12:17)

352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering (Lev. 6:18)

353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering (Lev. 6:23

354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering (Lev. 5:8)

355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering (Lev. 7:1)

356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple (Ex. 29:33)

357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard (Deut. 12:17)

358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat (Ex. 29:33)

359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering (Lev. 7:11)

360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood (Deut. 12:17)

361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 2:1)

362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 5:11)

363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 3:11)

364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest (Lev. 6:16)

365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread (Lev. 6:10)

366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings (Lev. 6:9)

367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival (Deut. 12:5-6)

368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow (Deut. 23:22)

369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple (Deut. 12:11)

370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple (Deut. 12:26)

371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard (Lev. 17:4)

372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard (Deut. 12:13)

Laws of Constant and Additional Offerings

373. To offer two lambs every day (Num. 28:3)

374. To light a fire on the altar every day (Lev. 6:6)

375. Not to extinguish this fire (Lev. 6:6)

376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day (Lev. 6:3)

377. To burn incense every day (Ex 30:7)

378. To light the Menorah every day (Ex. 27:21)

379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day (Lev. 6:13)

380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat (Num 28:9)

381. To make the show bread (Ex. 25:30)

382. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Num. 28:11)

383. To bring additional offerings on Passover (Num. 28:19)

384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (Lev. 23:10)

385. Each man must count the Omer – seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought     (Lev. 23:15)

386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot (Num. 28:26)

387. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice (Lev. 23:17)

388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana (Num. 29:2)

389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur (Num. 29:8)

390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot (Num. 29:13)

391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret (Num. 29:35)

Laws of Disqualified Offerings

392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished (Deut. 14.3)

393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions (Lev. 7:18)

394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them (Lev. 22:30)

395. Not to eat from that which was left over (Lev. 19:8)

396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure (Lev. 7:19)

397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices (Lev. 7:20)

398. To burn the leftover sacrifices (Lev. 7:17)

399. To burn all impure sacrifices (Lev. 7:19)

Laws of Yom Kippur Service

400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshat Acharei Mot (Lev. 16:3)

Laws of Misusing Sanctified Property

401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice (Lev. 5:16)

402. Not to work consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

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BOOK NINE: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES

Laws of Pascal Sacrifice

404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time (Ex. 12:6)

405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven (Ex. 23:18)

406. Not to leave the fat overnight (Ex. 23:18)

407. To slaughter the second paschal lamb (Num. 9:11)

408. To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the 15th of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)

409. To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar (Num.9:11)

410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled (Ex. 12:9)

411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group (Ex. 12:46)

412. An apostate must not eat from it (Ex.12:43)

413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it (Ex. 12:45)

414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it (Ex. 12:48

415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering (Ex. 12:46)

416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering (Num. 9:12)

417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning (Ex. 12:10)

418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning (Num. 9:12)

419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th (Deut. 16:4)

Laws of Pilgrim Offerings

420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot (Deut. 16:16)

421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Ex. 23:14)

422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Deut. 16:14)

423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings (Deut. 16:16)

424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites (Deut. 12:19)

425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)

Laws of First Born Animals

426. To set aside the firstborn animals (Ex. 13:12)

427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

428. Not to redeem the firstborn (Num. 18:17)

429. Separate the tithe from animals (Lev. 27:32)

430. Not to redeem the tithe (Lev. 27:33)

Laws of Offerings for Unintentional Transgressions

431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression (Lev. 4:27)

432. Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt (Lev. 5:17-18)

433. Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained (Lev. 5:25)

434. Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) (Lev. 5:7-11)

435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error  (Lev. 4:13)

Laws of Lacking Atonement

436. A woman who had a running issue must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:28-29)

437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 12:6)

438. A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:13-14)

439. A metzora must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh (Lev. 14:10)

Laws of Substitution of Sacrifices

440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)

441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration (Lev. 27:10)

442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another (Lev. 27:26)

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BOOK TEN: THE BOOK OF PURITY

Laws of Impurity of Human Dead

443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead (Num. 19:14)

