Tag Archives: Moses

A Long, Long Time Ago in a Judeo/Christian Bible Far, Far Away, the Star of David Meant ‘As Above, So Below’

 AsSoDevilstPetersburgLElements

Well, it appears these early years of 21st century spiritual ignorance and darkness seem to be upon us indefinitely, so let’s have a quick pop quiz review of some simple Judeo/Christian Star of David Arithmetic. Here are the main equations:

As Above + So Below = THE
Mountain Top + Valley Bottom = JUDEO/CHRISTIAN
Up High in Heaven + Down Low on Earth = STAR
Top of the Sky + Bottom of the Sea = OF
Heavenly Heights + Depths of the Earth = DAVID

Skeptical religious scholars may still quibble about the ‘As Above, so Below’ metaphor’s ultimate origins (Adam/Eve/Cain/Abel) and whether it was ever in use among the ancient Hebrew Patriarchs, long before written history ever began. Nevertheless, the fact remains that no one will ever know for sure although the Bible seems proof enough there was on-going symbolic understanding about the Star of David among the Israelite Prophets who followed in Moses‘ footsteps.

Now called The Star of David...the symbol…means, simply ‘as above, so below – the spiritual realm is mirrored by the material’. Westerners say on earth as it is in heaven.

– The Star of David or, Seal of Solomon, by ose Sinclair, The Bible Decoded

Indeed, the existing evidence strongly suggests it may well have been the Judeo/Christian tradition who initially introduced the ‘As Above, so Below’ linguistic theme into many different emerging Christian cultures who then later adopted it as their own.

King David would say his Star is SEVEN, and never SIX…Six…six…..

 

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7 = The 6 points plus the center
7 = The 6 days of Creation plus the seventh day of rest
7 = The 6 working days in the week plus Shabbat
7 = The 6 directions of space plus the center (Up, Down, East, West, South, North, and Center)
7 = The 6 Sefirot of the Male (Zeir Anpin) united with the Seventh Sefirot of the Female (Nekuva).

– Secrets Behind the Star of David, Star of David, Taliscope.com

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A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism


Six hundred and Thirteen precepts were communicated to Moses, three hundred and sixty-five negative precepts, corresponding to the number of solar days in the year, and two hundred and forty-eight positive precepts, corresponding to the number of parts to a man’s body.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 23b


For most observers, 613 seems like such a strange, even random, number for anyone, let alone an entire world religion, to have held in such high regard for so long. Yet, ask any devout Jew of today how many Commandments their religion has and their answer would be no different from the Rabbis who ran the elite Jewish academies over 1,500 years previously. Back then, and as it still is now, the religion of Judaism believed in 613 Commandments and the preponderance of historical evidence seems to suggest this exact number has some extremely old roots, One could even contend the Jewish tradition of numbering their religious commandments at exactly 613 is, by any standard, a truly ancient practice that has stood the test of time, even unto this very day.

Thus are we introduced to 613, the magic number of Torah scholarship and Jewish living. Its source is the Babylonian Talmud; its importance is echoed in a vast body of scholarly literature spanning a millennium; its potential as an aid to studying and remembering Torah deserves our careful analysis.

– ‘Origin’ of 613 Commandments, by Rabbi Mendel Weinbach

The greatest proof of this particular number’s authenticity can be found in the pages of the Babylonian Talmud (Compiled 200-500 A,D.) where the 613 Commandments is mentioned at least six different times in five separate volumes of this comprehensive Jewish collection of religious doctrine (Makkoth 23b, Yebamoth 47b and 62a, Nedarim 25a, Shabbath 87a, Shebu’oth 29a). Thus, it must said the numerical tradition of precisely 613 Judaic laws, and no more or less than this, has to be at least 1,500 years old, if not far older. That’s quite a long time for a number, especially a rather large, number like 613 to have remained the same, especially when it comes to the law, which been subject to change since the dawn of civilization. Yet for Judaism, these laws are said to have come from God Himself and there seems to be little reason not to believe them.

NOTE: The following 613 Commandments of Judaism come from Sefer Hamitzvot (Book of Commandments), written by the great Jewish sage Maimonides (12th century). They are divided into 14 Books and further subdivided by different subjects. With that said, here are the 613 Commandments of Judaism, as they have been understood for many centuries:
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BOOK ONE: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE

Fundamentals of Torah:

1. To know there is a God (Ex. 20:2)

2. Not to entertain thoughts of other gods besides Him (Ex. 20:3)

3. To know that He is one (Deut. 6:4)

4. To love Him (Deut. 6:5)

5. To fear Him (Deut. 10:20)

6. To sanctify His Name (Lev. 22:32)

7. Not to profane His Name (Lev. 22:32)

8. Not to destroy objects associated with His Name (Deut. 12:4)

9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name (Deut. 18:15)

10. Not to test the prophet unduly (Deut. 6:16)

Laws of Character

11. To emulate His ways     (Deut. 28:9)

12. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20)

13. To love Jews (Lev. 19:18)

14. To love converts (Deut. 10:19)

15. Not to hate fellow Jews (Lev. 19:17)

16. To reprove (Lev. 19:17)

17. Not to embarrass others (Lev. 19:17)

18. Not to oppress the weak (Ex. 21:22)

19. Not to speak derogatorily of others (Lev. 19:16)

20. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)

21. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)

Laws of Torah Study

22. To learn Torah (Deut. 6:7)

23. To honor those who teach and know Torah (Lev. 19:32)

Laws of Idolatry and Paganism

24. Not to inquire into idolatry (Lev. 19:4)

25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see (Num. 15:39)

26. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27)

27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped (Ex. 20:5)

28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God (Ex. 20:5)

29. Not to make an idol for yourself (Ex. 20:4)

30. Not to make an idol for others (Lev. 19:4)

31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes (Ex. 20:20)

32. Not to turn a city to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)

33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worship (Deut. 13:17)

34. Not to rebuild it as a city (Deut. 13:17)

35. Not to derive benefit from it (Deut. 13:18)

36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worship (Deut. 13:12)

37. Not to love the missionary )Deut. 13:9)

38. Not to cease hating the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

39. Not to save the missionary (Deut. 13:9)

40. Not to say anything in his defense (Deut. 13:9)

41. Not to refrain from incriminating him (Deut. 13:9)

42. Not to prophesize in the name of idolatry (Deut. 13:14)

43. Not to listen to a false prophet (Deut. 13:4)

44. Not to prophesize falsely in the name of God (Deut. 18:20)

45. Not to be afraid of killing the false prophet (Deut. 18:22)

46. Not to swear in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13)

47. Not to perform ov (medium) (Lev. 19:31)

48. Not to perform yidoni (magical seer) (Lev. 19:31)

49. Not to pass your children through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)

50. Not to erect a column in a public place of worship (Deut. 16:22)

51. Not to bow down on smooth stone (Lev. 26:1)

52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard (Deut. 16:21)