Laws of The Red Heifer

444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Num. 19:2)

445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water (Num. 19:21)

Laws of Impurity through Tzara’at

446. Rule the laws of human tzara’at as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 13:12)

447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity (Deut. 24:8)

448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair (Lev. 13:33)

449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips (Lev. 13:45)

450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora (Lev. 14:2)

451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification (Lev. 14:9)

452. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of clothing (Lev. 13:47)

453. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of houses (Lev. 13:34)

Laws of Impurity of Reclining and Sitting

454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity (Lev. 15:19)

455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth (Lev. 12:2)

456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running issue (Lev. 15:25)

457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue (Lev. 15:3)

Laws of Other Sources of Impurity

458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast (Lev. 11:39)

459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (Lev. 11:29)

460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (Lev. 15:16)

Laws of Impurity of Food

461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods (Lev. 11:34)

Laws of Vessels (Rabbinical)

Laws of Mikveh

462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikveh to become pure (Lev. 15:16)

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BOOK ELEVEN: THE BOOK OF DAMAGES

Laws of Property Damage

463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox (Ex. 21:28)

464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating (Ex. 22:4)

465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit (Ex. 21:33)

466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire (Ex. 22:5)

Laws of Theft

467. Not to steal money stealthily (Lev. 19:11)

468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief (Ex. 21:37)

469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate (Lev. 19:36)

470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights (Lev. 19:35)

471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use (Deut. 25:13)

472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property (Deut. 19:14)

473. Not to kidnap (Ex. 20:13)

Laws of Robbery and Lost Objects

474. Not to rob openly (Lev. 19:13)

475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt (Lev. 19:13)

476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession (Ex. 20:14)

477. Not to desire another’s possession (Deut. 5:18)

478. Return the robbed object or its value (Lev. 5:23)

479. Not to ignore a lost object (Deut. 22:3)

480. Return the lost object (Deut. 22:1)

481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another’s property (Ex. 21:18)

Laws of Murder and Preservation of Life

482. Not to murder (Ex. 20:13)

483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer (Num. 35:31)

484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge (Num. 35:25)

485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge  (Num. 35:32)

486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial (Num. 35:12)

487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:11)

488. Not to pity the pursuer (Num. 35:12)

489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)

490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access (Deut. 19:3)

491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder (Deut. 21:4)

492. Not to work nor plant that river valley (Deut. 21:4)

493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property (Deut. 22:8)

494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs (Deut. 22:8)

495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) (Lev. 19:14)

496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it (Ex. 23:5)

497. Help others load their beast (Deut. 22:4)

498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) (Deut. 22:4)

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BOOK TWELVE: THE BOOK OF ACQUISITION

Laws of Sales

499. Buy and sell according to Torah law (Lev. 25:14)

500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article (Lev. 25:14)

501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words (Lev. 25:17)

502. Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily (Ex. 22:20)

503. Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words (Ex. 22:20)

Laws of Acquisitions and Gifts (Rabbinical)
Laws of Neighbors (Rabbinical)
Laws of Agents and Partners (Rabbinical)

Laws of Slaves

504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws (Ex. 21:2)

505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold (Lev. 25:42)

506. Not to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:43)

507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:53)

508. Not to have him do menial slave labor (Lev. 25;39)

509. Give him gifts when he goes free (Deut. 15:14)

510. Not to send him away empty-handed (Deut. 15:13)

511. Redeem Jewish maidservants (Ex. 21:8)

512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

513. The master must not sell his maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs (Lev. 25:46)

515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to Israel (Deut. 23:16)

516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge (Deut. 23:16)

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BOOK THIRTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGEMENTS

Laws of Hiring

517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard (Ex. 22:9)

518. Pay wages on the day they were earned (Deut. 24:15)

519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time (Lev. 19:13)

520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works (Deut. 23:25)

521. The worker must not eat while on hired time (Deut. 23:26)

522. The worker must not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)

523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing (Deut. 25:4)

Laws of Borrowing and Depositing

524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower (Ex. 22:13)

525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard (Ex. 22:6)

Laws of Creditor and Debtor

526. Lend to the poor and destitute (Ex. 22:24)

527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don’t have it (Ex. 22:24)

528. Press the idolater for payment (Deut. 15:3)

529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral (Deut. 24:10)

530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed (Deut. 24:13)

531. Not to delay its return when needed (Deut. 24:12)

532. Not to demand collateral from a widow (Deut. 24:17)

533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food (Deut. 24:6)

534. Not to lend with interest (Lev.25:37)

535. Not to borrow with interest (Deut. 23:20)

536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note (Ex. 22:24)

537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest (Deut. 23:21)

Laws of Plaintiff and Defendant

538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier (Ex. 22:8)

Laws of Inheritance

539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance (Num. 27:8)

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BOOK FOURTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGES

Laws of Sanhedrin and Punishments

540. Appoint judges (Deut. 16:18)

541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure (Deut. 1:17)

542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement (Ex. 23:2)

543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required (Ex. 23:2)

544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases (Deut. 23:2)

545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning (Deut. 22:24)

546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning (Lev. 20:14)

547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword (Ex. 21:20)

548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation (Lev. 20:10)

549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry (Deut. 21:22)

550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed (Deut.21:23)

551. Not to delay burial overnight (Deut. 21:23)

552. The court must not let the sorcerer live (Ex. 22:17)

553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer (Ex. 25:2)

554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes (Deut. 25:3)

555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence (Ex. 23:7)

556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime (Deut. 22:26)

557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial (Deut. 19:13)

558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor (Ex. 23;6)

561. A judge must not pervert justice (Lev. 19:15)

562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan (Deut. 24:17)

563. Judge righteously (Lev. 19:15)

564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment (Deut. 1:17)

565. Judges must not accept bribes (Ex. 23:8)

566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present (Ex. 23:1)

567. Not to curse judges (Ex. 22:27)

568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin (Ex. 22:27)

569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew (Lev. 19:14)

Laws of Evidence

570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court (Lev. 5:1)

571. Carefully interrogate the witness  (Deut. 13:15)

572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes (Deut. 19:17)

573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness (Deut. 19:15)

574. Transgressors must not testify (Ex. 23:1)

575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify (Deut. 24:16)

576. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)

577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant (Deut. 19:19)

Laws of Insurgents

578. Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations (Deut. 13:1)

581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part (Deut. 13:1)

582. Not to curse your father and mother (Ex. 21:17)

583. Not to strike your father and mother (Ex. 21:15)

584. Respect your father or mother (Ex. 20:12)

585. Fear your father or mother (Lev. 19:3)

586. Not to be a rebellious son (Deut. 21:18)

Laws of Mourning

587. Mourn for relatives (Lev. 10:19)

588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative (Lev. 21:11)

589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse (Lev. 21:11)

590. A Kohen must not defile himself for anyone except relatives (Lev. 21:1)

Laws of Kings and their Wars

591. Appoint a king from Israel (Deut. 17:15)

592. Not to appoint a convert (Deut. 17:15)

593. The king must not have too many wives (Deut. 17:17)

594. The king must not have too many horses (Deut. 17:16)

595. The king must not have too much silver and gold (Deut. 17:17)

596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:17)

597. Not to let any of them remain alive (Deut. 20:16)

598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people (Deut. 25:17)

600. Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert (Deut. 25:19)

601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt (Deut. 17:16)

602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms (Deut. 20:10)

603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them (Deut. 23:7)

604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege (Deut. 20:19)

605. Prepare latrines outside the camps (Deut. 23:13)

606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with (Deut. 23:14)

607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war (Deut. 20:2)

608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions (Deut. 24:5)

609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military (Deut. 24:5)

610. Not to panic and retreat during battle  (Deut. 20:3)

611. Keep the laws of the captive woman  (Deut. 21:11)

612. Not to sell her into slavery (Deut. 21:14)

613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her (Deut. 21:14)

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NOTE: Some words and phrases cited in the above 613 Commandments were carefully altered and edited by Judas Maccabaeus, the author of this post and publisher of this blog- the Judeo/Christian Tradition. This was done simply to make the English more readable and understandable by the general audience. Even so, the basic meaning of every Commandment that has been edited or re-written remains the same.