53. To destroy idols and their accessories (Deut. 12:2)

54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessories 9Deut. 7:26)

55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idols (Deut. 7:250

56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters (Deut. 7:2)

57. Not to show favor to them (Deut. 7:2)

58. Not to let them dwell in our land (Ex. 23:330

59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing (Lev. 20:23)

60. Not to be superstitious (Lev. 19:26)

61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. (Deut. 18:10)

62. Not to engage in astrology (Lev. 19:26)

63. Not to mutter incantations (Deut. 18:11)

64. Not to attempt to contact the dead (Deut. 18:11)

65. Not to consult the ov (Deut. 18:11)

66. Not to consult the yidoni (Deut. 18:11)

67. Not to perform acts of magic (Deut. 18:10)

68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their head (Lev. 19:270

69. Men must not shave their beards with a razor 9Lev. 19:27)

70. Men must not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

71. Women must not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

72. Not to tattoo the skin (Lev. 19:28)

73. Not to tear the skin in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

74. Not to make a bald spot in mourning (Deut. 14:1)

Laws of Repentance

75. To repent and confess wrongdoings (Num. 5:7)

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BOOK TWO: THE BOOK OF LOVE OF GOD

Laws of Reading the Shema

76. To say the Shema twice daily (Deut. 6:7)

Laws of Prayer and Kohanic Blessings

77. To serve the Almighty with prayer daily (Ex. 23:25)

78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation daily (Num. 6:23)

Laws of Tefillin, Mezuza and Sefer Torah

79. To wear tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)

80. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)

81. To put a mezuzah on each door post (Deut. 6:9)

82. Each male must write a Sefer Torah (Deut. 31:19)

83. The king must have a separate Sefer Torah for himself (Deut. 17:18)

Laws of Tzitzit

84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garments (Num. 15:38)

Laws of Blessings

85. To bless the Almighty after eating (Deut. 8:10)

Laws of Circumcision

86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birth (Lev. 12:3)

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BOOK THREE: THE BOOK OF SEASONS

Laws of the Sabbath

87. To rest on the seventh day (Ex. 23:12)

88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day (Ex. 20:10)

89. The court must not inflict punishment on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3)

90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on Shabbat (Ex. 16:29)

91. To sanctify the day with Kiddush and Havdallah (Ex. 20:8)

Laws of Eruvin (Rabbinical)

Laws of Yom Kippur Rest

92. To rest from prohibited labor (Lev. 23:32)

93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32)

94. To afflict yourself on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29)

95. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29)

Laws of Festival Rest

96. To rest on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:7)

97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of Passover (Lev. 23:8)

100. To rest on Shavuot     (Lev. 23:21)

101. Not to do prohibited labor on Shavuot (Lev. 23:21)

102. To rest on Rosh Hashana  (Lev. 23:24)

103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh Hashana (Lev. 23:25)

104. To rest on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

105. Not to do prohibited labor on Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)

106. To rest on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shmini Atzeret (Lev. 23:36)

Laws of Chometz and Matzah

108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)

109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of Nissan (Ex. 12:15)

110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 13:3)

111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of Passover (Ex. 12:20)

112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 13:7)

113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven days (Ex. 12:19)

114. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)

115. To relate the exodus from Egypt on that night (Ex. 13:8)

Laws of Shofar, Sukkah, Lulav

116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashana) (Num. 29:1)

117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)

118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven days (Lev. 23:40)

Laws of Shekalim

119. Each man must give a half shekel annually (Ex. 30:13)

Laws of Sanctification of Months

120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month begins (Ex. 12:2)

Laws of Fasts

121. To afflict and cry out before God in times of catastrophe (Num. 10:9)

Laws of Megillah and Chanukah (Rabbinical)

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BOOK FOUR: THE BOOK OF WOMEN

Laws of Marriage

122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushin (Deut. 22:13)

123. Not to have relations with women not thus married (Deut. 23:18)

124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife (Ex. 21:10)

125. To have children with one’s wife (Gen 1:28)

Laws of Divorce

126. To issue a divorce by means of a “get” document (Deut. 24:1)

127. A man must not remarry his wife after she has married someone else (Deut. 24:4)

Laws of Yivum and Chalitzah (Levirate Marriage)

128. To do yibum (marry childless brother’s widow) (Deut. 25:5)

129. To do chalitzah (freeing a widow from yibum) (Deut. 25:9)

130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (Deut. 25:5)

Laws of Women

131. The court must fine one who seduces a maiden (Ex. 22:15-16)

132. The rapist must marry the maiden (if she chooses) (Deut. 22:29)

133. He is not allowed to divorce her (Deut. 22:29)

134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife (Deut. 22:19)

135. He must not divorce her (Deut. 22:19)

Laws of Sotah (Suspect Wife)

136. To fulfill the laws of the Sotah (Num. 5:30)

137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (Num. 5:15)

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BOOK FIVE: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS

Laws of Forbidden Relations

139. Not to have relations with your mother (Lev. 18:7)

140. Not to have relations with your father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)

141. Not to have relations with your sister (Lev. 18:9)

142. Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:110

143. Not to have relations with your son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)

144. Not to have relations with your daughter (Lev. 18:10)

145. Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:100

146. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter (Lev. 18:17)

147. Not to have relations with a woman and her son’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

148. Not to have relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)

149. Not to have relations with your father’s sister (Lev. 18:12)

150. Not to have relations with your mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)

151. Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:14)

152. Not to have relations with your son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)

153. Not to have relations with your brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)

154. Not to have relations with your wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)

155. A man must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

156. A woman must not have relations with a beast (Lev. 18:23)

157. Not to have homosexual relations (Lev. 18:22)

158. Not to have homosexual relations with your father (Lev. 18:7)

159. Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)

160. Not to have relations with a married woman (Lev. 18:20)

161. Not to have relations with a menstrually impure woman (Lev. 18:19)

162. Not to marry non-Jews (Deut. 7:3)

163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:4)

164. Don’t keep a third generation Egyptian convert from marrying into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:8-9)

165. Not to refrain from marrying a third generation Edomite convert (Deut. 23:8-9)

166. Not to let a mamzer marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:3)

167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people (Deut. 23:2)

168. Not to castrate any male (including animals) (Lev. 22:24)

169. The High Priest must not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)

170. The High Priest must not have relations with a widow even outside of marriage (Lev. 21:15)

171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden (Lev. 21:13)