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We have been commanded Six hundred and Thirteen commandments: ‘Your people shall be my people’. We are forbidden idolatry: ‘And your God my God’.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 47b

 

Maccabee Judaism- Ancient Prophecy and Modern Times

Judaism’s Orphan Child from Pagan Rome Named Christianity
Do Jews go to heaven? Several Protestant theologians from the past, and from today, remain convinced that all of them go to hell. Being a Roman Catholic, I do not subscribe to those beliefs. In contrast to this, the founder of modern Protestant Christianity, Martin Luther, became a virulent anti-Semite after feeling that the ‘Jews’ had somehow ‘spurned’ him and ended up writing some atrocious lies about the Jews which both Adolph Hitler and Karl Marx used centuries later as part of their anti-Semitic propaganda. Truth to tell, there have been individuals within the Roman Catholic Church who have been just as hateful towards Jews and Judaism. This has been counterbalanced with others who have been quite friendly. What is the official Roman Catholic Church policy on this issue? Any devout Jew who lives life with a faith in God and obeys the laws of Judaism is immediately rewarded after death with admission into Heaven to be with God forever. That is the Church policy of today and I am quite sure that it will never change. Indeed, there are twelve thrones (out of 24) specifically designated for the twelve tribes of Israel in Heaven.

Surrounding the throne I saw twenty-four other thrones on which twenty-four
elders sat, dressed in white garments and with gold crowns on their heads.
From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings, and peals of thunder.

– Revelation 4:4-5

Personally, I see, or visualize, a Heaven where the LORD Jesus Christ himself is surrounded by a large number of historically famous and saintly Rabbis, residing in some huge castle in the clouds. There they discuss and debate all the fine points of the laws of Judaism, along with a great many other subjects. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and his twelve sons, along with Moses and many others are also there. The House of LORD Jesus is probably not the only castle in Heaven. As Christ Himself said, ‘For in my father’s house there are many mansions.’ This is referring to the many houses of Israel mentioned in the Bible that include the House of Judah, the House of Esau, the House of Joseph, The House of David, and the House of Jason, along with dozens of others.

As a Roman Catholic, my beliefs have been shaped by the folk wisdom of the Church which claims that even though quite a few of us go to Heaven, most of us end up in Purgatory, while a very few are condemned to Hell forever. Jewish folk wisdom throughout the ages has mirrored this theory and both of them are probably fairly close to the truth. The Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church states quite clearly: ‘The Jews should not be spoken of as rejected or accursed as if this followed from Holy Scripture.’ The absurd theory, advocated by some Protestants, that all Jews are condemned forever to the burning fires of Hell is nonsensical and not really worthy of a response considering the very real fires that came from the genocidal ovens of the Holocaust. Pope John Paul II has made tremendous strides in eradicating such cruel notions from the minds of most, if not all, Roman Catholics. As the ‘liberal’ bumper sticker declares: ‘Hatred is not a family value.’ The Church could not have said it any better. It’s best that we all remember what King David stated in Psalms about what to actually expect when we pass away. It is as follows:

The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not want. He leads beside green
pastures and past the still waters. He restores my soul. He leads me
on the right path for the sake of His name. Yea, though I walk through
the valley of the shadow of death I will fear no evil, for the LORD is
with me. With his rod and staff he comforts me. He prepares a table
for me in the sight of my enemies. He anoints my head, my cup overflows.
Surely goodness and mercy will follow me all the days of my life and I
will dwell in the House of the LORD forever.