172. A Kohen must not marry a divorcee (Lev. 21:7)

173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who had forbidden relations) (Lev. 21:7)

174. A priest must not marry a chalalah (party to or product of 169-172) (Lev. 21:7)

175. Not to make pleasurable contact with any forbidden woman (Lev. 18:6)

Laws of Forbidden Foods

176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:2)

177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Deut. 14:11)

178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:9)

179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher (Lev. 11:21)

180. Not to eat non-kosher animals (Lev. 11:4)

181. Not to eat non-kosher fowl (Lev. 11:13)

182. Not to eat non-kosher fish (Lev. 11:11)

183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insects (Deut. 14:19)

184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on land (Lev. 11:41)

185. Not to eat non-kosher maggots (Lev. 11:44)

186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the ground  (Lev. 11:42)

187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than fish (Lev. 11:43)

188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughter (Deut. 14:21)

189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)

190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded (Ex. 22:30)

191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature (Deut 12:23)

192. Not to eat blood (Lev. 3:17)

193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals (Lev. 3:17)

194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh (Gen. 32:33)

195. Not to eat meat and milk cooked together (Ex. 23:19)

196. Not to cook meat and milk together (Ex. 34:26)

197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer (Lev. 23:14)

200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years (Lev. 19:23)

201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

202. Not to eat untithed fruits (Lev. 22:15)

203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols (Deut. 32:38)

Laws of Slaughtering

204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it (Deut. 12:21)

205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day (Lev. 22:28

206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth (Lev. 17:13)

207. Not to take the mother bird from her children (Deut. 22:6)

208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest (Deut. 22:7)

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BOOK SIX: THE BOOK OF OATHS

Laws of Oaths

209. Not to swear falsely in God’s Name (Lev. 19:12)

210. Not to take God’s Name in vain (Ex. 20:7)

211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you (Lev. 19:11)

212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim (Lev. 19:11)

213. To swear in God’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court (Deut. 10:20)

Laws of Vows

214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed (Deut. 23:24)

215. Not to break oaths or vows (Num. 30:3)

216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah (Num. 30:3)

Laws of The Nazir

217. The Nazir must let his hair grow (Num. 6:5)

218.  He must not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)

219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar (Num. 6:3)

220. He must not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)

221. He must not eat raisins (Num. 6:3)

222. He must not eat grape seeds (Num. 6:4)

223. He must not eat grape skins (Num. 6:4)

224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpse ((Num. 6:6)

225. He must not come into contact with the dead (Num. 6:7)

226. He must shave after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite period (Num. 6:9)

Laws of Estimated Values and Vows

227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah (Lev. 27:2)

228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals(Lev. 27:12-13)

229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses (Lev. 27:14)

230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields (Lev. 27:16)

231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) (Lev. 27:28

232. Not to sell the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

233. Not to redeem the cherem (Lev. 27:28)

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BOOK SEVEN: THE BOOK OF SEEDS

Laws of Mixed Species

234. Not to plant diverse seeds together (Lev. 19:19)

235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)

236. Not to crossbreed animals (Lev. 19:19)

237. Not to work different animals together (Deut. 22:10)

238. Not to wear sha’atnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen (Deut. 22:11)

Laws of Gifts to the Poor

239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor (Lev. 19:10)

240. Not to reap that corner (Lev. 19:9)

241. To leave gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

242. Not to gather the gleanings (Lev. 19:9)

243. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard (Lev. 19:10)

245. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10)

247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field (Deut. 24:19)

248. Not to retrieve them (Deut. 24:19)

249. To separate the tithe for the poor (Deut. 14:28)

250. To give charity (Deut. 15:8)

251. Not to withhold charity from the poor (Deut. 15:7)

252. To set aside Trumah Gedolah (tithe for the Kohen) (Deut. 18:4)

253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe (Num. 18:26)

254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order (Ex. 22:28)

255. A non-Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:10)

257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat Trumah (Ex. 12:48)

258. An impure Kohen must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:4)

259. A chalalah must not eat Trumah (Lev. 22:12)

Laws of Ma’aser

260. To set aside Ma’aser each planting year and give it to a Levite (Num. 18:24)

Laws of The Second Tithe and Fourth Year Produce

261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma’aser Sheni) (Deut. 14:22)

262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment (Deut. 26:14)

263. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni while impure (Deut. 26:14)

264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma’aser Sheni (Deut. 26:14)

265. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

266. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

267. Not to eat Ma’aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma’aser Sheni (Lev. 19:24)

269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year (Deut. 26:13)

Laws of First Fruits and other Kohanic Gifts

270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple (Ex. 23:19)

271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation (Deut. 26:5)

273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen (Num. 15:20)

274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals to a Kohen (Deut. 18:3)

275. To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen (Deut. 18:4)

276. To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen (Num. 18:15)

277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen (Ex. 13:13)

278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it (Ex. 13:13)

Laws of The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years

279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth (Ex. 34:21)

280. Not to work the land during the seventh year (Lev. 25:4)

281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year (Lev. 25:4)

282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner (Lev. 25:5)

283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way (Lev. 25:5)

284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year (Ex. 23:11)

285. To release all loans during the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)

286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower (Deut. 15:2)

287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss (Deut. 15:9)

288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years (Lev. 25:8)

289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:10)

290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slaves (Lev. 25:9)

291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year (Lev. 25:11)

294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties (Lev. 25:24)

295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely (Lev. 25:23)

296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities (Lev. 25:29)

297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in (Deut. 18:1)

298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war (Deut. 18:1)

299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields (Num. 35:2)

300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and after the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:34)

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BOOK EIGHT: THE BOOK OF SERVICE

Laws of The Temple

301. To build a Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)

302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal (Ex. 20:22)

303. Not to climb steps to the altar (Ex. 20:23)

304. To show reverence to the Temple (Lev. 19:30)

305. To guard the Temple area (Num. 18:2)

306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded (Num. 18:5)

Laws of Temple Vessels and Employees

307. To prepare the anointing oil (Ex. 30:31)

308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

309. Not to anoint with anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)

310. Not to reproduce the incense formula (Ex. 30:37)

311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense (Ex. 30:9)

312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders (Num. 7:9)

313. Not to remove the staves from the ark (Ex. 25:15)

314. The Levites must work in the Temple (Num. 18:23)

315. No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite (Num. 18:3)

316. To dedicate the Kohen for service (Lev. 21:8)

317. The kohanic work shifts must be equal during holidays (Deut. 18:6-8)

318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service (Ex. 28:2)

319. Not to tear the priestly garments (Ex. 28:32)

320. The breastplate must not be loosened from the Efode (Ex. 28:28)

Laws of Entering the Temple

321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated (Lev. 10:9)

322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with long hair (Lev. 10:6)

323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes (Lev. 10:6)

324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately (Lev. 16:2)

325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service (Lev. 10:7)

326. To send the impure from the Temple (Num. 5:2)

327. Impure people must not enter the Temple (Num. 5:3)

328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area (Deut. 23:11)

329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple (Lev. 22:2)

330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service (Lev. 22:7)

331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service (Ex. 30:19)

332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar (Lev. 21:23)

333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve (Lev.21:17)

334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve (Lev. 21:17

335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve (Num. 18:4)

Laws of Restrictions Concerning Sacrifices

336. To offer only unblemished animals (Lev. 22:21)

337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar (Lev. 22:20)

338. Not to slaughter it (Lev. 22:22)

339. Not to sprinkle its blood (Lev. 22:24)

340. Not to burn its fat (Lev. 22:22)

341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal (Deut. 17:1)

342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews (Lev. 22:25)

343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals (Lev. 22:21)

344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified (Deut. 12:15)

345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)

346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog (Deut. 23:19)

347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar (Lev. 2:11)

348. To salt all sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices (Lev. 2:13)

Laws of Sacrificial Procedure

350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 1:3)

351. Not to eat its meat (Deut. 12:17)

352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering (Lev. 6:18)

353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering (Lev. 6:23

354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering (Lev. 5:8)

355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering (Lev. 7:1)

356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple (Ex. 29:33)

357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard (Deut. 12:17)

358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat (Ex. 29:33)

359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering (Lev. 7:11)

360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood (Deut. 12:17)

361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 2:1)

362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 5:11)

363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers (Lev. 3:11)

364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest (Lev. 6:16)

365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread (Lev. 6:10)

366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings (Lev. 6:9)

367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival (Deut. 12:5-6)

368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow (Deut. 23:22)

369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple (Deut. 12:11)

370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple (Deut. 12:26)

371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard (Lev. 17:4)

372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard (Deut. 12:13)

Laws of Constant and Additional Offerings

373. To offer two lambs every day (Num. 28:3)

374. To light a fire on the altar every day (Lev. 6:6)

375. Not to extinguish this fire (Lev. 6:6)

376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day (Lev. 6:3)

377. To burn incense every day (Ex 30:7)

378. To light the Menorah every day (Ex. 27:21)

379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day (Lev. 6:13)

380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat (Num 28:9)

381. To make the show bread (Ex. 25:30)

382. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Num. 28:11)

383. To bring additional offerings on Passover (Num. 28:19)

384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (Lev. 23:10)

385. Each man must count the Omer – seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought     (Lev. 23:15)

386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot (Num. 28:26)

387. To bring two leaves to accompany the above sacrifice (Lev. 23:17)

388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana (Num. 29:2)

389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur (Num. 29:8)

390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot (Num. 29:13)

391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret (Num. 29:35)

Laws of Disqualified Offerings

392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished (Deut. 14.3)

393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions (Lev. 7:18)

394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them (Lev. 22:30)

395. Not to eat from that which was left over (Lev. 19:8)

396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure (Lev. 7:19)

397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices (Lev. 7:20)

398. To burn the leftover sacrifices (Lev. 7:17)

399. To burn all impure sacrifices (Lev. 7:19)

Laws of Yom Kippur Service

400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshat Acharei Mot (Lev. 16:3)

Laws of Misusing Sanctified Property

401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice (Lev. 5:16)

402. Not to work consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (Deut. 15:19)

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BOOK NINE: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES

Laws of Pascal Sacrifice

404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time (Ex. 12:6)

405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven (Ex. 23:18)

406. Not to leave the fat overnight (Ex. 23:18)

407. To slaughter the second paschal lamb (Num. 9:11)

408. To eat the paschal lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the 15th of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)

409. To eat the second paschal lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar (Num.9:11)

410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled (Ex. 12:9)

411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group (Ex. 12:46)

412. An apostate must not eat from it (Ex.12:43)

413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it (Ex. 12:45)

414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it (Ex. 12:48

415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering (Ex. 12:46)

416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering (Num. 9:12)

417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning (Ex. 12:10)

418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning (Num. 9:12)

419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th (Deut. 16:4)

Laws of Pilgrim Offerings

420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot (Deut. 16:16)

421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Ex. 23:14)

422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) (Deut. 16:14)

423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings (Deut. 16:16)

424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites (Deut. 12:19)

425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)

Laws of First Born Animals

426. To set aside the firstborn animals (Ex. 13:12)

427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)

428. Not to redeem the firstborn (Num. 18:17)

429. Separate the tithe from animals (Lev. 27:32)

430. Not to redeem the tithe (Lev. 27:33)

Laws of Offerings for Unintentional Transgressions

431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression (Lev. 4:27)

432. Bring an asham talui when uncertain of guilt (Lev. 5:17-18)

433. Bring an asham vadai when guilt is ascertained (Lev. 5:25)

434. Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) (Lev. 5:7-11)

435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error  (Lev. 4:13)

Laws of Lacking Atonement

436. A woman who had a running issue must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:28-29)

437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 12:6)

438. A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes to the Mikveh (Lev. 15:13-14)

439. A metzora must bring an offering after going to the Mikveh (Lev. 14:10)

Laws of Substitution of Sacrifices

440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)

441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration (Lev. 27:10)

442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another (Lev. 27:26)

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BOOK TEN: THE BOOK OF PURITY

Laws of Impurity of Human Dead

443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead (Num. 19:14)

Laws of The Red Heifer

444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Num. 19:2)

445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water (Num. 19:21)

Laws of Impurity through Tzara’at

446. Rule the laws of human tzara’at as prescribed in the Torah (Lev. 13:12)

447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity (Deut. 24:8)

448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair (Lev. 13:33)

449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips (Lev. 13:45)

450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora (Lev. 14:2)

451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification (Lev. 14:9)

452. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of clothing (Lev. 13:47)

453. Carry out the laws of tzara’at of houses (Lev. 13:34)

Laws of Impurity of Reclining and Sitting

454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity (Lev. 15:19)

455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth (Lev. 12:2)

456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running issue (Lev. 15:25)

457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue (Lev. 15:3)

Laws of Other Sources of Impurity

458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast (Lev. 11:39)