– Psalms 23:1-6

It should be mentioned that the Roman Catholic Church’s first Saints, meaning those whom the Church knows to be in Heaven are, in fact, Jews. They were never Christian, but were martyrs during the War of the Maccabees more than a century and a half before Christ. They include Judas, Simon, and Jonathan Maccabeus, along with seven brothers who laid down their lives by refusing to eat pork at the command of the Greek tyrants who killed them. Thus, the Church’s policy concerning the ‘Jewish question’ is quite simple- there have been Jews in Heaven from the beginning. This may seem surprising to some Christians, but long before Hitler and his genocide of the Jews, the Church has clearly pointed out that the Jews cannot be blamed for what a very few of their distant ancestors did to condemn Jesus Christ to death. It must be remembered that, according to thousands of years of tradition, Christianity declares Jesus, a devout Jew, to be the Prince of Heaven and his own Jewish mother Mary to be Queen of Heaven.

Pope John Paul II stated on several occasions that Roman Catholics should think of the Jews as elder brothers in the faith. I disagree with this idea because throughout history, the strength of the Church has been used to bully the Jews in a way that only an older, bigger brother would treat a younger brother. Truly, the Jews have exemplified Abel and all too often the Christians have acted like Cain. Hopefully in the future, this will change and further ties can be established between these two long-lost brothers. Except for the quiet Jewish refusal to accept Jesus as the Messiah, the laws, morals and ethics of each religion are so similar that all that is really left to do is to cordially discuss theology and what I consider the most important goal of finally circumcising the Gentiles, from Europe to Asia to Africa, once and for all.

Jews, Gentiles, and the Future of Judaism
Some Jews of today seem to be worried that their religion, their traditions and their culture is on the road to extinction. Some Gentiles look upon the situation with a smile. I’m not one of them. In fact, I truly believe that if Jesus Christ doesn’t show up to rule over all of us, as he is predicted to do so by Christian believers, then Judaism will continue indefinitely. The religion of Judaism is neither based nor founded upon the denial of Jesus Christ as the Messiah as some modern Jews may mistakenly believe. In fact, it is a religion that has been practiced long, long before there ever was a Rabbi Jesus to deny. It is the same religion that was practiced by all of His first Apostles and all of the first disciples. It is the religion of Jesus Himself, not the denial of Him. One could go so far as to say that Christianity is basically a very large sect of Judaism that has almost conquered the entire world. To be a Jew is not to deny Jesus, but to affirm God the Father and His transcendence. It must be remembered that Christianity, like Islam, worships the Jewish God of the Old Testament as God the Father. They simply do not adhere to all the laws that Jews do.

Strictly speaking, Judaism could claim that it is the Christians who are the heretics for not obeying the laws of circumcision, kosher food, along with many other requirements. Jesus and his Apostles did practice these laws and it was only later on that things changed. It is sad that they have. Being a Judaizer within the Church, I would like to see a Christianity that did practice literally all the laws of the Judaism as well. Unfortunately, in today’s world, this seems unlikely. What is likely is that over the course of the next couple centuries, the religion of Orthodox Judaism will remain, while Reform and Conservative Judaism will become more and more Orthodox or, instead, fade away into the Gentile majority. Secular Judaism, if there ever was such a thing, will not stand the test of time. Orthodoxy, like a diamond, will not be scratched out of history. It will remain in place in order to authenticate any future Messiah. They will be like a canary in a coal mine, practicing the same 613 commandments that Jesus Himself practiced two thousand years ago. For as Christ himself said:

Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets:
I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until
heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter,
will pass from the law, until all is accomplished…

– Matthew 5:17-18

It is unfortunate that Peter and James went against this teaching of the Gospels and allowed Gentile converts to Christianity to remain uncircumcised and to eat unkosher foods. There’s nothing to stop Christianity from being both kosher and circumcised. Messianic Judaism is a perfect example of this. Although their followers are Christian, they practice most, if not all, the laws of Judaism as well. This is a unique synthesis for what promises to be a worthwhile influx of Jewish tradition into a new type of Christianity. Let’s hope it lasts the test of time instead of fading away and melding with mainline Christian denominations.