459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (Lev. 11:29)

460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (Lev. 15:16)

Laws of Impurity of Food

461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods (Lev. 11:34)

Laws of Vessels (Rabbinical)

Laws of Mikveh

462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikveh to become pure (Lev. 15:16)

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BOOK ELEVEN: THE BOOK OF DAMAGES

Laws of Property Damage

463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox (Ex. 21:28)

464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating (Ex. 22:4)

465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit (Ex. 21:33)

466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire (Ex. 22:5)

Laws of Theft

467. Not to steal money stealthily (Lev. 19:11)

468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief (Ex. 21:37)

469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate (Lev. 19:36)

470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights (Lev. 19:35)

471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use (Deut. 25:13)

472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property (Deut. 19:14)

473. Not to kidnap (Ex. 20:13)

Laws of Robbery and Lost Objects

474. Not to rob openly (Lev. 19:13)

475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt (Lev. 19:13)

476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession (Ex. 20:14)

477. Not to desire another’s possession (Deut. 5:18)

478. Return the robbed object or its value (Lev. 5:23)

479. Not to ignore a lost object (Deut. 22:3)

480. Return the lost object (Deut. 22:1)

481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another’s property (Ex. 21:18)

Laws of Murder and Preservation of Life

482. Not to murder (Ex. 20:13)

483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer (Num. 35:31)

484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge (Num. 35:25)

485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge  (Num. 35:32)

486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial (Num. 35:12)

487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:11)

488. Not to pity the pursuer (Num. 35:12)

489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)

490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access (Deut. 19:3)

491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder (Deut. 21:4)

492. Not to work nor plant that river valley (Deut. 21:4)

493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property (Deut. 22:8)

494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs (Deut. 22:8)

495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) (Lev. 19:14)

496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it (Ex. 23:5)

497. Help others load their beast (Deut. 22:4)

498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) (Deut. 22:4)

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BOOK TWELVE: THE BOOK OF ACQUISITION

Laws of Sales

499. Buy and sell according to Torah law (Lev. 25:14)

500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article (Lev. 25:14)

501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words (Lev. 25:17)

502. Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily (Ex. 22:20)

503. Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words (Ex. 22:20)

Laws of Acquisitions and Gifts (Rabbinical)
Laws of Neighbors (Rabbinical)
Laws of Agents and Partners (Rabbinical)

Laws of Slaves

504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws (Ex. 21:2)

505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold (Lev. 25:42)

506. Not to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:43)

507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively (Lev. 25:53)

508. Not to have him do menial slave labor (Lev. 25;39)

509. Give him gifts when he goes free (Deut. 15:14)

510. Not to send him away empty-handed (Deut. 15:13)

511. Redeem Jewish maidservants (Ex. 21:8)

512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

513. The master must not sell his maidservant (Ex. 21:8)

514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs (Lev. 25:46)

515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to Israel (Deut. 23:16)

516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge (Deut. 23:16)

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BOOK THIRTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGEMENTS

Laws of Hiring

517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard (Ex. 22:9)

518. Pay wages on the day they were earned (Deut. 24:15)

519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time (Lev. 19:13)

520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works (Deut. 23:25)

521. The worker must not eat while on hired time (Deut. 23:26)

522. The worker must not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)

523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing (Deut. 25:4)

Laws of Borrowing and Depositing

524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower (Ex. 22:13)

525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard (Ex. 22:6)

Laws of Creditor and Debtor

526. Lend to the poor and destitute (Ex. 22:24)

527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don’t have it (Ex. 22:24)

528. Press the idolater for payment (Deut. 15:3)

529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral (Deut. 24:10)

530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed (Deut. 24:13)

531. Not to delay its return when needed (Deut. 24:12)

532. Not to demand collateral from a widow (Deut. 24:17)

533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food (Deut. 24:6)

534. Not to lend with interest (Lev.25:37)

535. Not to borrow with interest (Deut. 23:20)

536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note (Ex. 22:24)

537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest (Deut. 23:21)

Laws of Plaintiff and Defendant

538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier (Ex. 22:8)

Laws of Inheritance

539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance (Num. 27:8)

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BOOK FOURTEEN: THE BOOK OF JUDGES

Laws of Sanhedrin and Punishments

540. Appoint judges (Deut. 16:18)

541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure (Deut. 1:17)

542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement (Ex. 23:2)

543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required (Ex. 23:2)

544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases (Deut. 23:2)

545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning (Deut. 22:24)

546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning (Lev. 20:14)

547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword (Ex. 21:20)

548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation (Lev. 20:10)

549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry (Deut. 21:22)

550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed (Deut.21:23)

551. Not to delay burial overnight (Deut. 21:23)

552. The court must not let the sorcerer live (Ex. 22:17)

553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer (Ex. 25:2)

554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes (Deut. 25:3)

555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence (Ex. 23:7)

556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime (Deut. 22:26)

557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial (Deut. 19:13)

558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial (Lev. 19:15)

560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor (Ex. 23;6)

561. A judge must not pervert justice (Lev. 19:15)

562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan (Deut. 24:17)

563. Judge righteously (Lev. 19:15)

564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment (Deut. 1:17)

565. Judges must not accept bribes (Ex. 23:8)

566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present (Ex. 23:1)

567. Not to curse judges (Ex. 22:27)

568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin (Ex. 22:27)

569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew (Lev. 19:14)

Laws of Evidence

570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court (Lev. 5:1)

571. Carefully interrogate the witness  (Deut. 13:15)

572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes (Deut. 19:17)

573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness (Deut. 19:15)

574. Transgressors must not testify (Ex. 23:1)

575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify (Deut. 24:16)

576. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)

577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant (Deut. 19:19)

Laws of Insurgents

578. Act according to the ruling of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin (Deut. 17:11)

580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations (Deut. 13:1)

581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part (Deut. 13:1)

582. Not to curse your father and mother (Ex. 21:17)

583. Not to strike your father and mother (Ex. 21:15)

584. Respect your father or mother (Ex. 20:12)

585. Fear your father or mother (Lev. 19:3)

586. Not to be a rebellious son (Deut. 21:18)

Laws of Mourning

587. Mourn for relatives (Lev. 10:19)

588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative (Lev. 21:11)

589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse (Lev. 21:11)

590. A Kohen must not defile himself for anyone except relatives (Lev. 21:1)

Laws of Kings and their Wars

591. Appoint a king from Israel (Deut. 17:15)

592. Not to appoint a convert (Deut. 17:15)

593. The king must not have too many wives (Deut. 17:17)

594. The king must not have too many horses (Deut. 17:16)

595. The king must not have too much silver and gold (Deut. 17:17)

596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:17)

597. Not to let any of them remain alive (Deut. 20:16)

598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people (Deut. 25:17)

600. Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert (Deut. 25:19)

601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt (Deut. 17:16)

602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms (Deut. 20:10)

603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them (Deut. 23:7)

604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege (Deut. 20:19)

605. Prepare latrines outside the camps (Deut. 23:13)

606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with (Deut. 23:14)

607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war (Deut. 20:2)

608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions (Deut. 24:5)

609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military (Deut. 24:5)

610. Not to panic and retreat during battle  (Deut. 20:3)

611. Keep the laws of the captive woman  (Deut. 21:11)

612. Not to sell her into slavery (Deut. 21:14)

613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her (Deut. 21:14)

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NOTE: Some words and phrases cited in the above 613 Commandments were carefully altered and edited by Judas Maccabaeus, the author of this post and publisher of this blog- the Judeo/Christian Tradition. This was done simply to make the English more readable and understandable by the general audience. Even so, the basic meaning of every Commandment that has been edited or re-written remains the same.

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We have been commanded Six hundred and Thirteen commandments: ‘Your people shall be my people’. We are forbidden idolatry: ‘And your God my God’.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 47b

 

The Judeo-Christian, Part I. Moses, a Scientific Genius 3,000 Years ahead of His time

Fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.

– Ecclesiastes 12:13

Part I. Moses, a Scientific Genius 3,000 Years ahead of His time

For many of today’s intellectuals, modern science, most especially Darwinism, has led them to conclude that the Judeo-Christian tradition is not only an out-dated concept, but a primitive superstition which may even prove to be incompatible with modern, secular society. What nearly everyone seems to have overlooked is the sheer ancient scientific genius that can be clearly seen in the first chapter of Genesis. In just a few short verses, this particular text mentions the Big Bang, the stellar evolution of the universe, the general geophysics of Earth formation, and the exact sequence of biological evolution as seen on this planet. In other words, secular intellectuals must admit that the Genesis account of Creation, what they usually dismiss as mythological, is closer to the modern scientific understanding of the natural world than any other rival Creation legend. As one scientifically-minded Judeo-Christian believer puts it:

The ancient Bible (including Genesis 1) was written, around 3,300 years ago, as it is understood today. Only in the past two hundred years has science started to be capable of recognizing the (apparently) correct scientific sequence of those events. And they have turned out to be REMARKABLY similar.

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Seen carefully, the real question that remains unanswered is how the orphan son of a lowly Israelite mother named Moses, who was raised and educated by the Pharaoh’s daughter, ever became so enlightened and informed about how the sun and the stars, along with Earth and all its life-forms ever came into existence. Since the time that Moses was still living in ancient Egypt, around 1,300-1,500 B.C., modern scholars have now determined that, in general, Egyptian civilization never really developed any actual scientific knowledge at all, except their exceptional building skills and clever agricultural know-how. Egyptian hieroglyphics, as deciphered by modern experts, reveal that the society Moses was brought up in was woefully ignorant about the skies above them and the wild-life that surrounded them. In short, ancient Egypt was a polytheistic, superstitious, slave-based kingdom completely ignorant of astrophysics, biological evolution, and nearly any other scientific field of study. On the other hand, the Book of Genesis is either an indication of supreme intelligence or one of the luckiest guesses about the sequence of evolution ever known in the history of the world.

Genesis 1 depicts the unfolding of the Divine energies in the sequence Earth, plants, marine animals, terrestrial animals, and humans – precisely the sequence confirmed by evolution.

– Orthodoxy Today

In stark contrast to the mental nonsense of ancient Egypt, the first chapter of Genesis written by Moses is like that of a well-informed modern scientist deliberately writing a semi-legendary account of Creation and clearly intending it for the common man of Israel to understand. Back then most people were illiterate, completely ignorant, and basically frightened of the unknown, which included the skies above them and the wild animals who lurked at the edges of Egyptian society. Obviously the author set out to write a short, fact-based account of the world’s primordial origins which would both educate and inspire the common people, as well as the readers that came after him, yet remain absolutely valid metaphorically. Seen carefully, the story of Genesis is like an incredibly poetic saga of a wise and merciful sorcerer or wizard who looks deeply into a dark, magic cauldron and then casts His spells through His thunderous words, thus causing the universe to be magically brought in existence.

Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

– Genesis 1:1-2

Even so, this fun and entertaining folk-tale of a seven-day ritual of great power and magic also remains completely embedded with scientific facts, which were probably meant to be taught centuries later when the simple minds of the ancient, gullible listeners were better able to understand them. One must remember that the precise details of the Darwinian theory of evolution can only be grasped by well-educated thinkers fully versed in physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. Remember, not a single one of the ancient Israelites whom Moses was addressing knew anything about the molecular structure of DNA or the mathematical concept of random chance or probability. Not only that, there is also the spiritual issue of man’s special relationship to God, the mysterious entity who hides behind the curtain of material reality. A primitive mind could easily misinterpret the Darwinian model of history and then wrongly assume that their beloved pet dog, cat, or monkey, is just as worthwhile as their fellow human beings who have been blessed by God to rule the animals, not deify them as the ancient Egyptians did. The gods they worshipped were seen as humans with various animal heads placed upon them, an absurd impossibility. This was not the case with the God of Moses and his fellow Israelites, whom they had oppressed and enslaved.

So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them, male and female he created them.

– Genesis 1:27

Genesis clearly reiterates the obvious truth of the real world that the Biblical God’s last, ultimate creation known as men and women must, like good brothers and sisters, look after each other first and foremost, because none of the other animals will ever feed, clothe, or truly love their rulers known as man. They don’t know how. Rather than the violent chaos of Darwinian ‘survival of the fittest’, Genesis depicts a God that, in turn, rules benevolently over mankind. The account written by Moses is also followed by a repeated emphasis that all men must try to obey their Creator’s instinctive commandments against theft, murder, adultery, and lying, concepts that other life-forms clearly don’t and may never comprehend. Modern evolutionary scientists know quite well that mankind is far superior, and completely different, than any other animals, including the apes and gorillas which came long before God endowed Adam with a hand-made immortal soul. These moral and ethical lessons are basically what the Judeo-Christian Creation story is clearly intended to proclaim, not the exact number of eons involved in stellar evolution, or the evolutionary reason behind the horns of goats and sheep..