Another interesting and fairly recent phenomenon concerns the large amount of Jewish-Catholic families that have been created recently. This has not been seen since the days of Weimar Germany, just before Hitler rose to power. At the time, it looked like many Jews were happily assimilating into the Catholic Church. Today, the same thing is occurring, but these new Jewish-Catholic families are also retaining their Jewish identity and traditions as well. This is a good thing and will not detriment Roman Catholicism in the least. These additional Jewish members to Christianity will find themselves welcomed for many years to come. Orthodox Judaism never likes to lose Jews to Christianity, but their ranks are likely to remain relatively untouched by the massive intermarriage taking place. Are Jews going extinct? Not at all. Again like a diamond, and especially among the Orthodox communities, their obedience to God’s commandments, coupled with their keen sense of ethics and morality, will continue to provide everyone with ‘a light unto the Gentiles.’

Anti-Semitic Insinuation
The research and study of the Jewish people is not an exact science. However, certain conclusions can be drawn in some areas without resorting to stereotyping. One of those conclusions is that scholars who end up, after researching the subject, not liking, or even hating the Jews are letting emotions dictate over reason. This includes Jews themselves who sometimes turn out to be what Sander Gilman referred to as ‘self-hating Jews.’ Another conclusion is that some Jews can also be guilty of letting feelings like personal pride, rather than rational thought, guide them in their search for anti-Semitism. For example, a scholar who comes away judging Sigmund Freud as a fraud and a pervert who committed incest is considered by some to be an obvious anti-Semite. On the other hand, a scholar who reveres Karl Marx is given a pass even though he harbors some pretty harsh criticisms towards the nation-state of Israel. Why is that? Once again, it is because emotions are guiding the debate over whom or what is an anti-Semite.

For example, some Gentile conservatives who harbor a deep respect, or even affection, towards the Jewish people, have been hounded as anti-Semites for their harsh attacks upon historical Jewish figures such as Spinoza, Marx, Lenin and Freud, all of whom were atheists and did not practice Judaism. At the same time, Gentile liberals who hold some pretty virulent thoughts towards Israel, and religious Jews, are let off the hook, simply because they are liberal. Will this ever change or will Gentiles who revere the ancient Jews like Abraham, Moses and Jesus over the modern degenerates just mentioned always end up being labeled anti-Semites? For the time being they will, but given a few decades this will probably no longer be the case. The reason why is that Jews no longer have to be liberal in order to combat anti-Semitism. Conservatism and neo-conservatism are now becoming viable alternatives as well. The Jews have been let into the club, so to speak, and may now safely become more politically diverse than they once were.

Many people forget that, in Europe, Jews had to be liberal because the conservatives wouldn’t accept them. The same thing applies in this country where Jews were banned from membership into certain Golf country clubs simply because they were Jews. That was a scant twenty years ago. Jews are also disliked by many black Americans whom are still apt to believe some of the slanders and lies about Jews from the not-too-distant past. As time goes by, more and more Jews will become conservative thus balancing the overwhelmingly liberal tendencies found in today’s Jewish people. What follows are some typical comments that knee-jerk liberals would label as ‘Nazi’, but are in fact true. The proper responses to them are also listed. They are as follows:

Insinuation *** Response
USURY: Many international bankers are Jewish. *** Just a few short centuries ago, Jews were the only people permitted to charge interest and become money-lenders, while for Christian Gentiles, this was strictly forbidden. It’s no secret. Jews have been lending money to Gentiles for several centuries on a literally exclusive basis.
HOLLYWOOD: The Jews run Hollywood. *** The Jewish influence in Hollywood has been receding since the 1940s. This is probably the last generation of any real prominent Jewish influence. Latinos, Asians and Blacks will probably be making their mark in Hollywood in the years to come.
BIGOTRY: Some Jews are, in fact, ethnocentric and are quite proud of themselves  *** Many Gentiles are also extremely ethnocentric and extremely proud of themselves as well.
GENETICS: Many Jews come from the Ashkenazi, who were a converted tribe of Gentiles from Eastern Europe, and contain very little true blood from the tribe of Judah. *** While Jews are, in fact, an ethnicity they are also a religious community. Ashkenazi Jews are seen as full Jews because ‘purity’ of blood is not a requirement to be Jewish. Anyone can convert to Judaism and be considered a Jew.
MARX: Karl Marx, founder of socialism and communism, ‘workers of the world unite,’ never worked a hard day’s work in his entire life. *** Karl Marx was a convert to Christianity when young and then became a practicing Satanist at University. He despised Jews and Judaism. He still never worked a hard day’s work in his entire life.
FREUD: Sigmund Freud never cured a single patient of mental illness during his entire career. *** Sigmund Freud was a self-proclaimed ‘godless Jew’ his entire life and saw religion as a mentally-ill fantasy. He also committed incest with his own blood niece.