Evolution contradicts a literalistic interpretation of Genesis. However, according to Roman Catholicism and most contemporary Protestant Churches, biblical literalism in the creation account is not mandatory. Christians have considered allegorical interpretations of Genesis since long before the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Put bluntly, modern man knows quite well that most of the stars and planets which came into being originated billions of years ago, while biological life slowly developed over the course of hundreds of millions of years. However, primitive man had absolutely no clue how any thing had been created. Most were too busy working hard to survive and feed their families to ever really question the material world that surrounded. Thus, to cater to all the ancient Israelites, Moses probably chose to keep the Creation account short and simple for the sake of his primitive audience, most of whom could not even count up to ten. However, the factual and scientific sequence of Earth’s formation and the evolution of life on this planet can still be clearly seen in his Creation ‘story’.

Theistic evolutionists argue that it is inappropriate to use Genesis as a scientific text, since it was written in a pre-scientific age and originally intended for religious instruction; as such, seemingly chronological aspects of the creation accounts should be thought of in terms of a literary framework.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

What does emerge from the Genesis text is a concise understanding concerning the sequence of events leading up to the present solar system (Astrophysics) along with an implied knowledge that carefully classifies life-forms into scientifically-based categories like plants or animals, birds or insects, fish or mammals, and even carnivores and herbivores (Zoology). Not only that, but the seven-day period of Creation shows an absolutely unmistakable background knowledge of the correct sequence of Darwinian evolution (Biology). Remember, this account was written more than 3,000 years ago in a culture that sincerely worshipped the sun (a hot ball of gas) and moon (a freezing cold desert rock) as supernatural gods who ruled over them.

There are very few instances where the Bible and science stand face-to-face regarding established facts. The most prominent of these is the story of Creation in Genesis.

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Once again, Moses shows a highly advanced, basically unheard of, theological outlook (Universal Monotheism) which clearly believes the one, true God created all material reality from nothing at all, except his own Divine will-power (Judeo-Christian-Islam). Where did Moses ever learn these incredibly complex and scientifically-based doctrines, thousands of years before anyone else even came close to understanding them? There is no way he was taught these things from the ancient Egyptians who were basically ignorant, primitive Pagans who left behind no scholarly or scientific writings, with the sole exception of absurd, nonsensical legends concerning many different gods, such as the Egyptian book of the dead.

The story in Genesis 1 of the Bible, about the beginning of everything, is fully compatible with modern science. It actually even PROVES that modern science is on the right track! And modern science has CONFIRMED that Genesis presents the proper sequence of events!

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

Today’s arrogant skeptics and agnostic, or even atheist, scientists love to point a finger at the God-fearing Christians who insist the world was created by God in just seven days. Historically speaking, the most literate Judeo-Christian believers of the past never truly believed in the seven day mega-miracle of Genesis. In reality, both Christians, and the Jews before them, have nearly always understood that the seven day time period was allegorical, like a child’s educational story, and that the real world actually took much longer to form. As one source describes:

Evolution contradicts a literalistic interpretation of Genesis. However, according to Roman Catholicism and most contemporary Protestant Churches, biblical literalism in the creation account is not mandatory. Christians have considered allegorical interpretations of Genesis since long before the development of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Although some Pagan Creation myths are quite poetic and meaningful, the fact remains that not a single ancient Creation story ever truly addresses the material world’s origins in a scientific manner, with the sole exception of the Book of Genesis. Nearly every one of them is an obvious fairy tale composed of non-existent monsters, heroes and villains, while some of them also include grotesque imagery and even blatant sexual perversion as an integral part of biological life’s creation. Indeed, they all seem to be fictional and childish renditions of numerous rival ‘gods’ who fight and smite each other like criminals on the loose, occasionally looking down upon mankind as worthless inferiors solely created for their amusement, and who were destined to be ruled by them due to their ‘Divine’ right of authority. This is far different than Genesis which depicts a singular, all-powerful, all-knowing, peaceful God surrounded by His Angels who wait silently and obediently for their Creator to complete His authentic creation of the material universe. Instead of laughing or mocking mankind, the God of Genesis blesses them and their fellow life-forms, the fish and the birds, thus making a concise distinction between life (living beings like plants, animals, and man) and death (inanimate objects like air, water, fire, and earth).

With this approach toward evolution, scriptural creation stories are typically interpreted as being allegorical in nature. Both Jews and Christians have considered the idea of the creation history as an allegory (instead of a historical description) long before the development of Darwin’s theory. An example in Christianity would be the earlier writings by St. Augustine (4th century)…Three noted Jewish examples are that of the writings of Philo of Alexandria (1st century), Maimonides (12th century) and Gersonides (13th century).

– Theistic Evolution, Wikipedia

Much unlike the rival Greco-Roman religion, which was eventually toppled by Christianity, the Hebrew God in Genesis does not bless the sun (Apollo), the moon (Diane), the planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter) at all. Tellingly, He only blesses the biological life-forms He has created. His blessing also includes a totally accurate prediction that mankind is destined to fill the earth with many different descendants and are intended to rule the lesser animals responsibly and wisely, just as He rules over man, His last and most God-like creation. What follows is a comparison between the Genesis Creation story and modern scientific fact which clearly shows the unbelievable, nearly miraculous, similarities between the two accounts:

RELIGION: In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.(Genesis 1:1-2)
SCIENCE: Modern Physics state that, before the Big Bang, reality was nothing than a singular point of darkness which had near infinite density and mass that eventually exploded, thus creating the known universe.

RELIGION: And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning- the first day.(Genesis 1:3-5)
SCIENCE: Modern Astrophysics now claim that the material universe started with a massive explosion of light and heat that filled the entire universe. (God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light). Over time, the light and energy subsided and either collapsed into stars or planets (God saw that the light was good) which continued to moved outwards in all directions (He separated the light from the darkness) and away from the initial Big Bang’s location. This continued expansion created more and more dark space (darkness), nearly void of all energy, in between all the steadily increasing number of stars and planets (light). Planets began to revolve around larger stars called suns which then rotated upon their axis, thus causing periodic intervals of light (God called the light ‘day’) and darkness (the darkness he called ‘night’).