The Good Jew & Evil Gentile
In reality, truly evil Jews are extremely rare and always have been. They remain an endangered species on the brink of extinction. Only anti-Semites will mourn their disappearance. A quick comparison of Jews and Gentiles throughout history indicates that the Jews have almost always been the good guy and not the bad guy. The following chart illustrates this reality:

The Jewish Good Guy and the Gentile Bad Guy

Genesis
Abel: A peaceful shepherd who worshiped and pleased the LORD.
Cain: A violent, jealous farmer who murdered his brother Abel.

Biblical Sexuality
Abraham: Practiced heterosexual monogamy with only Sarah and Hagar.
Sodom: Practiced homosexual sodomy, including numerous ritual orgies.

Jerusalem (33 AD)
Jesus: A peaceful prophet who obeyed God.
Pontius Pilate: A violent dictator who had Him killed.

Germany (Early 20th Century)
Albert Einstein: A genius scientist who renounced warfare and promoted peace.
Adolph Hitler: A mad, tyrant war-monger who killed millions of Jews.

Politics
Barry Goldwater: An anti-Communist Jewish-Christian.
Josef Stalin: An anti-Semitic, Communist murderer.

Classical Music
Felix Mendelssohn: A Jewish-Christian who wrote music in praise of God.
Richard Wagner: An anti-Semite who wrote music dedicated to the pagan ‘gods’.

This comparison list of famous individuals clearly shows that, throughout history, it has almost always been the Gentiles who were the bad guys. The Maccabee Christian Churches hopes to end this recurring tragedy and vicious circle of hate through a renewal of both Jewish and Christian faith throughout the world. Anti-Semitism is not only found among poor and uneducated Gentiles, but among some fairly smart people. Bobby Fischer, a world-champion chess player, and a known anti-Semite once said, ‘I’m not an anti-Semite, I like the Arabs.’ What he meant was that the Jews were not the only Semitic people and therefore the whole term anti-Semitism was nonsense. He does have a point. I think his main point, however, was a case of anti-Semitic insinuation. It wasn’t funny. Anti-Semitism is not nonsense, but the occasional criticism of Jews on an individual basis is also not always anti-Semitism. One should always judge others by what they say and do, not by who they are. Christians especially, must remember what Jesus said, ‘Judge not or you will be judged, for by your own judgment you will be judged.’

Ending Anti-Semitism
The history of the Jews is one of the most tragic, heroic and implausible stories imaginable. The sheer fact that millions of them still exist and have practiced the same 613 commandments for over 3,000 years has no other precedent in human history. It is a miracle by any other name. Their language Hebrew, which came literally out of nowhere, is the oldest known written language in the world. Egyptian hieroglyphics, dating from around the same time period, not to mention Chinese or Hindi script, were mere child scribbles in comparison. Long before Christianity, the Jews were despised, attacked and killed by many different nations including Egypt, Persia, Babylonia, Greece and Rome. No other people have endured so much suffering for so long and for so little reason.  No other people have changed the course of history more so than the Jews. From Jesus Christ to Albert Einstein, the Jews have proven eternally capable of miraculous breakthroughs in thought and action. They truly are God’s chosen people and history shows it. Time and again, they have proven to be ‘a light unto the Gentiles’ in many different ways.

There is a dark side to this story, however, and it stretches from Rome to Berlin to New York City. It is the story of anti-Semitism. For whatever reason, Jews have had to endure bitter hatred from a great many angry, jealous and vicious people. Why did this happen? Some claim it was in order to fulfill Biblical prophecy and because they were, and are, God’s chosen people. This is not to say this should have ever happened, but what God predicted literally 3,000 years prior has, in fact, actually happened. No other set of predictions has ever been as accurate as the Bible. No other religion, or language, or tribe of people has ever lasted as long as the Jews. The current existence of the modern nation-state of Israel provides living proof that Biblical prophecy was, in fact, correct. Skeptics may scoff at this, but even they cannot come remotely close to answering how Jewish history could be so identical to what God predicted in the Old Testament. They can scoff and sneer and call it mere coincidence, but that is little more than a denial of reality. Biblical prophecy is real and not simply the delusional superstitions of believers. Here are just a few examples of the Bible predicting more than 2,000 years of Jewish history with precision.

Historical Event:  Date of Event — Biblical Prophecy
Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel by the Roman Empire: Around 70 A.D. — The LORD will bring a nation from far away…to swoop down on you like an eagle…a grim-faced nation showing no respect. (Deuteronomy 28:49)
Scattering of the Jews throughout Europe and the Middle East: 70 – 1933 A.D. — The LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other. (Deuteronomy 28:64)
European & Arabic Anti-Semitism predicted: 70 – 2006 A.D. — Among those nations you shall find no ease…night and day you shall be in dread, with no assurance of your life. (Deuteronomy 28:65-66)
Immigration to America predicted: 1776 – 2006 A.D. — The LORD will bring you back in ships to Egypt, by a route that I promised you would never see again. (Deuteronomy 28:68)
Birth of Modern Israel: 1948 – 2006 A.D. — The LORD your God will bring you…into the land that your ancestors possessed, and you will possess it; he will make you… prosperous and numerous. (Deuteronomy 30:5)

This history was predicted by God and Moses long before the Jewish people had even set foot upon the Promised Land of Israel. As this chart obviously shows, these prophecies are not just coincidence, but a crystal-clear foretelling of actual events such as the Jews’ defeat at the hand of the Romans, whose imperial symbol was that of the eagle, and the founding of modern Israel. Even the long centuries of anti-Semitism were also predicted. Today, it should be hoped that, after the horrific tragedy of the Nazi Holocaust, the age of anti-Semitism is finally coming, slowly but surely, to an end. This is how it should be. To achieve this, it is necessary to combat any anti-Semitic stereotypes that may still linger in the minds of non-Jews and also Jews themselves. These stereotypes can be easily discredited as the following chart clearly shows:

Issue: Anti-Semitism — The Facts
God: Jews destroy religion. — The most God-fearing country in the world, the U.S., also has the highest number of Jews.
Money: Jews are greedy. — Jews donate to both Jewish and Gentile causes. Gentiles do not donate to Jewish causes.
Sex: Jews are promiscuous. — Throughout history, Jews have behaved with more sexual restraint and morality than Gentiles.
Abortion: Jews promote abortion. — Jewish women are less likely to personally have an abortion than Gentile women.
Crime: Jews are criminals. — Jews are far less likely to ever spend time in jail or prison than Gentiles.
Manners: Jews are rude. — Some Jews sometimes behave with a mixture of Middle Eastern and Eastern European manners. Visit those countries and you will find the Gentiles or Muslims there just as rude.
Race: Jews are racist. — Many Jews played a very prominent role in the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s that ended segregation. At least one of them was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan.

The fact of the matter is that the Jewish people are, in reality, quite similar to the Gentiles. Although their unique religious traditions do set them apart to some extent, they share the same Biblical morality and ethics as the Christians. The so-called ‘Jewishness’ or ‘Yiddishness’ of Jews, with their expressive hand and arm gestures and loud, boisterous voices, stems from their Eastern European heritage and is disappearing rapidly. The truth is that, for the most part, Jews are as all-American and mainstream as the Gentile majority. It is their history and their religion that sets them apart and will continue to do so.

Jews do not have horns, they never eat and kill Gentile babies for Passover and they certainly do not secretly control the world. Didn’t the Nazi Holocaust prove that to be the case? The only real Jewish conspiracy of today is the religion called Christianity. It is time for Gentile society to let go of past prejudices and superstitions and welcome the Jewish people as partners, neighbors, friends and even family members. Hopefully, the ruffled feathers and wounded pride of the Jews can be soothed with just a little sincerity and good-will. It is about time that they can call this world, and this country, their home.

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