RELIGION: God said, ‘Let there be a vault between the waters to separate the waters below from the waters above.’ So God made the vault and separated the waters under the vault from the waters above it. And it was so. God called the vault ‘sky.’ And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day. (Genesis 1:6-8)
SCIENCE: Modern Meteorology and Geophysics contends that when Earth first began to form, a large amount of water was repeatedly lost into outer space (waters above the vault) as steam was constantly being spewed upward from the hot, unstable lava flows on the planet’s surface (separated the waters under the vault from the water above it). This process (separated the waters) continued until a viable atmosphere (a vault), which could retain all the water vapor rising upwards, eventually formed and became the blue sky (God called the vault ‘sky’). Then, because of all the steam being released from the depths of the earth (waters below) by volcanoes, a thick layer of clouds (waters above) finally covered the whole planet. This process occurred repeatedly over the course of hundreds of millions of years (separated the waters under the vault from the waters above it). Finally, all the water once released upwards as steam then finally became trapped underground indefinitely (waters below). This additional water (waters below) has remained there as volcanic activity has slowly subsided. Nonetheless, oceans (water under the vault) have continued to condensate and rise upward to form clouds (water above it) which then fall down again via the rain and snow called precipitation.

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.’ And it was so. God called the dry ground ‘land’, and the gathered waters he called ‘seas.’ And God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:9-10)
SCIENCE: Modern Geology states that, at first, earth became a seething mass of lava (water) that began cooling into solid rock (dry ground). In time, the steam from tons upon tons of water trapped below ground caused torrential rains (gathered waters) which covered the earth (dry ground) with oceans. Because of all the initial violent volcanic activity on Earth’s surface, there was no permanent sea level or stable land mass to sustain life. Then a single mega-continent formed slowly, but permanently (the dry ground ‘land’) which was then completely surrounded by a gigantic single body of water (water…gathered to one place).

RELIGION: Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.’ And it was so. The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning- the third day. (Genesis 1:11-13)
SCIENCE: Modern Evolutionary Biology claims that, even though simple single-cell life-forms, may have first formed underwater, the first multi-cellular complex life-forms to appear on earth were plants and trees (Then God said, ‘Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds’). Only during the past 2,000 years has man has confirmed scientifically that every distinct species of plants can only reproduce themselves. (The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds). Before then, the vast majority of people gathered fruit, nuts, berries, etc, from the wild because they never figured out how to keep their seeds, plant them (plants bearing seed according to their kinds), and grow enough crops to avoid starvation. Even in ancient Egypt, the most advanced civilization on earth at the time, most, if not all, of the Egyptians and enslaved Israelites, never knew that the seeds found in fruit must be buried in order to reproduce themselves. The cultivation of fruit and nuts, called orcharding (trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds) happens to be a fairly recent, post-Moses, discovery (And God saw that it was good).

Isn’t that interesting? Composed around 3,300 years ago, Genesis had told us that plants came before any animals, and now science has proved why that was true, because of the animals’ need for oxygen that the plants first created. Science is not confronting Genesis, but supporting it!

– Genesis and Science ARE Compatible!

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.’ And it was so. God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day. (Genesis 1:14-19)
SCIENCE: Modern Geophysics theorized that plant life on earth may have first appeared under a constant blanket of clouds that continued to obscure the stars and moon for millions of years, with the sun barely visible behind the dirty, ash-filled cloud cover. Indeed, this may well have been the case throughout the age of the dinosaurs and early mammals. For millions of years, primitive man had absolutely no sense of time or any idea about how to keep track of it. (God made two great lights-the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness). Besides for Mesopotamia (Abraham’s native civilization) Ancient Egypt was the only human society in the entire world (except East Asia) that had ever mapped the stars and actually realized their repetitive positions on a yearly schedule which corresponded to annual growing seasons for crops. Even so, only a miniscule number of elite magicians and ‘priests’ within Egypt had ever actually learned how to do this (God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years’). Most of man looked up and saw the lights as supernatural monsters or immortal gods ruling over them, not just inanimate, non-living lights that neither thought nor moved on their own (And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night’).

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky.’ So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them and said, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.’ And there was evening, and there was morning- the fifth day. (Genesis 1:20-23)
SCIENCE: Modern Biology is fairly confident that animal life first came into being in the oceans underwater. Dinosaurs came next and are said to be the early ancestors of all of today’s bird species (God blessed them and said, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth’). Fish and Dinosaurs filled the entire planet long before the appearance of any mammal. Some of the ocean’s animal life-forms were absolutely huge, even larger than any land-based dinosaur (So God created the great creatures of the sea) and existed long before them as well.

RELIGION: And God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:24-25)
SCIENCE: Modern Zoology categorizes animals, all of whom bleed red blood, into distinct subgroups such herbivores (livestock), carnivores (wild animals) both of which are mammals, while distinguishing the birds and reptiles (creatures that move along the ground) as animals who are not, in fact, mammals (God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so). Evolutionary Biology is quite confident that warm-blooded mammals were the last type of animal to appear on earth long after plants, fish, and birds, or dinosaurs (God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds). While some rare individuals within ancient societies may have vaguely understood the modern theory of species, the vast majority had little idea that, for the most part, there are distinct species of animals that can only reproduce themselves through members of the exact same species. This includes very similar, nearly identical, types of species. Hawks cannot breed with eagles, cheetahs cannot breed with leopards, elk cannot breed with deer, and crocodiles with alligators (God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds). Moses, the author of Genesis, shows an incredible knowledge about scientifically-verifiable animal speciation, literally thousands of years before modern Zoology confirmed this reality (And God saw that it was good).

RELIGION: Then God said, ‘Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.’ So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.’ (Genesis 1:26-29)
SCIENCE: Modern biology is confident in their proclamation that man, the species called Homo Sapiens, was the last species to have ‘evolved’ on planet earth, long after every other life-form (So God created mankind in His own image, in the image of God He created them; male and female He created them). While nearly every member of primitive society knew about the existence of many types of animals, the vast majority feared them, sometimes for good reason, and had absolutely no idea that within centuries man would have domesticated vast flocks, herds, and different breeds of many types of animals (God blessed them and said to them…’Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground’). At the same time, none of them would have ever imagined the accuracy of God’s ancient recommendation (or prediction) to increase in population and colonize every corner of the earth, eventually establishing huge cities on every single continent and among every major culture in the world today. (God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it). Man is unique is not knowing or identifying different individuals by smell (like an animal), but by looking at their facial features (our likeness) thus explaining the vast diversity of facial features found in every man, woman, and child (God said, ‘Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness). Molecular Biology has also discovered that male sperm contain exactly 50% male sperm (xy DNA) and 50% female sperm (xx DNA) (In the image of God he created them, male and female He created them).

Modern scientists need to stop being so instinctively anti-religion and open their minds to the poetic genius that Moses and his Book of Genesis can bring to today’s world once their arrogant ridicule and denial of the Judeo-Christian tradition comes to an end. The ‘primitive’ scientific accuracy metaphorically hidden in the Genesis Creation legend remains completely unexplainable, even now, yet can be clearly seen in black and white for all to see.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of the Judeo-Christian.

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